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See detailMagnetopause Boundary Normal Analysis at Jupiter and Saturn: Evidence of Kelvin Hemholtz Vorticies
Stauffer, Blake Hughes; Delamere, Peter A; Ma, Xuanye et al

Poster (2013, December 10)

Identification of surface waves and Kelvin Hemholtz (KH) vorticies at the magnetopause boundary at Jupiter and Saturn is critical to understanding interaction between the solar wind and their planetary ... [more ▼]

Identification of surface waves and Kelvin Hemholtz (KH) vorticies at the magnetopause boundary at Jupiter and Saturn is critical to understanding interaction between the solar wind and their planetary magnetospheres. The rapid rotation of those planets coincides with a co-rotating plasma that creates an asymmetry between the formation and evolution of surface waves on either side of the sub-solar point. Minimum variance analysis and other techniques are performed on hundreds of select crossings of Saturn's magnetopause from 2004 to 2012 by the Cassini spacecraft and 47 crossings at Jupiter's magnetopause by the Galileo spacecraft. It is compared to the boundary normals of a simple magnetopause model. The wide range in angular difference between the model and the analysis is evidence of the presence of KH instability vorticies at the magnetopause boundary. Furthermore, boundary crossings from the magnetosheath into the magnetosphere on the dusk flanks are dominated by shallower angles, consistent with MHD simulations of variable shear flows on the dayside magnetopause boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2-3 minutes periodicity in the polar aurora and the magnetosphere of Jupiter
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 10)

The main aurora at Jupiter is related to the middle magnetosphere and the corotation breakdown of the magnetospheric plasma. On the other hand, the polar regions either magnetically map to the outer ... [more ▼]

The main aurora at Jupiter is related to the middle magnetosphere and the corotation breakdown of the magnetospheric plasma. On the other hand, the polar regions either magnetically map to the outer magnetosphere or correspond to field lines open to the interplanetary medium and most of the auroral emissions from this region are still poorly understood. Among these polar auroral emissions are the flares, dramatic brightenings of several million square kilometers over a couple of minutes. Two previously reported observations of the southern hemisphere showed that these flares can be quasi-periodic with a re-occurrence time of 2-3 minutes. Here we report results from the Hubble Space Telescope campaign carried out in 2012-2013 with the STIS FUV instrument in time-tag mode (PI: D. Grodent). This campaign consisted in alternating observations of the two hemispheres. Based on the analysis of this dataset, we confirm that these quasi-periodic flares are ubiquitous and occur in both hemispheres. Moreover, in at least one case, these flares appear to occur in phase in both hemispheres. We compare the characteristics of these flares with those of the relativistic electron bursts observed by the Ulysses spacecraft with the HET instrument. We find that 2-3 minutes quasi-periodic burst are much more frequent than previously reported and that they magnetically map to the same auroral area as the flares. We conclude that these two phenomena are most probably related and arise from a common origin. [less ▲]

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See detailEDUCA + : Apprendre à apprendre
Frenkel, Stéphanie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Présentation du projet EDUCA + et des bases théoriques

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See detailInfluence of ovarian hormones on cortical spreading depression and its suppression by L-kynurenine in rat.
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Multon, Sylvie ULg

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(12), 82279

Migraine is sexually dimorphic and associated in 20-30% of patients with an aura most likely caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). We have previously shown that systemic L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the ... [more ▼]

Migraine is sexually dimorphic and associated in 20-30% of patients with an aura most likely caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). We have previously shown that systemic L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the precursor of kynurenic acid, suppresses CSD and that this effect depends on the stage of the estrous cycle in female rats. The objectives here are to determine the influence of ovarian hormones on KCl-induced CSD and its suppression after L-KYN by directly modulating estradiol or progesterone levels in ovariectomized rats. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with progesterone or 17β-estradiol mixed with cholesterol, with cholesterol only or left empty. Two weeks after the ovariectomy/capsule implantation, the animals received an i.p. injection of L-KYN (300 mg/kg) or NaCl as control. Thirty minutes later CSDs were elicited by applying KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram for 1 hour. The results show that both estradiol and progesterone increase CSD frequency after ovariectomy. The suppressive effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency, previously reported in normal cycling females, is not found anymore after ovariectomy, but reappears after progesterone replacement therapy. Taken together, these results emphasize the complex role of sex hormones on cortical excitability. The CSD increase by estradiol and, more surprisingly, progesterone may explain why clinically migraine with aura appears or worsens during pregnancy or with combined hormonal treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailLa limite Paléocène-Eocène dans le Bassin de Douala Biostratigraphie et essai de reconstitution des paléoenvironnements
Mbesse, Cecile Olive ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

