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See detailExploring a Mediterranean mesozooplankton 13 year time-series.
Fullgrabe, Lovina; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Batigny, Antoine et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Zooplankton plays diverse crucial roles within the marine ecosystem and can also be used as bio- indicator of climate changes since it is very sensitive to environmental changes. Therefore it is essential ... [more ▼]

Zooplankton plays diverse crucial roles within the marine ecosystem and can also be used as bio- indicator of climate changes since it is very sensitive to environmental changes. Therefore it is essential to consider long-term plankton series. Given the analysis of plankton samples is time- consuming, it requires an effective and rapid analytical method. We have used in this work a supervised learning approach adapted for the semi-automatic classification of digital images of the mesozooplankton of the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, France) by using the Zoo/PhytoImage software. Together with a 11-years long zooplankton time-series, a set of nine environmental variables were monitored in order to identify controlling factors and determine whether the communities were sensitive to global environmental changes. The main components of the mesozooplankton community were characterized by both seasonal and inter-annual variability. Additionally, variation of holoplankton and meroplankton differentiated one from each other. The holoplanktonic community could be split into two subgroups according to its variation in function of the environment: cladocerans and appendicularians, and to a lesser extent, copepods on one hand, and cnidarians, chaetognathes and thaliaceans, on the other hand. Regarding inter-annual variation, one year (2007) showed particularly low production of total zooplankton which was also the case for all the different holoplanktonic taxa. Accounting for that phenomenon were identified some potentially underlying environmental factors. Finally, although water temperature increased significantly over the last years along with the frequency of marine heat wave events, no evident change in the global zooplankton composition was observed yet. [less ▲]

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See detailStream-aquifer interactions: a combined field - methodological approach in fractured carbonate catchments
Brouyère, Serge ULg; Briers, Pierre ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological ... [more ▼]

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological status of rivers. Field quantification of such interactions is a first step but it has to be in relation with the whole budgets of water and transported substances across the catchment in order to represent their importance on overall fluxes. Numerous complementary investigations have to be undertaken to achieve such understanding of catchment behavior, in particular to estimate specific indicators and to achieve representative data for modeling stream-aquifer interactions. From that situation, our study aims to characterize and quantify stream-aquifer interactions to assess reliability of diverse field experiments methodologies. A catchment has been studied for 3 years in quantitative and qualitative ways via a dense instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous complementary investigations (discharge measurements, hydrogeochemistry, distributed temperature sensing, base flow separation…) have been applied to reach the objectives. We achieved a large and diversified measurement dataset of groundwater-surface water interactions and whole water budget. This allowed reaching an improved understanding of the catchment behavior to quantify importance of the groundwater component on the dynamics and chemistry of the stream and on the consequences on river ecological status. The investigations on several subcatchments allows also to propose a general typology of stream catchment in terms of groundwater dependence based on the combination of various groundwater contexts and groundwater-stream interaction indicators. Methodologies applied in this study allow to emphasize strength and weakness of numerous investigations in a stream aquifer project and conclusions can be reproduced and generalized to other contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper toxicity on coral holobiont photosynthetic processes
Georges, Nadège; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Batigny, Antoine et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient to organisms, may become toxic when present at too high environmental concentrations. This metal remains an aquatic contaminant of concern, notably because of its ... [more ▼]

Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient to organisms, may become toxic when present at too high environmental concentrations. This metal remains an aquatic contaminant of concern, notably because of its recent re-use as biocide in metal-based antifouling paints. The aim of this study was to monitor the physiological alterations in a zooxanthellate coral species and its endosymbionts (i.e. the coral holobiont) exposed to increasing Cu concentrations. Nubbins of Seriatopora hystrix were exposed for 8 days in 1 L intermittent respirometers to 5 nominal Cu concentrations: 0-2-5-15-50 ppb. Respirometers were maintained at 25.0±0.2°C with successive open/close cycles of 30 min. A 12/12 hours day-night light regime was applied with constant daylight intensity of 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Water renewal rate during the 30 min open cycles was 15 mL.min-1. The photosynthetic performances of coral endosymbionts were assessed daily with a fluorescence imaging system (imaging-PAM). At the end of the 8-days experiment, the maximal photochemical quantum yield (FV/FM) of coral nubbins had decreased by 12% and 38%, respectively, in the 15 ppb and 50 ppb treatments. This decrease was even greater for the effective photochemical quantum yield (ɸPSII) with values dropping by 41% and 54%, respectively. Cu exposure also affected the symbiosis between the coral host and its endosymbionts. Nubbins of the 15 ppb treatment slightly lightened from day 6, whilst nubbins exposed to the 50 ppb treatment lightened from day 3, and started to bleach from day 6. The analysis of nubbins’ primary productivity did not coincide with the above observations, the oxygen production within each respirometer remaining relatively constant during the overall experiment for all treatments. This unexpected observation may be the sign of a compensation mechanism. In conclusion, Cu affected the photosynthetic processes of S. histrix within 8 days from relevant environmental concentrations of 15 ppb. The exposure of corals to toxic chemicals thus has to be considered as an additional stressor to, e.g., ocean acidification or elevated temperature, which may disturb their ecophysiology and lead to bleaching. [less ▲]

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See detailBioaccumulation of trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Algerian west coast
Rouabhi, Leila; Rouanne, Hassen Omar; Benkrama, Hadjer et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Algeria has a 1622 km long coastal strip where a large proportion of the population and the main economic and industrial activities of the country are concentrated. Its coastal fringe therefore suffers ... [more ▼]

Algeria has a 1622 km long coastal strip where a large proportion of the population and the main economic and industrial activities of the country are concentrated. Its coastal fringe therefore suffers from various degradations. In particular, the Bay of Oran is housing industrial, commercial, fishing and recreational activities, where 80 % of domestic and industrial wastewaters are not purified before being discharged into the sea. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the degree of metallic contamination of coastal waters of western Algeria. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe and Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the dry soft tissues (gills and gonads) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 collected during the four seasons of year 2010 in 2 sites: the highly polluted Oran harbor (S1) and Ain Defla (S2), a site distant enough from Oran and presumed little contaminated. Oran harbor was globally more contaminated than Ain Defla, especially for Fe, Zn and Ni. However, Pb levels were higher at Ain Defla with concentrations up to 3.35 ± 0.25 ppm in the gills. Metal concentrations differed between organs. Fe, Zn and Cu were more accumulated in gills (46.91 ± 1.60 ppm, 25.6 ± 1.07 ppm, 2.68 ± 0.50 ppm, respectively) compared to gonads (29.06 ± 1.07 ppm, 21.76 ± 1.46 ppm ppm, 1.44 ± 0.20 ppm, respectively). Each metal followed a seasonal trend, showing concentration peaks during winter and spring for gills and autumn for gonads. This study demonstrated the need to biomonitor the metallic contamination of Algerian coasts. But such monitoring surveys, relying on organisms, will require consensual sampling and analytical protocols to avoid hazardous conclusions due to tissue speciation and accumulation seasonality. [less ▲]

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See detailCell cycle S phase markers are expressed in cerebral neuron nuclei of cats infected by the Feline Panleukopenia Virus
Poncelet, Luc; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Ando et al

in Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (2016), 15(24), 3482-3489

The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons ... [more ▼]

The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons. However, in naturally occurring nervous system diseases, these markers are not expressed in neuron nuclei but in cytoplasmic compartments. In other respects, the Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) is able to complete its cycle in mature brain neurons in the feline species. As a parvovirus, the FPV is strictly dependent on its host cell reaching the cell cycle S phase to start its multiplication. In this retrospective study on the whole brain of 12 cats with naturally-occurring, FPV-associated cerebellar atrophy, VP2 capsid protein expression was detected by immunostaining not only in some brain neuronal nuclei but also in neuronal cytoplasm in 2 cats, suggesting that viral mRNA translation was still occurring. In these cats, double immunostainings demonstrated the expression of cell cycle S phase markers cyclin A, cdk2 and PCNA in neuronal nuclei. Parvoviruses are able to maintain their host cells in S phase by triggering the DNA damage response. S139 phospho H2A1, a key player in the cell cycle arrest, was detected in some neuronal nuclei, supporting that infected neurons were also blocked into the S phase. PCR studies did not support a co-infection with an adeno or herpes virus. ERK1/2 nuclear accumulation was observed in some neurons suggesting that the ERK signaling pathway might be involved as a mechanism driving these neurons far into the cell cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding ecology of metamorphic and paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) in Larzac
Didaskalou, Emilie; Lejeune, Benjamin ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

