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See detailDécouverte d'un gène du gigantisme
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailLectures italiennes à Bruxelles (1500-1630)
Adam, Renaud ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 12)

Cette journée d’étude a pour but de favoriser les rencontres et échanges entre chercheurs de disciplines transversales autour de la problématique de la réception du livre italien dans les anciens Pays-Bas ... [more ▼]

Cette journée d’étude a pour but de favoriser les rencontres et échanges entre chercheurs de disciplines transversales autour de la problématique de la réception du livre italien dans les anciens Pays-Bas et en Principauté de Liège. Son objectif est d’étudier les mécanismes qui ont permis à l'édition en italien produite à la Renaissance d'être lue et divulguée dans ces territoires. Sous quelles formes ont circulé les livres italiens ? En langue originale ou en traductions (française et/ou néerlandaise) ? Quels itinéraires ont empruntés les livres « italiens » depuis le nord des Alpes ? Qui sont les acteurs de cette diffusion ? Dans quel(s) milieu(x) culturel(s) le livre italien a-t-il trouvé son public ? Existe-t-il un « italianisme bibliophilique » dans les anciens Pays-Bas et en Principauté de Liège ? Comment ont été conservés les livres italiens depuis le XVIe siècle jusqu’à nos jours ? L’ambition de cette manifestation est de contribuer à renouveler les connaissances sur la production, la diffusion et la conservation d’ouvrages « italiens » à la première modernité, ces vecteurs indispensables à l’essor de l’Humanisme et de la Renaissance dans l’Europe continentale. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cerato-mandibular ligament: an innovation for sound production and feeding in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).
Olivier, Damien ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Spanopoulos-Zarco, Milton et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae ... [more ▼]

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae possess a synapomorphic trait, the cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, which joins the hyoid bar to the inner part of the lower jaw. It has previously been shown that this ligament is a key trait in communication in damselfishes because it enables them to slam the oral jaws shut causing teeth collision and sound production. This specific behavior of mouth closing could, however, also be used for other tasks, such as feeding. Many territorial damselfishes are referred to as farmers, due to their ability to manage algal crops on which they feed. This study hypothesizes that the c-md ligament provides an advantage for grazing filamentous algae, and should thus be considered a key trait for farming behavior. The kinematic patterns associated with sound production and biting filamentous algae or attached animal prey are all based on the same mechanism and are associated with a slam of the oral jaws. We observed that transection of the c-md ligaments makes the fish unable to perform such actions. This study shows that the c-md ligament is a key trait both for sound production and for grazing activities in damselfishes. The buccal jaw slam enables the fish to perform accurate strikes on small filamentous algae. This kind of bite probably plays a major role in farming activity and allows grazing damselfishes to occupy distinct niches, possibly increasing their competitive evolutionary success. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen microplastic is not microplastic: ingestion of artificial cellulose fibers by macrofauna living in seagrass macrophytodetritus
Collard, France ULg; Remy, François ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

Vagile macroinvertebrates associated with Posidonia oceanica exported litter were sampled in August 2011, November 2011 and March 2012 in the Calvi Bay (Corsica), near the STARESO oceanographic station ... [more ▼]

Vagile macroinvertebrates associated with Posidonia oceanica exported litter were sampled in August 2011, November 2011 and March 2012 in the Calvi Bay (Corsica), near the STARESO oceanographic station. Contents of digestive tracts were analyzed and fibers of various sizes and colors were found. Fibers were found in 27.6% of the digestive tracts in the nine dominant species. No correlation was found between number of fibers and taxonomic or trophic level. There were no seasonal or spatial preferences and thus we hypothesize that the organisms ingest these fibers randomly throughout the year. Analyses performed with a Raman spectroscope showed that these fibers were composed of cellulose associated with a coloring agent following the fiber color. Red fibers were dyed with the Direct Red 28, blue fibers were dyed with Direct Blue 22. Analyses by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that cellulose fibers had the particular morphology of artificial cellulose fibers called: viscose. Our SEM analyses were compared to literature. This comparison assessed that fibers found in digestive tracts were made of viscose. In a first approach, viscose fibers looked like microplastic fibers because of their color and shape. However, it appeared that these fibers were made of artificial cellulose which is very different than plastic in terms of impacts and fate in the organisms. This study highlights the importance of physico-chemical analyses such as Raman spectroscopy and SEM to certainly identify the composition of particles ingested by organisms. From an ecological point of view, the red coloring agent is known to be carcinogenic in mammals and fish. Consequently, this pollution could provoke an environmental problem for the P. oceanica litter vagile macrofauna. [less ▲]