ABSTRACT This work consists of the analysis of the palynoflora (dinoflagellates and sporomorphs) identified from four petroleum exploration wells drilled through the Nkapa Formation (Douala Basin ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT This work consists of the analysis of the palynoflora (dinoflagellates and sporomorphs) identified from four petroleum exploration wells drilled through the Nkapa Formation (Douala Basin, Cameroon). The vertical distribution of index taxa in the Moulongo, Ngata, Mamiwater and North Matanda wells allowed establishing a biostratigraphic frame of the first half of the Paleogene of the Douala Basin and identifying the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in each well through a comparison with surrounding sedimentary basins. Seventy dinoflagellate species have been identified, among which 30 are stratigraphically informative. Four biozones have been established, three for the Paleocene and one for the Early Eocene. The biozone 1 is characterized by Cretaceous species such as Cerodinium diebelii, Lejeunecysta hyalina, Andalusiella gabonensis, Palaeocystodinium australinum and Palaeocystodinium golzowense. The biozone 2 is defined by the acme of Areoligera coronata, Adnatosphaeridium multispinosum and Glaphyrocysta ordinata. The biozone 3 is defined by the acme of several Apectodinium species (A. hyperacanthum, A. homomorphum, A. paniculatum, A. parvum, A. quinquelatum). The biozone 4 is defined by the occurrence of Eocene taxa such as Deflandrea cf. oebisfeldensis, Hystrichosphaeridium tubiferum and Wetzeliella sp. Based on the position of the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in the Moulongo well, correlations have been established with the others sedimentary sequences analysed. Our study shows that, as previously demonstrated for Nigeria in an other study, the acme of Apectodinium in the Douala Basin can be attributed a Late Paleocene age and hence occurred before the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and the coeval Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The acme of Apectodinium in the Douala Basin is thus markedly diachronous with the Apectodinium acme identified in various Nordic Basins, where it is contemporaneous with the PETM (earliest Eocene). Ninety-four sporomorph species have been recognized, among which fifty are stratigraphically informative. Three biozones have been established. The biozone 1 is predominantly characterized by Palmae- and Proteaceae-type pollens, the latter with Cretaceous characteristics. The biozone 2, Late Paleocene in age, is characterized by a transition from original floras towards more « modern » floras. The biozone 3 is earliest Eocene in age and shows the early steps of the extant « Leguminosae flora » of West Africa. Together with the biostratigraphic analysis, a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is proposed, based on dinoflagellate ecology, on the evolution of the dinoflagellate /sporomorph ratio, as well as on the reconstruction of the plant environments in the studied sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the Douala Basin during the timespan studied occurred according to two geographical axes: a WE (Moulongo-Ngata) axis and a SSW-NNE (Moulongo-Mamiwater-North Matanda) axis. During the Early and Middle Paleocene, the Douala Basin was open towards the sea and showed a coastal-estuarine environment, with marginal mangroves and lowland swamp forests. During the Late Paleocene, the marine character of the sedimentation was less prominent as brackish fluvio-lagoonal intertidal environments developped. They were accompanied by gallery forests and surrounded by dense, periodically flooded, forests northwards and by forests on wet soils eastwards. During the earliest Eocene, a marine regression occurred. The palaeoenvironments included confined coastal lagoon systems with a peripheral impoverished local flora northwards, and moist, dense, evergreen forests eastwards. [less ▲]

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See detailAmélioration de l’efficience d’utilisation de l’eau chez les principales cultures fourragères au Tadla- Maroc
Bouazzama, Bassou ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Aiming to define irrigation strategies improving the water productivity by folder crops under water scarcity in the irrigated perimeter of Tadla (Morocco), this work combines field experimentation and ... [more ▼]

