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See detailDiagnosis and clinical interest of asthma inflammatory phenotypes
SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

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See detailCyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hagen, Ralf Mathias; Frickmann, Hagen et al

in Scientific Reports (2014), 4

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown ... [more ▼]

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailSize Matters, book-to-market does not! The F&F empirical CAPM revisited
Lambert, Marie ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

Conference (2014, December 18)

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See detailVehicle routing problems with loading constraints: State-of-the-art and future directions
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in OR Spectrum (2014)

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring ... [more ▼]

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring these constraints impairs planning and induces last-minute changes resulting in additional costs. Developing vehicle routing models incorporating loading constraints is critical to more efficient route planning. The last couple of years has seen a huge increase of contributions to this field of research with almost 60 % of these being published after 2009. Our contribution is twofold. First, we overview the recent developments in the literature on all vehicle types in which loading constraints play a key role (trucks, airplanes, ships, and automated guided vehicles), using a state-of-the-art classification scheme to identify the loading constraints considered in each article. Second, we identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty in Training-Image Based Inversion of Hydraulic Head Data Constrained to ERT Data: Workflow and Case Study
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Caers, Jef

Conference (2014, December 18)

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In ... [more ▼]

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In recent years, many efforts have been done to assess the posterior distribution of a given problem with reasonable computational costs through inversion techniques such as McMC. The derived posterior distribution is always dependent on the prior distribution. However, most of the studies ignore modeling the prior with realistic uncertainty. In this paper, we propose a workflow to assess the uncertainty of inversion of hydraulic heads data through the addition of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) constraining data. The workflow is divided in three successive steps: 1) Construction of prior: we generate multiple alternative geological scenarios from literature data (architecture of facies) as well as site specific data (proportions of facies). Spatial uncertainty within each scenario is integrated hierarchically through geostatistics (multiple-point statistics simulation of facies constrained by ERT data as soft data). 2) Validation of prior scenarios: we transform prior facies scenarios into resistivity distribution scenarios through forward and inverse modeling. The scenarios are validated by comparison with field ERT data. The comparison is made through distance calculation and projection into a low dimensional space to calculate the probability of each scenario given field ERT data. 3) Matching dynamical data: we use the probability perturbation method, within each scenario, to integrate hydraulic heads to our models. We account for scenario probabilities, calculated in 2, in determining how many models per scenario we have to consider for building a reliable posterior distribution. As an illustration, the method is applied on a field case study in an alluvial aquifer (Belgium) where we consider prior uncertainty related to the type of elements (gravel channels or bars) and to their size. This study shows the importance of considering the uncertainty of the prior in inverse problems as it has a strong influence on model predictions and decision-making problems. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'assainissement non collectif en Afrique Subsaharienne : Application à la ville de Bujumbura
Bigumandondera, Patrice ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Summary On-site sanitation sector in sub-Saharan African is a complex area that requires the involvement of a multidimensional approach mobilizing various actors and competencies. The main purpose of this ... [more ▼]

Summary On-site sanitation sector in sub-Saharan African is a complex area that requires the involvement of a multidimensional approach mobilizing various actors and competencies. The main purpose of this thesis is to conduct a study integrating the three links in the sanitation chain that compose the on-site sanitation sector, namely the upstream links regarding sanitation facilities installed at private homes, the intermediate link for evacuation of sludge and transport to a treatment site and the downstream link for disposal and treatment sludge. A sociological approach mobilizing both survey techniques and on-site observation has allowed understanding the on-site sanitation practices in the field of developing countries. Methodologies to initiate corrective action with respect to what is done so far are utilized. Such as a method for evaluating on-site sanitation using an indicator that is a combination of indicators developed taking into account the entire sanitation sector. At the same time, a procedure to select sanitation technologies based on a number of criteria was adopted. The proposed technologies as well as criteria used for their implementation follow the same logic as previously, i.e. that consisting of taking into account the entire sanitation sector. This study also examined the design procedure of the septic tank and of evaluated its performance on site given that it is used in many sanitation systems. Settling column tests were carried out show that the effluent who enters in the septic tank settles well but settable solids remain in the effluent leaving the septic tank remaining, parameter that needs to be taken into account in the establishment of the infiltration bed after the septic tank. Quantification of sludge accumulation rates in the septic tank shows that for a pump out period every 4 years, the design can be based on an average sludge accumulation rate of 0.22L/person/day. These values (as expressed in g COD/person/day) are useful both to assess withdrawal, but also to design sludge's disposal site. Analyses of these sludges reveal a poorly biodegradable product with a non-biodegradable COD fraction reaching 47.5%, thus as a product with a low methanogenic potential, limiting the interest of its application in anaerobic digestion as a substrate. But, their co-treatment with organic solids waste in a partial anaerobic co-digestion process followed by composting. In this case sludges are considered as digestion inoculums. Preliminary results are encouraging, particularly in terms of total time needed for the entire process. Among other advantages, this process reduces handling of the waste being processed and provides two end products directly recoverable: compost and methane. So we hope that this research will contribute to the establishment in African countries for more efficient on-site sanitation, able to meet the targets set by international organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of local outliers in spatial multivariate data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those ... [more ▼]