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See detailHead shape disparity of the cod icefishes Trematominae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Heindler, Franz M.; Dettai, Agnès et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents ... [more ▼]

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents a dominant component of the shelf fish fauna. After recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, 14 species of Trematomus are currently recognized (including Pagothenia and Cryothenia spp.) comprising both considerable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we aim to illustrate the main axes of shape variation in Trematomus and explore the evolution of their morphology. A dataset of 96 specimens representing 10 species of Trematomus from the collection of the Natural History Museum of Paris was assembled, and landmark-based geometric morphometrics was applied to quantify head shape disparity. Regular regression analysis revealed significant interspecific allometry while a low percentage of shape variation was explained by size (R2 = 0.11; P < 0.001). Main shape variation across species was explored using a principal component (PC) analysis on shape variables. Two groups diverged along PC1: (1) T. bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. pennellii and T. tokarevi have short cephalic profiles with larger cheeks (lowest values along PC1); and (2) T. lepidorhinus, T. eulepidotus and T. newnesi show lengthened cephalic profiles with larger eyes (highest values along PC1). Trematomus scotti differed from all other species mainly along PC3 indicating more elongated cheeks. Phenogram based on Procrustes shape distances will be compared to molecular phylogenetic trees and morphometric data will be mapped onto phylogenetic trees in order to illustrate the mode of phenotypic diversification of Trematomus during evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathologie, postmodernité et psychothérapie : borderline et nouveaux territoires
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 16)

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See detail"'Unreadable' Texts: From the Metaphysical Detective Story to the Metacognitive Mystery Tale"
Dechene, Antoine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This dissertation aims at establishing the genealogy of a literary genre called the metacognitive mystery tale. Its main goal is to delineate a corpus of texts presenting "unreadable" mysteries which ... [more ▼]

This dissertation aims at establishing the genealogy of a literary genre called the metacognitive mystery tale. Its main goal is to delineate a corpus of texts presenting "unreadable" mysteries which, under the deceptively monolithic appearance of subverting "traditional" detective story conventions, offer a multiplicity of motifs – the overwhelming presence of chance, the unfulfilled quest for knowledge, the urban stroller lost in a labyrinthine text – that generate a vast array of epistemological and ontological uncertainties explored by the genre. The selected corpus, composed of some of the genre's most emblematic avatars as well as of less usual suspects, accounts for the specificity and heterogeneity of authors who, in different but related ways, have addressed a certain number of issues underlying the acquisition of knowledge. Following three major intertextual matrices based on the concepts of the "unreadable" city, the "dark" grotesque and the sublime, respectively, this project brings together texts by writers as diverse as Percy Bysshe Shelley, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry James, Horacio Quiroga, Jorge Luis Borges, Franz Kafka, Samuel Beckett, Paul Auster, Iain Sinclair and Roberto Bolaño under the banner of the metacognitive mystery tale. This approach represents an opportunity to gather canonical and barely academically studied works and provide new perspectives on stories dealing with the darker, more anxious aspects of investigations led by defective sleuths. [less ▲]

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See detailWho would want to live in there? A history of Posidonia oceanica detritus accumulations, the associated invertebrate community, and its food web…
Remy, François ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs ... [more ▼]

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs. The case of Posidonia oceanica is particularly interesting since up to 90% of its foliar primary production may constitute extensive and highly dynamic exported litter accumulations. Preliminary studies concerning these detritus accumulations suggest that an abundant community of vagile macro invertebrates (size > 500μm) lives inside them. We characterized for the first time this community in an exhaustive way (multi-site, seasonal and multi-year study), we linked the observed density and diversity variations to environmental parameters, but also described the trophic web these invertebrates compose. We sampled an abundant (up to 5000 organisms/m²) community composed of 115 species. We showed that crustaceans were massively dominant, followed by annelids and mollusks, and that one single amphipod species Gammarella fucicola represented from 20 to 85% of the whole sampled community. Observed variations appeared to be mostly linked to litter oxygen water concentration in a very species specific way. Most species were linked to no measured environmental parameter at all, but several dominant species were demonstrated (observation and in situ experimentation) to be linked positively or negatively to litter oxygen concentration. The described food web was composed of more than 3 trophic levels, indicating the presence of a trophic web composed of primary consumers/detritivore species, of omnivore species, but also of first and second order predators, each level occupying a distinct isotopic niche. From a specific point of view, we highlighted several different feeding preferences, with SIAR mixing model runs indicating that some species feed mostly on detrital material, other species feed on a mixture of detrital and algal material, other species feed on both animal and vegetal material and finally predator species feed exclusively on animal material. The fact that P. oceanica detritus constituted a non-negligible food source for some dominant species confirmed the importance of this macrofauna community as a key transfer link of seagrass organic matter from P. oceanica to the coastal food webs. [less ▲]