Aiming to define irrigation strategies improving the water productivity by folder crops under water scarcity in the irrigated perimeter of Tadla (Morocco), this work combines field experimentation and modeling. The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) in areas where water resources are limited. On the silage maize, the results showed that water deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. Dry matter yields varied from 3.9 t.ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc) to 16.4 t.ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc). The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. WUE calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg.m-3 under T1 and 1.84 kg.m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc) was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The yield response factor (Ky) for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. The ETc of silage maize was determined using lysimeter drainage at 415 mm. the mean values of crop coefficients Kc were 0.56, 1.22 and 1.05 for beginning phase, mid-season and at harvest (grain milky pasty stage) respectively. Drip irrigation allows obtaining dry matter yields similar to flood irrigation but with less water and saves about 30% of irrigation water applied. Over five cycles, berseem dry biomass yields achieved under T1 are 14.3 and 13.9 t/ha in 2009/10 and 2010/11 respectively. The yield reductions by applying 60% of water requirements are 40 and 42% in 2009/10 and 2010/11 respectively. Berseem daily productivity increases with more water applied with the highest value of 102 kg DM/ ha/ day. The dry matter content increases with water stress. The mean values range between 12.3 and 23.7% under T1 (100% ETc) and T4 (40% ETc) respectively. The contribution of without irrigation cycles (rainy period) on the total annual yield may vary from 35% to 52% under treatments T1 and T4 respectively. Water balance achieved by water regime shows that drainage losses increase with more water applied especially in the first cycle. WUE is low during the first cycle, optimal in 2nd, 3rd and 4th cycle and decreases in the last one with water stress. Global WUE of berseem determined over the entire crop period (slope of the regression line) is 3.37 kg.m-3. The yield response factor (Ky) for the berseem for both growth season was 1.11. Berseem ETc determined by drainage lysimeter was 520 mm. The Kc values were estimated for each cycle for all three phases: initial, development (median) and mid-season. Maximum yield average under drip irrigation was 15.7 t/ha and obtained with 411 mm of water supply allowing to save 57% of water compared to traditional irrigation technique. Comparing the behavior of six alfalfa varieties most commonly practiced in the irrigated perimeter of Tadla shows that the "Super Siriver" cultivars followed by «Trifecta» have higher yield potential and higher tolerance to water deficit. Alfalfa maximum annual yield obtained was 24.2 t.ha-1. The contribution of the spring cycles to the annual yields range from 55% under T1 (100% ETc) to 65% under T4 (40 % ETc). In addition to water quantities, alfalfa yields depend on time application during a growth cycle. WUE varies from cycle to another and from one season to another. The maximum value was 2.57 kg.m-3 and obtained in spring 2011, while the low value was 0.64 kg.m-3 and obtained in winter 2010. WUE decreases with water stress, with mean values of 1.83, 1.67, 1.54 and 1.23 kg.m-3 under T1 (100% ETc), T2 (80% ETc), T3 (60% ETc) and T4 (40% ETc) respectively. The yield response factor (Ky) of alfalfa was 0.92. The determination of the alfalfa water requirements was performed on the basis of cycle’s calendar during two years in 2010 and 2011. The values founded for flood irrigation are 1388 and 1364 mm respectively for the two years. Drip irrigation allows achieving similar dry mater yield to flood irrigation with less water and agronomic efficiency. Water applied under T1 in drip irrigation with 50 cm of spacing between ramps was less than water requirements (of alfalfa) by about 7% and 18% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Under the same treatment in flood irrigation, the water requirements are exceeded by 16% and 21% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Two crop models, PILOTE and CropSyst, had been selected to be tested on their ability to simulate the growth and yield of the studied crops under the edaphic-climatic conditions of Tadla. Tested on silage maize, both models correctly simulated the growth and development of the crop under different water regimes. The parameters of both models are validated and shown effective for simulation of biomass, leaf area index and soil water storage. Although PILOTE requires less parameters and data than CropSyst, it often proves to be more successful in simulating the biomass of silage maize and water balance. As to berseem, predictions of biomass by CropSyst seem to be more accurate than PILOTE model. The latter was best at predicting the soil water reserve on the soil depth exploited by the roots (0-80 cm). Given its ease of integrating daily climatic data for several years, CropSyst model was chosen to test its ability to simulate the crop rotation of berseem and maize silage. The results show that this model correctly simulates the evolution of biomass and yields of the two crops considered in rotation during three years. Modeling the growth and production of alfalfa is made by both models outside the crop installation period (seeding year). After calibration and validation achieved, the model CropSyst simulates adequately biomass and soil water reserve under all water regimes considered while PILOTE best simulations were limited to non-stressed treatment T1 (100% ETc). Although CropSyst model takes into account several parameters in the simulation of alfalfa growth, their simplifications (unique values) reduce its performance in more water stress situation. Less parameters considered in the PILOTE model makes it validation difficult for perennial crops such as alfalfa. CropSyst model was used to evaluate irrigation practices of farmers and develop irrigation virtual scenarios for the three crops studied. The assessment shows that virtual scenario developed for alfalfa that applying 1600 mm of irrigation water amount through 14 applications divided into six irrigations during the spring, six in summer, one in the fall and another in early winter maximizes irrigation water efficiency (1.21 kg/m3) and achieve a yield of 23.1 t/ha (95% of the yield potential). In the case of maize, if water is available, application of 648 mm according to the combination [2 irrigations in initial phase (after sowing), 2 irrigations in linear and two in final phases] allows to achieve high biomass yield and better water use. On berseem, the simulation results confirm that the adoption of the scenario that provides 625 mm through 7 irrigations (3 in autumn, 2 in winter and 2 in spring) allows obtaining 14.1 t/ha of dry matter which represents 94% of the yield potential of the 6454 cultivar. This scenario allows greater water efficiency (1.24 kg/m3) and results in low water drainage losses estimated at about 17% of applied water. The comparison of the two cropping systems represented by alfalfa and silage maize-berseem rotation shows that the rotation allows the better water use and mobilizes less water than alfalfa, which is distinguished by its profitability. Finally, the coupling of the results of three years (2008 to 2011) "in situ" experimentations with the simulations of scenarios by CropSyst and PILOTE models has shown to be highly effective in order to improve the folder crops irrigation in the Tadla irrigated area in Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying losses and expansions of selected gene families in incomplete genomic datasets
Di Franco, Arnaud ULg; Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg