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those observed on their neighbors. Detecting local outliers requires to be able to work locally, on neighborhoods, in order to take into account the spatial dependence between the statistical units under consideration, even though the outlyingness is usually measured on the non-spatial variables. Many procedures have been outlined in the literature, but their number reduces when one wants to deal with multivariate non-spatial attributes. In this paper, focus is on the multivariate context. A review of existing procedures is done. A new approach, based on a two-step improvement of an existing one, is also designed and compared with the benchmarked methods by means of examples and simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic improvement of pig sire lines for production performances in crossbreeding
Dufrasne, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Crossbreeding is widely used in pig breeding to benefit from advantages of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Breeding programs are specialized between sire and dam lines, with different ... [more ▼]

Crossbreeding is widely used in pig breeding to benefit from advantages of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Breeding programs are specialized between sire and dam lines, with different selection objectives. Sire lines are mainly selected for production traits (e.g., growth, carcass quality, feed efficiency). Moreover, selection is often in purebred lines while the goal of selection is to improve crossbred performances. Hence, genetic selection of purebred parents involved in crossbreeding requires models accounting for crossbreeding effects, and able to combine data from different genetic types (purebreds and crossbreds) and different environmental conditions. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to develop genetic models to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values for production traits in crossbred populations of pigs. A genetic model was developed to estimate the genetic potential of Walloon purebred Piétrain boars for growth performances in crossbreeding based on test station and on-farm data from purebred and crossbred pigs. Weight records from both systems were considered as different traits. Results showed that weights recorded in test station and on-farm were different traits but genetically correlated. Moreover, combining both sources of data allowed to increase reliability of estimated breeding values and Genotype x Environment interactions were detected for growth in the Walloon breeding program. The introduction of dominance effects, linked to crossbreeding, into the genetic model for growth in the crossbred population showed that dominance effects existed on growth of crossbred pigs. Moreover, the total and the additive genetic merits were better estimated than with a strictly additive model. Research conducted on commercial crossbred data from US Duroc sires displayed that the sire genetic effects were not negligible on traits like piglet birth weight, preweaning mortality, mortality at different stages of the grow-finishing period and hot carcass weight. Furthermore, sire genetic effects increased with age. Genetic studies of mortality in the population from US Duroc sires showed that mortality traits had a low heritability, increasing with age and that mortality was not antagonistic with market weight. Besides, genetic parameters estimated for birth weight and its relation with other production traits in crossbred populations from Piétrain and Duroc sires showed that birth weight could be used as an early indicator trait to improve latter performances. Finally, production traits were genetically correlated and should be selected simultaneously to reach the breeding goal. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of abiotic and biotic factors on VOC emissions and protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The interaction of Arabidopsis and environmental factors is a model system used to study stress response in plants, in particular the analysis of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the ... [more ▼]

