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See detailEmergency Medical Services: When Fatigue Becomes The Norm.
Berastegui, Pierre ULiege; Jaspar, Mathieu ULiege; GHUYSEN, Alexandre ULiege

Conference (2017, June 27)

BACKROUND: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) routinely work at the very limit of their capacity due to growing emergency rooms visits and residents’ shortage. In this context, EMS workers are regularly ... [more ▼]

BACKROUND: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) routinely work at the very limit of their capacity due to growing emergency rooms visits and residents’ shortage. In this context, EMS workers are regularly asked to work more than 10 hours a day, on varying shifts and with short recuperation breaks. Two approaches can be used to reduce fatigue-related risk: reducing the likelihood a fatigued operator is working (i.e. fatigue reduction), or reducing the likelihood a fatigued operator will make an error (i.e. fatigue proofing). In Emergency Medical Services, formal risk control mainly focuses on reduction strategies such as reducing work hours while proofing strategies develops as an implicit element of the safety system. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose is to identify individual proofing and reduction strategies used by emergency residents and to investigate how they relate to fatigue, performance and patient safety indicators. METHODS: First, we conducted 4 focus-group sessions with a total of 25 EMS residents to elicit perceived consequences of fatigue and strategies used to cope with them. Focus group results were used to design a questionnaire assessing how often EMS residents personally used any of the strategies reported during sessions. Second, we administered the questionnaire to a larger sample and conducted a prospective observational study with a repeated within-subjects component. A total of 45 EMS residents participated in the study for a total of 400 shifts analyzed. We gathered sleep diaries, subjective sleepiness, reaction time, self-reported medical errors and performance ratings at different time point during both day and night shift using an android-based application. Sleep time and activity levels were confirmed using wrist actigraphy. DISCUSSION: We will discuss what can be drawn from our results in terms of individual and collective resilience processes with a focus on the potential for implementation of more formal processes at a system level.  [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Governments Expenditures and Spillover Effects - Evidence from Walloon Municipalities
Starck, Vincent ULiege; Denomerenge, Jonathan ULiege

Speech/Talk (2017)

Presentation of preliminary results about local governments expenditures analysis and quantification of spillover effects in Wallonia.

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See detailDeformation measurements by ESPI of the surface of a heated mirror and comparison with numerical model
Languy, Fabian ULiege; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULiege; Saint-Georges, Philippe et al

in Proceedings of SPIE (2017, June 26), 103291M

The manufacture of mirrors for space application is expensive and the requirements on the optical performance increase over years. To achieve higher performance, larger mirrors are manufactured but the ... [more ▼]

The manufacture of mirrors for space application is expensive and the requirements on the optical performance increase over years. To achieve higher performance, larger mirrors are manufactured but the larger the mirror the higher the sensitivity to temperature variation and therefore the higher the degradation of optical performances. To avoid the use of an expensive thermal regulation, we need to develop tools able to predict how optics behaves with thermal constraints. This paper presents the comparison between experimental surface mirror deformation and theoretical results from a multiphysics model. The local displacements of the mirror surface have been measured with the use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and the deformation itself has been calculated by subtracting the rigid body motion. After validation of the mechanical model, experimental and numerical wave front errors are compared. [less ▲]

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See detailNF-kB-dependent regulation of TET1 in breast cancers
Canale, Annalisa ULiege; Collignon, Evelyne; Al Wardi, Clémence et al

Poster (2017, June 26)

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See detailPharmacokinetic characterization of [18F]UCB-H PET radiopharmaceutical in the rat brain.
Becker, Guillaume ULiege; Warnier, Corentin; Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULiege et al

in Molecular Pharmaceutics (2017), 14(8), 2719-2725

The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A), a protein essential to the proper nervous system function, is found in presynaptic vesicles. Thus, SV2A targeting, using dedicated radiotracers combined with ... [more ▼]

The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A), a protein essential to the proper nervous system function, is found in presynaptic vesicles. Thus, SV2A targeting, using dedicated radiotracers combined with positron emission tomography (PET), allows the assessment of synaptic density in the living brain. The first-in-class fluorinated SV2A specific radioligand, [18F]UCB-H, is now available at high-activity through an efficient radiosynthesis compliant with the current good manufacturing practices (cGMP). We report here a non-invasive method to quantify [18F]UCB-H binding in rat brain with microPET. Validation study in rats confirmed the need of high enantiomeric purity to target SV2A in vivo. We demonstrated the reliability of a population-based input function to quantify SV2A in preclinical microPET setting. Finally, we investigated the in vivo metabolism of [18F]UCB-H and confirmed the negligible amount of radiometabolites in the rat brain. Hence, the in vivo quantification of SV2A using [18F]UCB-H microPET seems a promising tool for the assessment of the synaptic density in the rat brain, and opens the way for longitudinal follow-up in neurodegenerative diseases rodents’ models. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of activation of vagal afferents by non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: An electrophysiological study in healthy volunteers
NONIS, Romain ULiege; D'Ostilio, Kevin; SCHOENEN, Jean ULiege et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