Poster (2013, December 09)

Plantae (Archaeplastida) are a natural group of organisms with plastids of primary endosymbiotic origin. Within this group, members of the red algae show evidence of a reduction of their genomic content ... [more ▼]

Plantae (Archaeplastida) are a natural group of organisms with plastids of primary endosymbiotic origin. Within this group, members of the red algae show evidence of a reduction of their genomic content. In this work, we designed a bioinformatics approach to investigate the few, sometimes incomplete, genomic datasets available for red algae, with the purpose of pointing out possible gene family losses and expansions. Our pipeline first populates a relational database with precomputed orthology relationships between green plant genomes and red algal datasets and then efficiently queries the database for computing statistics of losses and expansions for a series of gene families of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailScience and Technology as Sites of Struggle in New Political Economies: Insights from Latin American Bioeconomy
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, December 09)

Increasingly, science and technology (S&T) are used as key strategic resources to address the social and economic challenges of our time (Tyfield 2012). This paper is part of my broader research program ... [more ▼]

Increasingly, science and technology (S&T) are used as key strategic resources to address the social and economic challenges of our time (Tyfield 2012). This paper is part of my broader research program, which takes S&T as sites of struggle, where (geo)political and socio-economic issues interact, and studies them in three new political economies: bioeconomy, new manufacturing economy and smart security economy. It identifies two global dynamics that are at stake in the strategic construction and use of S&T: (1) proliferating varieties of neoliberalism (Harvey 2005, Mirowski and Plehwe 2009) and (2) shifting asymmetric dependency relations (Vernengo 2006, Metcalfe and Ramlogan 2008). My main goal is to analyze and understand developments in S&T domains as co-evolving with these two key global dynamics. For this paper, I will focus on one S&T site of struggles, biotechnologies/bioeconomy in Argentina, which will allow me to look at the reconfiguring of center-periphery relations and neoliberal enactments. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted with actors from public, private and associative sectors, I explore the expansion of genetically modified soy in Argentina and I aim to figure out how the neoliberal “globalized privatization regime” (Mirowski and Sent 2008) unfolded in a peripheral location. My case points at two inherent contradictions with such a regime’s main tenets, namely that it needs a weak antitrust policy and a hyper-restrictive system of intellectual property. I conclude that it is not enough to postulate that the neoliberal globalized privatization regime will just expand to the South as it did in Northern countries. Rather, combined with the commercialization of science, peripherality creates protest, activism and local regulation. Lastly, further implications for the theorization and circulation of bioeconomy (Birch and Tyfield 2013) beyond the “charmed circle” of OECD countries (Delvenne and Thoreau 2012) will be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailDefinizioni, Indefinibili e Indefiniti; una questione semiotica
Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