The interaction of Arabidopsis and environmental factors is a model system used to study stress response in plants, in particular the analysis of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the proteomic expression. In the present thesis, VOC emissions and expression of proteins were studied in the response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh to the interaction of abiotic (temperature or water stress) and biotic (adults Myzus persicae (Sulzer) or Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae) factors. To achieve these objectives, the volatile profiles emission of Arabidopsis was previously evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental conditions were maintained for different periods, and the emission profile for each period was determined. Our main findings were as follows: (1) the combined aphids (M. persicae) and temperature stress treatments induced more complex plant volatile profiles than did single stress. Rising in temperatures (17, 22, and 27 °C) led to significant increases of isothiocyanate (ITC), nitrile, and sulfide proportions in aphid-infested Arabidopsis plants; (2) aphid-infested water-stressed Arabidopsis exhibited significant changes in their VOC emission blends with modification of sulfide, ITC, ketones, aldehyde, and terpenes; and (3) the molecule profiles from P. xylostella-infested plants also varied with infestation time and temperature treatment. The larvae-infested Arabidopsis at 22 °C emitted sulfides and nitrile instead of ITCs as it is the case at 17 and 27 °C. Additionally, a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry was performed to examine the protein changes in Arabidopsis responses to herbivorous insects under controlled conditions. A total of 574 and 454 protein spots were reproducibly detected by bidimensional electrophoresis. After M. persicae and P. xylostella infestations 31 and 18 protein spots were differently expressed in their relative abundance, respectively. Sixteen proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Functional analysis of identified proteins showed that they were associated with a large number of biological processes, namely carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, defense and translation process. The expression of such proteins in A. thaliana leaves was either up-regulated or down-regulated according to insect feeding stresses. Taken together, the original reported results provide evidences that the interaction between abiotic and biotic stress factors has great ability to alter the profile of VOCs as well as proteins in A. thaliana plants. It provides valuable new insights to explore the complex response of plants to multiple simultaneous factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAllergie moléculaire & Diagnostic in-vitro, Optimalisation de la prescription
GADISSEUR, Romy ULg

Conference (2014, December 17)

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See detailCancer du sein et retour au travail
Schippers, Nathalie ULg; Van Hoof, Elke; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Poster (2014, December 17)

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See detailAgritourismes dans les campagnes périurbaines
Dubois, Charline ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 17)

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See detailDécouvrir la lecture littéraire avec des romans écrits pour la jeunesse
Delbrassine, Daniel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Exposé destiné aux étudiants du régendat littéraire, sur la notion de "lecture littéraire" et sur les moyens de la développer avec des œuvres adressées à la jeunesse. Deux exemples de séquences de cours ... [more ▼]

Exposé destiné aux étudiants du régendat littéraire, sur la notion de "lecture littéraire" et sur les moyens de la développer avec des œuvres adressées à la jeunesse. Deux exemples de séquences de cours concrètes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa charge vocale et son incidence sur le traitement orthophonique
Remacle, Angélique ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 17)

Les troubles de la voix peuvent être engendrés tant par un malmenage que par un surmenage vocal. Tandis que le malmenage est causé par un geste vocal inadéquat, le surmenage résulte d’une charge vocale ... [more ▼]

Les troubles de la voix peuvent être engendrés tant par un malmenage que par un surmenage vocal. Tandis que le malmenage est causé par un geste vocal inadéquat, le surmenage résulte d’une charge vocale supérieure aux capacités de récupération de l’individu. Dans cet atelier, nous expliquerons ce qu’est la charge vocale, nous la replacerons dans le contexte des stress mécaniques appliqués aux plis vocaux lors de la phonation et nous exposerons les conséquences d’une surcharge vocale. Nous présenterons ensuite les systèmes portables de monitoring de la voix commercialisés depuis quelques années : les dosimètres ou accumulateurs de voix. Ces outils permettent d’objectiver le comportement vocal en situation réelle pendant une durée prolongée et aident à cibler les situations favorisant la dysphonie. Enfin, nous discuterons des apports du feedback vibratoire dans le but de modifier le comportement vocal en temps réel. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’intention au comportement physiquement actif chez les seniors : étude de l’influence des perceptions environnementales
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Peels, Denise; Bolman, Catherine et al

Conference (2014, December 17)