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See detailDevelopment and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 and RNAi for rice and wheat agronomic traits improvement
Sun, Yongwei ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Genome editing technologies enable precise modifications of DNA sequences in vivo and offer a great promise for harnessing plant genes in crop improvement. The precise manipulation of plant genomes relies ... [more ▼]

Genome editing technologies enable precise modifications of DNA sequences in vivo and offer a great promise for harnessing plant genes in crop improvement. The precise manipulation of plant genomes relies on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) to initiate DNA repair reactions that are based on either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can result in frame-shift mutations that often create genetic knockouts. These knockout lines are useful for functional and reverse genetic studies but also have applications in agriculture. HDR has a variety of applications as it can be used for gene replacement, gene stacking, and for creating various fusion proteins. An overview of development and applications of precise GT in plants using SSNs systems is presented in Chapter I. Cereals high in amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential health benefits. Starch branching enzyme (SBE) plays a major role in determining the fine structure and physical properties of starch. Here, we use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate targeted mutagenesis in SBEI and SBEIIb in rice. The frequencies of obtained homozygous or bi-allelic mutant lines with indels in SBEI and SBEIIb in T0 generation were from 26.7 to 40%. SbeII mutants showed higher proportion of long chains presented in debranched amylopectin, significantly increased AC and RS content to as higher as 25.0% and 9.8%, respectively. The details of results are presented in Chapter IV Complete knockouts and loss-of-function mutations are very valuable in defining gene functions, their applications in crop improvement are somewhat limited because many agriculturally important traits are conferred by point mutations or a change of gene expression levels. Development of a technology that enables gene replacement rather than gene inactivation will greatly facilitate plant breading. In this study, we report an efficient method to introduce multiple discrete point mutations in the rice ALS gene using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination. We not only generated homozygous herbicide resistance rice plants in one generation, but also demonstrated that the presented strategy is feasible and effective in precise gene replacement by using CRISPR/Cas9 system to facilitate crop genetic improvement. The details of results are presented in Chapter V Aphids are major agricultural pests which cause significant yield losses of wheat each year in China. Present attempts to improve the aphid resistance of wheat through conventional breeding in China are being confronted by slow progress due to lack of aphid resistant wheat germplasm, the complexity of plant-aphid interactions and the rapid development of resistant pest biotypes. An overview of the engineering of plants for aphid resistance is presented in chapter II. We identify a gene (23028) related to aphid ingestion and digestion from the aphid, S. avenae. Aphids fed on plant material expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to 23028 and C002 show a decline in growth, reproduction and survival rates. The details of results presented in the chapter VI. [less ▲]

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See detailGENETIC DIVERSITY AND FACULTATIVE SYMBIONTS INFECTION PATTERNS OF TWO RHOPALOSIPHUM APHIDS
Guo, Jianqing ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Aphids, during the long-term evolution, kept their genetic traits for continuation of the species while some variations caused by selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift occurred meanwhile to ... [more ▼]

Aphids, during the long-term evolution, kept their genetic traits for continuation of the species while some variations caused by selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift occurred meanwhile to adapt to novel environments. The differentiation takes place not only among species but could also be observed within species that finally contributes to the population genetic diversity. However, the migrant behavior of aphid can enhances the gene flow among populations, as a result, decreasing the genetic variation. Additionally, insect such as aphids usually hold the mutualistic relationships with endosymbionts which may affect the adaptive characteristics of the host aphid. Both Corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are worldwidely severe pests that attack cereal crops such as maize, barley, wheat, sorghum and oats. They suck the phloem and can transmit viruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the main virus of maize and barley, which may result in serious damage for the yield and quality of the host plant. Moreover, one aphid species usually exerts genetic differentiation among populations which is related to factors such as geographic conditions, host plants and life history. Hence, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the genetic structure and variation among geographic populations to further explore the historical expanding routes and occurrence of these pests and design efficient control strategies. Targeting the genetic divergence among populations of two Rhopalosiphum aphids, 32 populations of R. padi and 38 populations of R. maidis were collected on maize from most regions of China as well as some countries in Europe. The sequencing results of two mitochondrial (COI and COII) and one nuclear (EF-1α) genes indicated that a high level of gene flow existed among the populations of R. maidis in terms of geographic locations, proving the migratory capacity of this aphid. With regard to R. padi, high genetic diversity were found between the populations from China and Europe based on combined COI-COII, however, the genetic diversification among Chinese populations and European populations were low, which illustrated that the length of geographic distance may play an important role in genetic diversity. The infection patterns of seven facultative symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus) in R. padi and R. maidis were investigated as well. Both aphids were found to have wide symbiotic associations with variant symbionts. Unlike Acyrthosiphum pisim (H.) which is frequently infected with S. symbiotica, R. insecticola, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma were dominant facultative symbionts in these two Rhopalosiphum aphids. The results also indicated that the geographic conditions such as latitude of collecting locations may have an effect on the distribution of facultative symbionts, implying the adaptive function of the facultative symbionts to various environmental conditions on their host aphids. Considering the population diversity within species, we also tested the survival and reproduction rates of two R. maidis populations (i.e. Beijing and Mangshi) on barley and maize of small (10 cm) and high (50 cm) size. Direct observation method was used and none of the populations could survive on maize of small size whereas they were capable to develop on maize of high size, but with much lower growing speeds compared with barley on which both populations showed the best performances. In addition, Beijing population was found to perform significantly better than Mangshi population which may be related to the infection of facultative symbionts. We hypothesize that the lethality on small maize may result from the secondary metabolites synthesized to be more abundant in young maize seedlings. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies of host defense and viral counter defense: analysis of Fusarium graminearium responses to FgHV1 infection
Wang, Shuangchao ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Viruses that selectively infect fungi are named fungal viruses or mycoviruses. Fungal viruses exist in all major groups of fungi and are important in both fundamental research and biological control of ... [more ▼]