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See detailAging of monolithic zirconia dental prostheses: Protocol for a 5-year prospective clinical study using ex vivo analyses
KOENIG, Vinciane ULg; Wulfman, Claudine; DERBANNE, Mathieu et al

in Contemporary Clinical Trials Communication (2016), 4

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a ... [more ▼]

Background: Recent introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) monolithic zirconia dental prostheses raises the issue of material low thermal degradation (LTD), a wellknown problem with zirconia hip prostheses. This phenomenon could be accentuated by masticatory mechanical stress. Until now zirconia LTD process has only been studied in vitro. This work introduces an original protocol to evaluate LTD process of monolithic zirconia prostheses in the oral environment and to study their general clinical behavior, notably in terms of wear. Methods/design: 101 posterior monolithic zirconia tooth elements (molars and premolars) are included in a 5-year prospective clinical trial. On each element, several areas between 1 and 2 mm2 (6 on molars, 4 on premolars) are determined on restoration surface: areas submitted or non-submitted to mastication mechanical stress, glazed or non-glazed. Before prosthesis placement, ex vivo analyses regarding LTD and wear are performed using Raman spectroscopy, SEM imagery and 3D laser profilometry. After placement, restorations are clinically evaluated following criteria of the World Dental Federation (FDI), complemented by the analysis of fracture clinical risk factors. Two independent examiners perform the evaluations. Clinical evaluation and ex vivo analyses are carried out after 6 months and then each year for up to 5 years. Discussion: For clinicians and patients, the results of this trial will justify the use of monolithic zirconia restorations in dental practice. For researchers, the originality of a clinical study including ex vivo analyses of material aging will provide important data regarding zirconia properties. [less ▲]

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See detailEupen-Malmedy und die deutsch-belgischen Beziehungen seit 1945
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 15)

Eigentlich liegt der Fall klar: nach der Befreiung im Herbst 1944 wurde das kleine Grenzgebiet von Eupen-Malmedy, das im Mai 1940 vom „Großdeutschen Reich“ annektiert worden war, wieder belgisch. Der ... [more ▼]

Eigentlich liegt der Fall klar: nach der Befreiung im Herbst 1944 wurde das kleine Grenzgebiet von Eupen-Malmedy, das im Mai 1940 vom „Großdeutschen Reich“ annektiert worden war, wieder belgisch. Der deutsch-belgische Ausgleichsvertrag vom September 1956 bekräftigte dies nochmals. Doch wurde diese offizielle Position zwar im Bonner Auswärtigen Amt vertreten, jedoch nicht von allen Ministerien geteilt. Vor allem durch das Bundesministerium für Gesamtdeutsche Fragen erfolgte nach 1949 eine „Betreuung“ für die Minderheit, die Fragen nach den Kontinuitäten zur Vorkriegszeit aufwirft. Wenn auch die belgische Souveränität in den „Ostkantonen“ nicht mehr offen infrage gestellt wurde, fand dort in kleinem Umfang eine geheim gehaltene „Förderung“ kulturpolitischer Tätigkeiten statt – auch weil der belgische Staat nur wenige finanzielle Mittel bereitstellte. Erst mit der sich anbahnenden Schaffung einer „deutschen Kulturgemeinschaft“ im Zuge der ersten Verfassungsrevision in Belgien und nach dem Eintritt der SPD in die Bundesregierung wurde diese finanzielle Hilfe Ende der 1960er Jahre eingestellt. An ihre Stelle traten nunmehr deutsche Stiftungen, was Ende der 1980er Jahre zu einem politischen Skandal in der heutigen Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft führte. Der Vortrag fragt nach der Bedeutung von „Eupen-Malmedy“ für das deutsch-belgische Verhältnis seit 1945 und zeigt die Schwierigkeiten für die westdeutschen Akteure, eine auswärtige Kulturpolitik zu konzipieren und dabei die Fallen der Vergangenheit zu vermeiden. [less ▲]