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See detailA gammaherpesvirus infection protects against allergic asthma.
Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Dourcy, Mickael ULg; Sabatel, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

The “hygiene hypothesis” proposes that the augmentation of allergic diseases in developed countries could be linked to a reduced exposure to infections during childhood. Surprisingly, the potential ... [more ▼]

The “hygiene hypothesis” proposes that the augmentation of allergic diseases in developed countries could be linked to a reduced exposure to infections during childhood. Surprisingly, the potential protective role of herpesvirus infections against allergy development has never been addressed directly. In this study, we used the Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) to study the impact of a persistent gammaherpesvirus infection on the development of House Dust Mites (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. Our results revealed that MuHV-4 infection affects both the sensitization and the challenging phases of HDM-induced airway allergy. In particular, we highlighted that MuHV-4 infection strongly impacts the lung innate immune response. Indeed, while the dendritic cells remained competent to uptake antigens and to migrate to the draining lymph nodes, MuHV-4 infection impaired their ability to trigger HDM sensitization. In the future, these results could allow us to develop strategies to prevent the development of TH2-skewed responses against respiratory allergens. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitical and Social Thought at the Time of the Italian Wars: France and Burgundy
Dumont, Jonathan ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailDetection of small amounts of human adenoviruses in stools: comparison of a new immuno real-time PCR assay with classical tools.
Bonot, Sebastian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Elmoualij, Benaïssa ULg et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2014), 20(12), 1-7

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA ... [more ▼]

The detection of low virus concentrations in biological matrices, especially stool samples, is facing significant limitations as far as common diagnostic methods (enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)) are considered. Here the development of a new immuno real-time PCR (iPCR) is described and its performance in the detection of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in spiked stools is compared with those of ELISA and qPCR assays. For the iPCR, detection of the sandwich formed by the complexation of capture antibody-antigen-detection antibody was performed by qPCR thanks to the substitution of peroxydase by a chimeric DNA. This modification increased the detection sensitivity 200-fold compared to ELISA. The direct qPCR results revealed that only 0.3–9.5% of the spiked HAdV were detectable, resulting from important losses of DNA occurring at the extraction step. This step was not necessary in the iPCR workflow, avoiding this drawback. The losses of viral particles occurred at the elution step from the stool only. The recovery rate of the iPCR was thus better and ranged between 21 and 54%. As a result, iPCR enabled the detection of lower virus concentrations in stool samples compared to those detected by ELISA and qPCR. The iPCR could be considered as a ‘hyper sensitive ELISA’ for early detection of HAdV infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. [less ▲]

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See detailStable isotope ratios reveal trophic niche partitioning among hermit crabs from tropical polyspecific seagrass meadows
Michel, Loïc ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Lavitra, Thierry et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

Polyspecific seagrass meadows are ubiquitous features of tropical coastal zones. These ecosystems are of critical ecological importance, and provide a wide range of socio-economical services to local ... [more ▼]

Polyspecific seagrass meadows are ubiquitous features of tropical coastal zones. These ecosystems are of critical ecological importance, and provide a wide range of socio-economical services to local populations. Meadows however undergo multiple threats linked to human activities (increased nutrient input, overfishing, invertebrate overharvesting, etc.). It is currently hard to assess how seagrass meadows could respond to anthropogenic impacts due to poor knowledge of their functional ecology. In an effort to unravel trophic interactions ruling the food webs associated to seagrass beds of the Toliara Great Reef (SW Madagascar), we studied resource segregation between two common Diogenidae hermit crabs (Dardanus scutellatus and Ciliopagurus tricolor) using stable isotope ratios. Interspecific differences were noted in isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C = -12.22 ± 1.73 ‰ for D. scutellatus, δ13C = -14.55 ± 0.73 ‰ for C. tricolor), nitrogen (δ15N = 4.73 ± 0.53 ‰ for D. scutellatus, δ15N = 5.20 ± 0.61 ‰ for C. tricolor) and sulfur (δ34S = 14.08 ± 2.32 ‰ for D. scutellatus, δ34S = 16.73 ± 1.49 ‰ for C. tricolor), suggesting that the two species do not feed on the same items. In addition, SIBER (Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R) modeling based on C and N data clearly showed that no overlap was present in the core isotopic niches of the two species. It also indicated that the isotopic niche of D. scutellatus was greater than the one of C. tricolor, implying that the former feeds on a greater number of items than the latter. While hermit crabs are generally considered as omnivorous species, this study highlighted differences in the foraging ecology of D. scutellatus and C. tricolor. These differences could help to limit competition for food between these two species, and facilitate their coexistence in Malagasy seagrass beds. [less ▲]

