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See detailTechniques et savoir-faire des artisans de tranchées
Peters, Arnaud ULg

in Créer avant de mourir. Des œuvres d'art dans les tranchées, 1914-1918 (2014)

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

in Szilvássy, Zoltán; Pepó, Péter; Csajbók, József (Eds.) Book of Abstracts, ESA XIIIth Congress : ESA, Debrecen 25-29 August 2014 (2014, August)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of ray tracing method for radiative heat transfer: application to EUI space instrument
Jacques, Lionel ULg; Masset, Luc ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC-15 (2014, August)

The finite element method (FEM) is widely used in mechanical engineering, in particular for space structure design. However, FEM is not yet often used for thermal engineering of space structures where the ... [more ▼]

The finite element method (FEM) is widely used in mechanical engineering, in particular for space structure design. However, FEM is not yet often used for thermal engineering of space structures where the lumped parameter method is still dominant. Radiative exchange factors (REFs), used to calculate radiative thermal exchanges in space, are usually computed through Monte Carlo ray tracing. Due to the large number of elements composing a FE model, the computation of the REFs is prohibitively expensive. The isocell method aims at reducing the computational effort of the REFs with FEM, by decreasing the number of rays required to achieve a given accuracy. Based on Nusselt’s analogy, the ray direction sampling is carried out by sampling the unit disc to derive the ray directions. The isocell method is a special case of stratified sampling. It divides the unit disc into cells of almost same area and shape from which random points are generated. This enhances the uniformity of the ray directions and leads to faster convergence. This isocell method is associated with different surface sampling to derive the REFs. The method is benchmarked against ESARAD, the standard thermal analysis ray tracing engine used in the European aerospace industry. One entrance baffle of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) instrument developedat the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium is used as benchmarking case. Solar Orbiter is an European Space Agency mission to be launched in a Sun-centered 0.28 perihelion orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, August)

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See detailThe Semiotic Challenge of Scientific Images. A Test Case for Visual Meaning
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Fontanille, Jacques; Tabler, Julie

Book published by Legas Publishing (2014)

This book is intended to answer the question "What role and impact do images have in scientific research?". In these pages, scientific images are explored as experimental devices (in laboratories), as ... [more ▼]

This book is intended to answer the question "What role and impact do images have in scientific research?". In these pages, scientific images are explored as experimental devices (in laboratories), as instruments of proof (in mathematical logic), as argumentation (in dissemination literature), and in their interactions with other fields, like art and aesthetics. Epistemologists and language scientists will find methodologies that can be used to study the relation between images and knowledge; and scientific imaging experts will find their visualization practices being questioned in all their unique aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to correctly determine the kinetics of a photocatalytic degradation reaction?
Pirard, Sophie ULg; Malengreaux, Charline ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2014), 249

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See detailHow Does Your Formulation of Lesion-Induced States of Diminished Consciousness Fit with AIM? Do You Suppose That Brain Stem Damage Affects Activation (A) and Modulation (M)?
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in J. Allan Hobson, Nicholas Tranquillo (Ed.) Dream Consciousness: A New Approach to the Brain and Its Mind (2014)

Allan Hobson’s AIM model (Hobson, 1998) is build according to three main dimensions. The first component, Activation, describes brain’s activation processes and is closely linked to the level of ... [more ▼]

Allan Hobson’s AIM model (Hobson, 1998) is build according to three main dimensions. The first component, Activation, describes brain’s activation processes and is closely linked to the level of consciousness. According to the model, the brain is highly active in wakefulness and REM sleep but will show much less activity during NREM sleep. The second component, Input/output gateway, controls the inhibition of external stimuli. When slowly falling asleep, the gateway shuts down and inhibits the external stimuli; the brain is no longer involved in processing external perceptions. Then the brain starts its oniric phase and the focus switches to internal inputs. Finally, the third dimension, Modulation, refers to the different ways of cognitive processing (executive functions), judgment, volition and memory. According to the model, those cognitive processes are lacking in REM sleep (i.e., the brain cannot keep a record of its conscious experience during dreaming as opposed to waking state) because of the changes between the aminergic system (norepinephrine and serotonin; dominant in waking but ineffective in REM sleep) and the cholinergic system (acetylcholine; unfettered in REM sleep). These three dimensions maintain a dynamic and reciprocal interaction over the sleep-wake cycle’s variations (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) and each of them can be expressed with lower or higher intensities depending on the level of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailA quantitative analysis of the effect of flexible loads on reserve markets
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) (2014, August)