Viruses that selectively infect fungi are named fungal viruses or mycoviruses. Fungal viruses exist in all major groups of fungi and are important in both fundamental research and biological control of plant pathogens. Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1) was the first virus isolated from F. graminearum belonging to the hypoviridae family. FgHV1 was supposed to encode two open reading frames, which had high sequence identities with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 and 2 (CHV1 and CHV2). F. graminearum strain infected with FgHV1 showed lower growth rate and reduced conidia production, but with no pathogenicity change. To elucidate the host defense and viral counter defense mechanism, we analyzed the F. graminearum stress responses to FgHV1 infection from several aspects. In the first part, we preliminarily elucidated the RNA silencing mechanism of the F. graminearum/hypovirus system from a small RNA (sRNA) perspective. The length distributions of F. graminearum sRNA were altered by FgHV1 infection, especially 24-nt sRNA. Extensive FgHV1-derived sRNAs were detected, yielding the first high resolution map of sRNA from mycoviruses. In particular, the RNA silencing-related genes FgDicer1 and FgRdRp5 were predicted targets of FgHV1- and FgHV2-derived siRNAs, possibly revealing a novel anti-RNA silencing strategy employed by mycoviruses. In the second part, we performed genome-wide expression analysis to reveal stress-related genes with expression changes in response to FgHV1 infection. A total of 248 differentially expressed genes were identified. Cellular redox regulation related genes were the most affected categories in F. graminearum challenged with FgHV1. Then we verified that FgHV1 encoded protein 20 (p20) could induce the H2O2 accumulation and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. In the last part, our experiments confirmed that p20 functioned as a RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) with the agroinfiltration-mediated technique, making p20 the third RSS identified in mycoviruses. By incorporating single strand sRNA, p20 could suppress host RNA silencing. Globally, the defense responses of F. graminearum to FgHV1 infection were studied all-around and in-depth. On the other hand, FgHV1 developed counter defense strategies to protect from invasion resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailLe retour du saumon et l'écologie des poissons migrateurs en Ourthe-Vesdre-Amblève
Ovidio, Michaël ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailSystem Eigenvalue Identification Of Mistuned Bladed Disks Using Least-Squares Complex Frequency-Domain Method
Huang, Yuan; Kielb, Robert E.; Li, Jing et al

in Proceeding of the Turbomachinery Technical Conference & Exposition TURBO EXPO 2017 (2017, June 26)

This paper presents the results from a research effort on eigenvalue identification of mistuned bladed rotor systems using the Least-Squares Complex Frequency-Domain (LSCF) modal parameter estimator. The ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results from a research effort on eigenvalue identification of mistuned bladed rotor systems using the Least-Squares Complex Frequency-Domain (LSCF) modal parameter estimator. The LSCF models the frequency response function (FRF) obtained from a vibration test using a matrix-fraction description and obtains the coefficients of the common denominator polynomial by minimizing the least squares error of the fit between the FRF and the model. System frequency and damping information is obtained from the roots of the denominator; a stabilization diagram is used to separate physical from mathematical poles. The LSCF estimator is known for its good performance when separating closely spaced modes, but few quantitative analyses have focused on the sensitivity of the identification with respect to mode concentration. In this study, the LSCF estimator is applied on both computational and experimental forced responses of an embedded compressor rotor in a three-stage axial research compressor. the LSCF estimator is first applied to computational FRF data obtained from a mistuned first-torsion (1T) forced response prediction using FMM (Fundamental Mistuning Model) and is shown to be able to identify the eigenvalues with high accuracy. Then the first chordwise bending (1CWB) computational FRF data is considered with varied mode concentration by varying the mistuning standard deviation. These cases are analyzed using LSCF and a sensitivity algorithm is developed to evaluate the influence of the mode spacing on eigenvalue identification. Finally, the experimental FRF data from this rotor blisk is analyzed using the LSCF estimator. For the dominant modes, the identified frequency and damping values compare well with the computational values. [less ▲]

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