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See detailInstillation de surfactant chez le prématuré en respiration spontanée : méta-analyse
RIGO, Vincent ULg; LEFEBVRE, Caroline ULg; BROUX, Isabelle ULg

in Baud, Olivier; Saliba, Elie (Eds.) Congrès SFN-JFRN 2016, livre des communications (2016, December 15)

Justification: Lors du traitement par surfactant dit moins invasif (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST), le produit est instillé dans la trachée par un cathéter fin alors que l’enfant respire ... [more ▼]

Justification: Lors du traitement par surfactant dit moins invasif (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST), le produit est instillé dans la trachée par un cathéter fin alors que l’enfant respire spontanément sous CPAP. Différentes études ont donné des résultats variables mais encourageants. L’objectif de cette méta-analyse est de comparer le devenir respiratoire des prématurés traités par LIST avec celui de ceux traités par administration de surfactant par un tube endotrachéal. Méthodes : les études randomisées contrôlées (ERC) sont recherchées dans les bases de données et dans les références d’articles pertinents. Les devenirs respiratoires (dysplasie broncho-pulmonaire (DBP), décès ou DBP, échec précoce de CPAP, nécessité de ventilation invasive) et les morbidités classiques sont reprises de ces études. Pour chaque morbidité, le risque relatif (RR) des données mutualisées est calculé avec une analyse de Mantel-Haenszel à modèle d’effet aléatoire. Le RR est également calculé pour des sous-groupes établis selon l’intervention contrôle. Résultats : six ERC évaluent le LIST : 4 le comparent à l’INSURE (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation), et les 2 autres à l’intubation (immédiate ou après maintient en CPAP) avec surfactant. Les méthodes LIST diminuent les risques de DBP (RR= 0,71 (0,52-0,99) ; nombre nécessaire à traiter NNT= 21), et de décès ou DBP (RR= 0,7 (0,58- 0,94) ; NNT= 15). L’échec précoce de CPAP et le recours à la ventilation invasive sont également réduits (RR= 0,67 (0,53-0,84) ; NNT= 8 et RR= 0,69 (0,53- 0,88) ; NNT= 6). Comparé à l’INSURE, le LIST diminue le risque combiné de décès ou DBP (RR= 0,63 (0,44-0,92) ; NNT= 11), et d’échec précoce de CPAP (RR=0,71 (0,53-0,96) ; NNT= 11). Les autres morbidités néonatales classiques sont similaires pour les différents groupes. Conclusions : une stratégie d’administration dite moins invasive de surfactant diminue les risques de morbidité respiratoire à moyen terme (DBP, décès ou DBP) et le recours à la ventilation invasive. Cette approche semble sure mais les données de suivi à long terme sont insuffisantes. [less ▲]

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See detailCathéters pour instillation moins invasive de SURFACTANT : une étude de simulation
RIGO, Vincent ULg; Debauche, Christian; Maton, Pierre et al

in Baud, Olivier; Saliba, Elie (Eds.) Congrès JFN-JFRN 2016, livre des communications (2016, December 15)

Introduction et objectifs : l’instillation trachéale de surfactant par un cathéter fin (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST) chez le prématuré sous CPAP permet de diminuer la morbidité respiratoire ... [more ▼]