We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be ... [more ▼]

We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be compensated later by a modulation of the same magnitude in the opposite direction. Our analysis takes into account the gaming possibilities of producers and retailers, controlling load flexibility, in the day-ahead energy and reserve markets, and in imbalance settlement. This analysis is carried out by an agent-based approach where, for every round, each actor uses linear programs to maximize its profit according to forecasts of the prices. The procurement of a reserve is assumed to be determined, for each period, as a fixed percentage of the total consumption cleared in the energy market for the same period. The results show that the provision of reserves by flexible loads has a negligible impact on the energy market prices but markedly decreases the cost of reserve procurement. However, as the rate of flexible loads increases, the system operator has to rely more and more on non-contracted reserves, which may cancel out the benefits made in the procurement of reserves. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en réseau des acteurs, des activités et des produits touristiques dans les chefferies de l’Ouest -Cameroun
Lekane Tsobgou, Dieudonné ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bokwa, Anita (Ed.) Changes, Challenges, Responsability. IGU 2014 Book of Abstracts (2014, August)

Cette recherche propose comme défis a relever, d’élaborer des dispositifs, des outils et la méthodologie de mise en réseau dans le secteur du tourisme dans les Chefferies de l'Ouest du Cameroun. La ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche propose comme défis a relever, d’élaborer des dispositifs, des outils et la méthodologie de mise en réseau dans le secteur du tourisme dans les Chefferies de l'Ouest du Cameroun. La communication discute des logiques (construit processuel) de la mise en réseau d’acteurs, d’activités et de ressources territoriales dans un circuit touristique [less ▲]

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See detailSpatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera) on domestic small mammals in the city of Cotonou, Benin
Houménou, Gualbert; Kassa, Barthélemy; Libois, Roland ULg

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2014), 80

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of ... [more ▼]

Objectives: A survey of domestic small mammals and their associated fleas was conducted in Cotonou during the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of small mammals in the transmission of anthropozoonosis. Methodology and Results: A total of 1,402 domestic small mammals were captured in 54 stations using methods following Houémenou (2006). The most abundant small mammals were, Rattus rattus (black rat) (63.7%), Mastomys sp. (multimammate rat) (11.84%), Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) (11.48%) and Crocidura olivieri (7.85%). Among these rodents, 364 individuals were found with ectoparasites and 886 fleas were collected (flea index 0.63), the most common flea being Xenopsylla cheopis (rat flea) (97.2%). This species was found in all areas of the city and infested all small mammal species. The Pulicidae prevalence (26%) howed important variations, with relatively low and significantly higher prevalence during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Conclusions and application of findings: Small mammal community in Cotonou was dominated by Rattus rattus and fleas by Xenopsylla cheopis. Due to the presence of a seaport of paramount importance, Cotonou town was not away from importation by sea transport of zoonotic rats (shelter ships calling at the port of Cotonou, from all continents). To date, in Cotonou there is lacking information on pathogenic agents hosted by the small mammals and their ectoparasites. Therefore, awareness of the authorities on the zoonotic risk of small mammals for the human population is necessary. The authorities of the Port Autonome de Cotonou must increase the screening of ships, which arrive at Cotonou to avoid zoonotic rodent importation. The Ministry of Human Health in Benin must sensitize the populations at high risk of the rodent transmitted diseases. Further studies are needed to detect the different animal reservoirs of these pathogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytosanitary treatment of European pallets by microwave: developing a program to ensure compliance with ISPM 15 and monitoring its efficacy on the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.)
Henin, Jean-Marc; Leyman, Michael; Bauduin, Aline et al

in European Journal of Wood and Wood Products (2014)

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if ... [more ▼]

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if a temperature higher than 60 °C is maintained for 60 s across the entire profile of the board (i.e. 60 °C/60 s). A study using pallet boards was carried out in order to set up a treatment program that would meet ISPM 15 requirements in terms of wood temperature and insect mortality. A 4 m-long industrial tunnel oven (maximum power of 28.8 kW) was used to carry out the experiments. Temperature was measured by means of a VarioCAM® infrared camera. The most relevant results we found were: (i) achieving a temperature of 63.2 °C (Populus sp.) or 64.8 °C (Pinus sylvestris L.) on the upper surface of 22 mm-thick boards enabled compliance with FAO requirements (i.e. 60 °C/60 s), whatever the moisture content, basic density and initial temperature of the wood (provided the latter exceeded 0 °C); (ii) larvae >150 mg represented the most microwave-resistant life stage of Hylotrupes bajulus L.; (iii) the mortality rate of the larvae was influenced by the moisture content of the boards. Using the Gompertz model, we estimated the upper surface temperature that would be needed to achieve a 99.99683% mortality rate (the Probit 9 mortality level of efficacy) for the most microwave-resistant life stage of H. bajulus. This temperature was estimated to be 46.8 °C and 57 °C for wood with >50 and <25% moisture content, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of patient's voice quality for T1A glottis carcinoma after endoscopic laser surgery or radiotherapy
Poncelet, Mélanie; DEMEZ, Pierre ULg; Moreau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, July 30)