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See detailPoésie et révolte
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailLes progrès de la foresterie sociale en Afrique centrale
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailMise au point d'une forme stable de l'allergène Der p 3 de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus pour le diagnostic rapide et le développement de nouvelles approches d'immunothérapie de l'allergie aux acariens
Bouaziz, Ahlem ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

L’allergie aux acariens touche 20 à 30 % de la population occidentale. L’allergène Der p 3 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus est une protéase à serine active appartenant à la famille de la ... [more ▼]

L’allergie aux acariens touche 20 à 30 % de la population occidentale. L’allergène Der p 3 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus est une protéase à serine active appartenant à la famille de la trypsine. Son activité protéolytique pourrait être un facteur adjuvant impliqué dans le développement et la chronicité de l’allergie. A l’heure actuelle, l’implication de Der p 3 dans l’allergie est peu connue et son taux de fixation des IgE provenant de patients allergiques est controversé. Cependant, ces différentes études ont été réalisées au moyen d’un allergène naturel très sujet à l’autolyse et pouvant être contaminé par d’autres protéase. Durant la première partie de cette étude, nous avons pu montrer que rDer p 3 produit en P.Pastoris présente les mêmes propriétés allergéniques que nDer p 3. En effet, les résultats obtenus par test ELISA, inhibition compétitive montrent que rDer p 3 est correctement replié et présente les mêmes épitopes B conformationnels que l’allergène naturel. Dans la deuxième partie de cette thèse, nous avons pu mettre en évidence que l’autolyse de Der p 3 durant le test ELISA a un effet sur la reconnaissance des IgE. En effet, le taux mesuré avec la forme inactive est deux fois supérieur par rapport à la forme active. Der p 3S196A pourrait être donc un meilleur outil de diagnostic pour l’allergie à Der p 3. Dans la troisième partie de cette thèse, nous avons pu montrer que le propeptide de proDer p 3 affecte l’allergénicité de Der p 3. Par une étude in vitro, nous avons prouvé par ELISA, par les tests de dégranulation des basophiles de rat humanisés et d’activation des basophiles humains, que proDer p 3 est moins bien reconnu par les IgE de patients allergiques que la forme mature Der p 3. Ensuite, nous avons montré que les souris sensibilisées par les formes mature et zymogène de l’allergène Der p 3 ont développé une réponse immune de type TH2 et TH1 respectivement. ProDer p 3 pourrait donc être considéré comme une forme hypoallergénique de l’allergène Der p 3. Dans la dernière partie, nous avons construit un modèle tridimensionnel de l’allergène Der p 3 afin de prédire les épitopes B conformationnels par approche bioinformatique. En effet, 3 épitopes B ont été prédits ainsi que les acides aminés impliqués dans la reconnaissance et la fixation des IgE au sein de chaque épitope. Enfin, au moyen de la technique du peptide array, nous avons pu mettre en évidence un épitope B linéaire de l’allergène Der p 3. [less ▲]

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See detailAufmerksamkeit - eine neue Form symbolischen Kapitals (?)
Houscheid, Karin ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 11)

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See detailProhibitive strategies and prohibitive cycles in Ancient Egyptian
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 11)

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive constructions, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic. The paper is structured as follows. In the introduction (§1), a brief review of current typological studies of prohibitives will be given as background information. Then, we start with a description of the two main types of prohibitive constructions that one finds in Coptic, taking into dialectal variety (§2), namely mpr+V(ERB) and mn-V(ERB) “do not V”. Afterwards, we describe the grammaticalization pathway along which the first of these two constructions developed, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic (§3). Additionally, we provide a description of the main prohibitive (as well as negative jussive) strategies that are attested for Earlier (§4) and Later Egyptian (§5), in order to situate more precisely the grammaticalization process of the first strategy within the successive ‘synchronic’ systems of oppositions in the semantic field of prohibition. In a final section (§6), we discuss more in depth the second, more marginal, prohibitive construction of Coptic (mn-V) — investigating Coptic dialectal diversity — and we suggest a diachronic scenario that could account for the appearance and development of this second strategy. [less ▲]

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