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See detailChapter 4 : Human Exposure of Bisphenol A : Review of the Urinary Levels in the General Population
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Gibert, Yann (Ed.) Bisphenol A : Sources, Risks of Environmental Exposure and Human Health Effects (2015)

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See detailDeformations of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and internal fluid flow
Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Journal Fluids and Structures (2015)

This article describes the deformation of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and to an internal fluid flow. The pipe is clamped horizontally at one end and free at the other end. As the fluid velocity ... [more ▼]

This article describes the deformation of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and to an internal fluid flow. The pipe is clamped horizontally at one end and free at the other end. As the fluid velocity increases, the shape changes from an elastic beam deflected by its own weight towards an horizontal posi- tion. The shape of the pipe is characterized experimentally and is compared with a theoretical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli approximation and the conservation of the fluid momentum. We study how the determination of the pipe deformation provides an estimation of the conveyed fluid flow. Finally, the vertical force produced by the conveyed fluid to lift off a mass is deduced. [less ▲]

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See detailTransport ferroviaire en Afrique : Etats de lieux - Réforme - Viabilité
Mbangala, Mapapa ULg

Book published by Editions universitaires européennes (2015)

L’infrastructure des transports constitue l’un des piliers du développement africain. Car, en tant qu’activité transversale, le transport exerce une grande influence sur tous les domaines socio ... [more ▼]

L’infrastructure des transports constitue l’un des piliers du développement africain. Car, en tant qu’activité transversale, le transport exerce une grande influence sur tous les domaines socio-économiques et est appelé à jouer un rôle primordial dans l’accélération de la croissance et la réduction de la pauvreté. Compte tenu des caractéristiques économiques et géographiques de l’Afrique et tenant compte de la protection de l’environnement, l’infrastructure ferroviaire constitue ainsi l’épine dorsale des activités économiques et sociales de ce continent. Fort malheureusement, à l’exception de quelques cas isolés, la quasi-totalité des réseaux ferroviaires africains ont accumulé d’importants retards dans leur modernisation. De plus, la qualité de gestion de ces compagnies est souvent mise en question. Eu égard à ce qui précède, cet ouvrage a pour principal objectif d’établir un état des lieux des chemins de fer africains. De ce fait, il contribue, sans nul doute, à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes économiques et de gestion des entreprises ferroviaires africaines sur plusieurs aspects : nécessité économique du rail – cadre institutionnel – viabilité des réseaux. [less ▲]

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See detailRisques et défis sécuritaires de la (non)-intégration des Balkans occidentaux dans l’Union européenne
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Wintgens, Sophie; Grandjean, Geoffrey; Vanhaeren, Stéphanie (Eds.) L’insécurité en question : définition, enjeux et perspectives (2015)

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See detailComplementary approaches for the numerical simulation of the Micro- Plasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication regime
Hubert, Cédric; Dubois, André; Dubar, Laurent et al

in Key Engineering Materials [=KEM] (2015), 651-653

This paper presents recent investigations in the field of lubricant escapes from asperities. This phenomenon, named Micro Plasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication (MPHL), induces friction variation during metal ... [more ▼]

This paper presents recent investigations in the field of lubricant escapes from asperities. This phenomenon, named Micro Plasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication (MPHL), induces friction variation during metal forming processes. A better understanding of MPH lubrication would lead to a better management of friction, which is a central element in most sheet metal forming processes. To fulfil that goal, experiments were conducted in plane strip drawing using a transparent upper tool in order to observe lubricant flow around macroscopic pyramidal cavities. These experiments were then numerically reproduced with two complementary Finite Element models. The numerical results are discussed in this paper and show good agreement with experimental measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailIntro Nudge and the Law final
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Alemano, Alberto

in Sibony, Anne-Lise; Alemano, Alberto (Eds.) Nudge and the Law: A European Perspective (2015)

Nudge and the Law explores the legal implications of the emergent phenomenon of behaviourally informed intervention. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities it may offer to the policymaking of the ... [more ▼]

Nudge and the Law explores the legal implications of the emergent phenomenon of behaviourally informed intervention. It focuses on the challenges and opportunities it may offer to the policymaking of the European Union. This dual focus on law and on Europe characterises our endeavour. This volume has been structured by taking as a point of the departure the current nudging debate, which mainly comprises two strands of enquiry: when is it legitimate for States to use psychology to inform policy? (the legitimacy debate) and, to the extent that it is legitimate, how can behavioural insights in practice be incorporated into the decision making processes? (the practicability debate). Against this backdrop we brought together scholars who could analyse what behavioural insights might bring to EU law, both at a horizontal level and at a sectoral level. This volume endeavours to present the results of their research in a manner that is accessible both to EU law specialists who are not yet familiar with behavioural sciences and to behavioural lawyers who are not specialists in EU law. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2015), 109

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on ... [more ▼]

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Pi etrain Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P < 0.001; 23.2 vs. 45.0 g for the fattening pigs, P < 0.001) but the CH4 emissions were increased (41.5 vs. 21.0 g for gestating sows, P < 0.001; 37.9 vs. 27.2 g for fattening pigs, P < 0.001). The fibre content of the diet had not significant impact on N2O emissions (around 1.4 g for gestating sows and 2.1 g for fattening pigs, P > 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion Nudge and the Law final
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Alemano, Alberto

in Sibony, Anne-Lise; Alemano, Alberto (Eds.) Nudge and the Law: A European Perspective (2015)

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See detailEU Consumer Protection and Behavioural Sciences
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Helleringer, Geneviève

in Sibony, Anne-Lise; Alemano, Alberto (Eds.) Nudge and the Law: A European Perspective (2015)