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See detailAlgorithmic and Computational Advances for Fast Power System Dynamic Simulations
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE PES General Meeting (2014, July 30)

In this paper, some algorithmic and computational advances are presented for power system dynamic simulations. The heart is a Schur-complement-based solution algorithm, stemming from domain decomposition ... [more ▼]

In this paper, some algorithmic and computational advances are presented for power system dynamic simulations. The heart is a Schur-complement-based solution algorithm, stemming from domain decomposition methods, applied to the differential-algebraic equation model. This algorithm is then accelerated computationally, by employing parallel computing techniques, and numerically, by exploiting time-scale decomposition and localization. Models of a real medium-scale system and a realistic large-scale test system are used for the performance evaluation of the proposed methods. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae)
Boyle, Kelly; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014), 281

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See detailNeoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer induces miR-34a and miR-122 expression
FRERES, Pierre ULg; JOSSE, Claire ULg; Bovy, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (2014)

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we ... [more ▼]

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we describe the modifications of circulating miRNAs profile after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. The expression of 188 circulating miRNAs was assessed in the plasma of 25 patients before and after NAC by RT-qPCR. Two miRNAs, miR- 34a and miR-122, that were significantly increased after NAC, were measured in tumor tissue before and after chemotherapy in 7 patients with pathological partial response (pPR) to NAC. These 2 chemotherapy-induced miRNAs were further studied in the plasma of 22 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) as well as in 12 patients who did not receive any chemotherapy. Twenty-five plasma miRNAs were modified by NAC. Among these miRNAs, miR-34a and miR-122 were highly upregulated, notably in pPR patients with aggressive breast cancer. Furthermore, miR-34a level was elevated in the remaining tumor tissue after NAC treatment. Studying the kinetics of circulating miR-34a and miR-122 expression during NAC revealed that their levels were especially increased after anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Comparisons of the plasma miRNA profiles after NAC and AC suggested that chemotherapy-induced miRNAs originated from both tumoral and non-tumoral compartments. This study is the first to demonstrate that NAC specifically induces miRNA expression in plasma and tumor tissue, which might be involved in the anti-tumor effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNew carbohydrate-active enzymes identified by screening two metagenomic libraries derived from the soil of a winter wheat field
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2014)

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing ... [more ▼]

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing two metagenomic DNA libraries from soil samples collected in winter and spring from a field of winter wheat. Methods and Results Both libraries were screened on esculin-supplemented medium so as to isolate candidates showing β-glucosidase activity. Candidate analysis revealed seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases, displaying 25 to 82% identity to known enzymes. The putative β-glycosidases belong to families GH1, GH3 and GH20 and the two putative glycosyltransferases, probably, to new families. In characterization tests performed on bacteria in suspension or spread on agar plates, some candidates appeared to hydrolyse several natural and synthetic substrates. These tests also highlighted interesting industrial characteristics, such as the activity of four β-glycosidases under alkaline conditions and the esculin-hydrolysing activity of a β-glucosidase candidate in the presence of glucose. Conclusions Seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases were found by functional screening of two metagenomic DNA libraries derived from agricultural soil. Significance and Impact of the Study This study has identified β-glycosidases and putative glycosyltransferases that have or may have interesting industrial characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailJamming Signal Immunity Tests on GSM-R Communications Compared to EMC Basic Standards
Beauvois, Véronique ULg; Fontana, Michele; Canavero, Flavio et al

Conference (2014, July 29)

This paper presents the work being done in SECRET project (European Program FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement number “285136”) to strengthen the European rail network against the potential jamming of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the work being done in SECRET project (European Program FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement number “285136”) to strengthen the European rail network against the potential jamming of the railway communications. Standardized immunity tests, currently conducted on communication equipment in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interferences are presented. It then presents the tests carried out in SECRET to assess the resistance of railway communication systems face the signals generated by telecommunication jammers. [less ▲]

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