Introduction et objectifs : l’instillation trachéale de surfactant par un cathéter fin (Less invasive surfactant therapy- LIST) chez le prématuré sous CPAP permet de diminuer la morbidité respiratoire. Plusieurs cathéters sont décrits à cette fin : une sonde oro-gastrique insérée avec (LISA-Köln, K) ou sans pince de Maggil (Take Care- Ankara, A), un cathéter veineux de 13 cm (MIST- Hobart, H), un cathéter d’angiographie de 30 cm (Stockholm, S) ou un cathéter ombilical fixé à un stylet d’intubation utilisé localement (Liège, L). L’objectif de l’étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité de ces techniques en prenant l’INSURE (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation) comme référence. Intervention : 20 néonatologues travaillant dans 4 services ayant des stratégies d’administration du surfactant différentes ont participé. Ils ont simulé ces 6 techniques sur deux têtes d’intubation de difficulté croissante. L’efficacité de l’intervention est évaluée par le taux d’échec et la durée de procédure mesurée sur vidéo. Chaque intervenant apprécie la facilité d’utilisation sur une échelle de 1 à 9 (Difficile> facile). Résultats : Pour le premier modèle, les durées médianes de procédure pour Köln et Ankara sont allongées [K: 21s (IQR 17-24); A: 23s (15-42); H: 10s (8-16); S: 12s (10-22); L (10-20); INSURE: 14s (11-21); p<.0001]. Pour le second modèle, seul Liège permet une durée de procédure similaire à l’INSURE [K: 32s (25-44); A: 39s (27-95); H: 34s (27-46); S: 37s (29-42); L: 24s (15-35); INSURE: 24s (17-32); p<.002]. Les taux d’échec des méthodes LIST sont similaires entre eux (de 3 à 8/ 40 essais), mais supérieurs à celui de l’INSURE (0/40). Köln et Ankara sont considérés comme plus difficiles [scores de facilité : K: 5 (4-6); A: 3 (2-4); H: 6,5 (6-7); S: 7 (4-8); L: 8 (6,5-8); INSURE: 7 (6-8); p<.001]. Conclusions : les cathéters plus rigides sont plus efficaces et perçus comme plus simples d’utilisation. L’insertion d’un cathéter guidé et incurvé pourrait être plus rapide dans les cas difficiles. [less ▲]

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See detailAjustement des marqueurs d’insertion des tubes endotrachéaux selon l’âge gestationnel.
RIGO, Vincent ULg; Fayoux, Pierre

in Baud, Olivier; Saliba, Elie (Eds.) Congrès SFN-JFRN 2016, livre des communications (2016, December 15)

Introduction et objectifs: le positionnement adéquat d’un tube endotrachéal (TET) peut être difficile en raison de la marge de manœuvre limitée associée aux faibles distances laryngo-trachéales du ... [more ▼]

Introduction et objectifs: le positionnement adéquat d’un tube endotrachéal (TET) peut être difficile en raison de la marge de manœuvre limitée associée aux faibles distances laryngo-trachéales du prématuré. Les marqueurs distaux censés faciliter l’évaluation de ce positionnement ne sont pas standardisés entre les fabriquants, et le marquage généralement unique par taille de tube ne tient pas compte de la croissance associée à l’âge gestationnel. L’objectif de l’étude est de décrire les distances entre les cordes vocales (CV) et la moitié de la trachée en fonction de l’âge gestationnel et proposer des nouveaux marquages adaptés. Méthodes : la moitié de la longueur de la trachée ajoutée à la hauteur de la lame postérieure du cricoïde permet d’estimer la distance entre les CV et la moitié de la trachée (CV-MiTr). Ces longueurs sont issues à postériori d’une base de données prospective reprenant les distances détaillées du larynx et de la trachée mesurées lors d’autopsies de fœtus et nouveau-nés exempts de malformation des voies respiratoires (Fayoux et coll., Journal of anatomy 2008). Une corrélation est établie avec l’âge gestationnel. Résultats : les données proviennent de 121 patients. Il existe une corrélation linéaire entre la distance CV-MiTr et l’AG (r=0,91; y=2,6043+0,6275x; p<.0001). Des marqueurs d’insertion positionnés à 17,7; 18,9; 20,8; 22,7; 24,6 et 26,4 mm correspondraient à des AG de 24, 26, 29, 32, 35 et 38 semaines respectivement. Ils pourraient être indiqués par des lignes de couleurs contrastées. Conclusion : la relation linéaire entre la distance CV-mi-trachée et l’AG donne l’opportunité de revoir les marqueurs d’insertion des tubes endotrachéaux pour les patients les plus petits. Ces nouveaux marqueurs devraient être comparés cliniquement à ceux actuellement en usage avant d’être généralisés. [less ▲]

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See detailLabels du patrimoine culturel, ordres juridiques et effectivité de la norme
Desseilles, François ULg