In this chapter, we review the behavioural critique of EU consumer legislation and focus is on how behavioural insights are being incorporated or could realistically be incorporated in existing or new ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we review the behavioural critique of EU consumer legislation and focus is on how behavioural insights are being incorporated or could realistically be incorporated in existing or new rules. Behavioural scholars sometimes present EU consumer law as archaic and counter-productive and this creates a diffuse view that a behavioural turn would constitute a revolution for EU consumer law. We do not subscribe to this view. We begin by putting the current legitimacy crisis of EU consumer law in perspective. Specifically, we explain why EU law evolved to be an apparent anti-model of behavioural regulation and discuss whether the internal market constraints that still exist prevent a behavioural turn. We conclude that they do not. We illustrate this claim in relation to disclosure mandates. The central feature of disclosure mandates in EU consumer law has been severely criticised in the light of behavioural findings. We agree that they are over-used but find that disclosure mandates, as a technique, can still serve a useful purpose and suggest how their use can be streamlined. We also point out that recent developments tend to make disclosures smarter and point to directions to pursue this evolution. Finally, we turn to the core message of behavioural insights to policy makers: ‘make it simple’ and analyse how it has been received in EU consumer law beyond the specific issue of disclosure. We find evidence of an intention to simplify which predates the current commitment of the Commission to make simplification a priority, but highlight that efforts to simplify have led to half-baked solutions that are not simple enough. We conclude that EU consumer law does not need a revolution but a continued reform and that it contains the seeds of a more behavioural approach. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Construction Law
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Chao-Duvis, Monika; Hillig, J. et al

Book published by European Society of Construction Law (2015)

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See detailSelf-knowledge
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Toga, A. W. (Ed.) Brain mapping: An encyclopedic reference (2015)

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See detailDroit de la fonction publique locale, Bruxelles, Flandre, Wallonie
Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULg; Fisse, Damien

Book published by Larcier (2015)

Etude de droit comparé régional relatif au statut des grades légaux au sein des pouvoirs locaux

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See detailNovel magneto-electric multiferroics from first-principles calculations
Varignon, Julien ULg; Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Physique (2015), 16

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed ... [more ▼]

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed behaviours, the trend has evolved and, nowadays, density functional theory calculations have become also an essential predicting tool for identifying original rules to achieve multiferroism and design new magneto-electric compounds. This chapter aims at highlighting the key advances in the field of multiferroics, to which first-principles methods have contributed significantly. The essential theoretical developments that made this research possible are also briefly presented. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotype Classification of Zebrafish Embryos by Supervised Learning
Jeanray, Nathalie ULg; Marée, Raphaël ULg; Pruvot, Benoist et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(1), 01169891-20

Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances ... [more ▼]

Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100 % agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade and Social Enterprise
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Raynolds, Laura; Bennett, Elizabeth (Eds.) The Handbook of Research on Fair Trade (2015)

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without ... [more ▼]

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without seeking to impose a new term that may not resonate for certain actors or regions, this chapter aims to bring two contributions to fair trade research and practice. First, it is suggested that the social enterprise approach is particularly useful as an analytical tool enabling researchers and other stakeholders to capture the evolution and diversification of organizational models in fair trade. Second, the use of a broader organizational approach that is not specific to the sole fair trade sector allows for connections with similar organizations in other sectors and brings a shift from considering mainly what the organizations do (fair trade in this case) towards also addressing what they are (innovative social enterprise models combining market dynamics with social purpose). This chapter is structured as follows. First, the concept of social enterprise is introduced and discussed. Then, the evolution of the organizational landscape of fair trade (in the North) is summarized. Finally, fair trade organizations are examined in the light of the social enterprise concept, with illustrations from a study in four European countries (Huybrechts 2010a; 2012). [less ▲]

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See detailTrifles for 'Unflemings'. Teaching Dutch Literary History in Nineteenth-Century Wallonia
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Van Kalmthout, T.; Zuidervaart, H. (Eds.) The Practice of Philology in the Nineteenth-Century Netherlands (2015)

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See detailUpdate on the role of extracorporeal CO2 removal
MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; BATCHINSKY, Andriy; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg

in Critical Care (2015)

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found ... [more ▼]

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2015. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901. [less ▲]

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See detailA Membrane-Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) - Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Axis Regulates Collagen-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells.
Assent, Delphine; Bourgot, Isabelle ULg; Hennuy, Benoît ULg et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(3), 0116006

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To ... [more ▼]

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To develop metastatic capabilities, tumour cells must acquire the capacity to cope with this novel microenvironment. How cells interact with and respond to their microenvironment during cancer dissemination remains poorly understood. To address the impact of type I collagen on the fate of tumour cells, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were cultured within three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3D COL1). Using this experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proteinase overexpressed in many aggressive tumours, promotes tumour progression by circumventing the collagen-induced up-regulation of BIK, a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor, and hence apoptosis. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating 3D COL1-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Control and MT1-MMP expressing MCF-7 cells were cultured on two-dimensional plastic plates or within 3D COL1 and a global transcriptional time-course analysis was performed. Shifting the cells from plastic plates to 3D COL1 activated a complex reprogramming of genes implicated in various biological processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a 3D COL1-mediated alteration of key cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, RNA processing and cytoskeleton remodelling. By using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase specifically activated by collagen, as the initiator of 3D COL1-induced apoptosis. Our data support the concept that MT1-MMP contributes to the inactivation of the DDR1-BIK signalling axis through the cleavage of collagen fibres and/or the alteration of DDR1 receptor signalling unit, without triggering a drastic remodelling of the transcriptome of MCF-7 cells. [less ▲]

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