The aim of this study was to analyse whether the perception of the local opportunities and the perception about the quality of the environment for physical activity (PA) mediate or moderate the intention ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to analyse whether the perception of the local opportunities and the perception about the quality of the environment for physical activity (PA) mediate or moderate the intention-behaviour relationship for PA in older adults. Data from two existing longitudinal studies (n = 149 and n = 1262) were used, assessing intention at baseline (T1), environmental variables at six months (T2) and PA behaviour at one year (T3). Results exposed a significant mediating role of the perception of the local PA opportunities (accounting for 15.5% in study 1 and 11.9% in study 2) and of the perception about the quality of the PA environment (accounting for respectively 19.6% and 18.2%) on the intention-behaviour relationship for PA. A moderation effect on the intention-behaviour relationship for PA was found in participants with a moderate perception of the local PA opportunities and in participants with a low or moderate perception about the quality of the environment for PA in both studies. This is the first longitudinal study that provides insight in the mediating and moderating role of environmental perceptions in the intention-behaviour relation for PA. Improving environmental perceptions could help future PA promotion interventions to bridge the intention-behaviour gap. [less ▲]

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See detailComment alléger la charge des ménages dans le financement de la santé dans les pays du Sud: Résultats des Comptes Nationaux de la Santé 2010-11 en RD Congo
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg

Learning material (2014)

Cette étude examine la part et l’affectation des dépenses des ménages dans le financement de la santé telle que présentée dans le rapport des Comptes Nationaux de la Santé 2010-11. Les dépenses courantes ... [more ▼]

Cette étude examine la part et l’affectation des dépenses des ménages dans le financement de la santé telle que présentée dans le rapport des Comptes Nationaux de la Santé 2010-11. Les dépenses courantes de santé sont à charge des ménages (40%) et réalisées par paiement direct sans partage de coûts (93,7%). L’hospitalisation est justifiée pour soigner les carences nutritionnelles (34%), le paludisme (12%) et les troubles mentaux (10%). Dans 82% des cas, les soins ambulatoires concernent le paludisme (71%) et les troubles mentaux (12,5%). Le fait que:71,58% des dépenses des hôpitaux, 96,49% des dépenses des centres ambulatoires, 98,48% des dépenses des labo, 72,42% des dépenses des pharmacies sont à charge des ménages: montre la nécessité de la mise en place de mécanismes de solidarisation du risque santé. le paludisme absorbe 71% des dépenses en soins ambulatoires: d’où la nécessité de renforcer les mesures de prévention, le traitement et l’assainissement du milieu. L’amélioration du pouvoir d’achat permettrait d’autonomiser les ménages dans la lutte contre le paludisme. les carences nutritionnelles sont la première cause de recours à l’hôpital: d’où la nécessité de changement des comportements et habitudes alimentaires, la sécurité alimentaires et l’amélioration du pouvoir d’achat des ménages. les troubles mentaux sont le troisième motif d’hospitalisation: d’où la nécessité de les prendre en compte dans les mécanismes de financement de la lutte contre la maladie. [less ▲]

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See detailBiostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic constraints of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kabamba Baludikay, Blaise ULg; Bekker, Andrey; Baudet, Daniel et al

Poster (2014, December 16)

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See detailRuzagayura, la grande famine du Rwanda moderne
Singiza, Dantès ULg

Poster (2014, December 16)

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See detailVariability of Jupiter’s Main Auroral Emission in Response to Magnetospheric Hot Plasma Injections
Badman, Sarah; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Fujimoto, Masaki et al

Poster (2014, December 16)

We present observations of Jupiter’s FUV aurora acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope during a two-week interval in January 2014. The variability of the main auroral emission was studied using ... [more ▼]

We present observations of Jupiter’s FUV aurora acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope during a two-week interval in January 2014. The variability of the main auroral emission was studied using latitudinal profiles of intensity. The main oval intensity was found to be reduced when bright patches of diffuse emission were present at lower latitudes. These low latitude emissions are interpreted as the signatures of hot plasma injections from the outer magnetosphere, a process which has previously been related to interchange between the flux tubes from the outer magnetosphere and outward-moving flux tubes loaded with iogenic plasma. The main emission was also observed to broaden and shift in latitude, and occasionally display a double peak structure. These observations are interpreted with reference to the expected changes in auroral field-aligned currents associated with the replacement of the radially-stretched, mass-loaded flux tubes in the middle magnetosphere by more dipolar flux tubes containing rarefied hot plasma. [less ▲]

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