Conference (2016, December 15)

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See detailApplication des techniques de photogrammétrie par drone à la caractérisation des ressources forestières
Lisein, Jonathan ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Une gestion raisonnée et multifonctionnelle des forêts n’est possible qu’avec une description à jour de l’état de la ressource naturelle. Les inventaires forestiers traditionnels, réalisés sur le terrain ... [more ▼]

Une gestion raisonnée et multifonctionnelle des forêts n’est possible qu’avec une description à jour de l’état de la ressource naturelle. Les inventaires forestiers traditionnels, réalisés sur le terrain, sont couteux et ne couvrent qu’un échantillonnage de la surface boisée. L’essor des drones civils pour la cartographie a initié une révolution dans le domaine de la télédétection environnementale. La polyvalence et la diversité des systèmes drones sont une aubaine pour la foresterie de précision. Ceux-ci sont utilisés pour la réalisation de cartographie très fine des habitats naturels avec une résolution temporelle et spatiale sans précédent. Nous explorons les possibilités d’utilisation de mini-drones pour la caractérisation quantitative et qualitative de la ressource forestière. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à l’estimation de la hauteur des arbres et à la caractérisation de la composition spécifique au sein de peuplements forestiers. La hauteur de la canopée est une variable dendrométrique de première importance : elle est un bon indicateur du stade de développement des peuplements et intervient notamment dans les estimations de biomasse ou de niveau de productivité. La composition spécifique est une information essentielle en regard des principales fonctions que remplit la forêt (conservation, production, récréation, etc). Nous avons comparé l’estimation de la hauteur des peuplements à partir de mesures LiDAR et celle obtenue par photogrammétrie. Bien que permettant une mesure de hauteur individuelle avec une incertitude de l’ordre de 1.04 m (RMSE) en feuillus, la photogrammétrie par drone sur des zones forestières est systématiquement moins précise que les mesures par LiDAR (RMSE de 0.83 m). Ces résultats sont cependant prometteurs, étant donné que la mesure sur terrain de la hauteur totale des arbres est également sujette à une importante imprécision. De plus, la grande flexibilité que confère les petits drones permet d’acquérir, au moment propice du stade de végétation, et l’information de relief de la canopée, et l’information spectrale. La période de fin de feuillaison, au début du mois de juin, s’est avérée le moment le plus propice à une discrimination automatique de cinq groupes d’essences feuillues (le chênes pédonculé, les bouleaux, l’érable sycomore, le frêne commun et les peupliers). Une erreur globale de classification des houppiers de 16% est obtenue avec des acquisitions monotemporelles, alors que l’utilisation d’images acquises à différentes dates permet encore d’améliorer cette classification (erreur globale de classification de 9% pour la meilleure combinaison de 3 dates). Les contraintes de la législation régissant l’utilisation des aéronefs sans pilote à bord restreignent le champs d’action des drones civils. Ainsi, afin d’assurer une sécurité pour tous les usagers de l’espace aérien, les opérations avec un drone sont limitées sous un seuil d’altitude et à une distance maximale du télépilote, ce qui ne permet pas une utilisation optimale de cette technologie pour la couverture de grands domaines forestiers (plusieurs milliers d’hectares). De plus, d’autres outils de télédétection utilisés en foresterie, tels que le LiDAR et l’imagerie satellite et aéroportée, sont plus compétitifs que les drones dès qu’il s’agit de couvrir de grandes surfaces (plusieurs milliers d’hectacre). C’est pourquoi nous pensons que les drones resterons un outils d’analyse de petites surfaces (dizaines voire centaines d’hectares), plus utiles à des fins de recherches scientifiques qu’à une utilisation en gestion forestière. [less ▲]

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See detailLe journal des apprentissages et l'éducation prioritaire
Scheepers, Caroline ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

La formation est destinée aux enseignants du cycle 3 qui travaillent dans les établissements classés ZEP de Sarcelles. Elle vise à leur expliciter les fondements et modalités du journal des apprentissages ... [more ▼]

La formation est destinée aux enseignants du cycle 3 qui travaillent dans les établissements classés ZEP de Sarcelles. Elle vise à leur expliciter les fondements et modalités du journal des apprentissages que tiennent des élèves de primaire ou de secondaire. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)