Scientific conference (2013, December 09)

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See detailEU Regulation + French regulations = An exportable control model?
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Scientific conference (2013, December 09)

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See detailFundamental and Applied Studies on Freeze-dried Vinegar Starter
Shafiei, Rasoul ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (9 ULg)
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See detailHeat transfer characterization using heat and solute tracer tests in a shallow alluvial aquifer
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 09)

Very low enthalpy geothermal systems are increasingly considered for heating or cooling using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. The design and the impact of shallow geothermal systems are often ... [more ▼]

Very low enthalpy geothermal systems are increasingly considered for heating or cooling using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. The design and the impact of shallow geothermal systems are often assessed in a semi-empirical way. It is accepted by most of the private partners but not by environmental authorities deploring a lack of rigorous evaluation of the mid- to long-term impact on groundwater. In view of a more rigorous methodology, heat and dye tracers are used for estimating simultaneously heat transfer and solute transport parameters in an alluvial aquifer. The experimental field site, is equipped with 21 piezometers drilled in alluvial deposits composed of a loam layer overlying a sand and gravel layer constituting the alluvial aquifer. The tracing experiment consisted in injecting simultaneously heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in 3 control panels set perpendicularly to the main groundwater flow. Results showed drastic differences between heat transfer and solute transport due to the main influence of thermal capacity of the saturated porous medium. The tracing experiment was then simulated using a numerical model and the best estimation of heat transfer and solute transport parameters is obtained by calibrating this numerical model using inversion tools. The developed concepts and tests may lead to real projects of various extents that can be now optimized by the use of a rigorous and efficient methodology at the field scale. [less ▲]

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See detailSaturn’s UV aurora: the (high latitude) point of view of Cassini
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 09)

The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of ... [more ▼]

The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of the associated particles and magnetic field. Cassini’s T83 flyby of Titan significantly changed the inclination of the spacecraft’s orbit and marked the beginning of the XXM inclined phase 1 which will last until March 16, 2015. We will give an overview of the auroral emissions observed so far with the UVIS camera on board Cassini. In particular we will link the morphology of the aurora with specific magnetospheric processes, such as dayside reconnection and auroral bifurcations, nightside reconnection, hot plasma injections. We will also take advantage of the view from nearly above the poles to describe the overall shape and size of the aurora, which are expected to respond to the solar wind conditions. Moreover, this presentation will focus on small-scale features, which can only be observed by an instrument close enough to the planet. We will also present movies of these observations, allowing us to explore the auroral dynamics at various timescales. This information will be used to identify the various mechanisms at play in Saturn’s magnetosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailLe sentiment d'insécurité en Euregio Meuse-Rhin
Dejozé, Michaël ULg

Report (2013)

For a good understanding of security related phenomenons on a specific period and a specific place, autorities use different tools: objective crime data, mostly understood as police data, is then ... [more ▼]

For a good understanding of security related phenomenons on a specific period and a specific place, autorities use different tools: objective crime data, mostly understood as police data, is then completed by subjective data which permits to include the citizen's opinion. Since de borders are no obstacle for criminals, our understanding of crime must also be international. Concerning objective crime data, this is already the case in the Euregio Maas-Rhine. With this study, the autorities also have a tool for a better understanding of subjective data. In fact, 2035 subjects of 4 different regions from 3 different countries have been questionned. The added value of this transborder approach has to be found in the fact that the same mesure has been applied to the entire territory which allows us to compare the results. In fact, different results can help to find best-practices and experts. On the opposite, same results can show common problems which need common solutions. In the whole report we see that the existence or non existence of borders is very important. [less ▲]

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See detailEculizumab (ECU) Inhibits Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) and Improves Renal Function In Adult Patients (Pts) With Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS)
Fakhouri, Fadi; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Cataland, Spero et al

Poster (2013, December 08)

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See detailLe cinéma de Jean-Luc Godard et l'oeil philosophique de Gilles Deleuze
Pieron, Julien ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

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See detailLes indications de greffes
Bonnet, Christophe ULg

in Greffes de cellules souches hématopoïétiques: les enjeux. (2013)

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See detailLa dynastie belge et la science, 1909-1959
Pirot, Pascal ULg

Conference (2013, December 07)

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See detailEnjeux politiques de l'ignorance : Socrate et Rancière
Herla, Anne ULg; Jeanmart, Gaëlle

Conference (2013, December 07)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)