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See detailRegain of fitness through in vitro replication for a recombinant murine norovirus
de Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson; Ludwig, Louisa ULg; Toffoli, Barbara et al

Poster (2016, March 18)

INTRODUCTION Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in viruses, allowing for complete ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Recombination can create considerable changes in viruses, allowing for complete antigenic shifts, host jumps and fitness and pathogenesis modifications. Mathijs et al. recently isolated a viable recombinant murine norovirus (RecMNV) in vitro after coinfection of two parental MNV strains (MNV1-CW1 and -WU20) in a mouse leukaemic monocyte-macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The ensuing RecMNV possessed reduced in vitro fitness compared to its parental strains but has also been shown to have retained in vivo infectivity (Mathijs et al, submitted). The aim of this study was to follow the replicative and genetic adaptations of RecMNV over serial in vitro passages in order to characterise its capability of replicative fitness adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RecMNV was serially replicated in vitro in monolayers of RAW 264.7 cells over ten passages. Following a first initial infection at an MOI of 0.05, cell layers were consecutively infected with 100 μl neat supernatant of the preceding passage. Two independent lysis plaque assays were performed in triplicate with RecMNV progenies resulting from the first (early) and tenth (late) passage (RecE and RecL). Viral plaque sizes of RecE and RecL were measured with image processing program Image J and statistical analyses of plaque size diameters were subsequently performed. To obtain the complete genome sequences of RecE and RecL, a sequencing strategy was developed in which the MNV genome was divided into seven regions and amplification was performed using overlapping primers. Nucleotide sequences of RecE and RecL were analysed via BioEdit Sequence Editor. Growth curves of RecE and RecL progenies were established for high (10) or low MOI (0.01). RESULTS After ten in vitro passages, viral lysis plaque size diameters had increased significantly. Molecular analysis of RecMNV and both parental strains showed nine nucleotide mutations in the RecMNV genome, comprising three non-silent mutations. In addition, a mutation at position 7245 (A187G) introduced a stop codon, resulting in a 20 AA shorter VP2 in RecMNV (for both RecE and RecL). A comparison of RecE and RecL revealed four non-silent mutations in the NS1-2 and NS7 region of ORF1, two of which were present in the latter region (G1384D and S1393N). DISCUSSION This is the first study in which the fitness of a recombinant NoV strain was evaluated in vitro. Our data provides evidence of viral adaptation to a new environment (here a cell culture system) after a recombination event. Evidence of gain-of-function of RecMNV was demonstrated by differences in growth curves and viral lysis plaque size. In addition, non-silent mutations associated to the gain-of-function/in vitro adaptation were detected. It is noteworthy, that the mutation causing a shorter VP2 in RecE and RecL did not compromise its ability to infect and replicate either in vitro or in vivo (Mathijs et al, submitted). As a perspective we should like to characterise the precise mutation(s) responsible for the fitness regain via infectious clone assay. [less ▲]

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See detailLes libéraux belges et le national-socialisme (1933-1945)
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference (2016, March 18)

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See detailChecklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four and three new records
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr et al

in Zootaxa (2016), 4092(4)

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the ... [more ▼]

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection versus familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment: Impact of test format
Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 18)

Objectives. Memory retrieval typically involves a combination of recollection and familiarity. However, test format can promote one or the other process (Norman & O’Reilly, 2003). The aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Memory retrieval typically involves a combination of recollection and familiarity. However, test format can promote one or the other process (Norman & O’Reilly, 2003). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of test format on recollection and familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods. Seventy young participants (18-30 years), 65 “younger-old” (55- 69 years), 53 “older-old” (70-85 years), and 13 MCIs (55-82 years) were enrolled. In the “forced-choice” task, they had to recognize which picture, among three, was presented during the encoding stage. In the “yes/no” task, they had to judge whether each item, successively presented, was previously seen or not. In each task, they had to give a “Remember/Know/Guess” judgment. Results. Group × Format repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that young people had better recognition performance (d’) than “younger-old”, which were better than “older-old” and MCIs. Moreover, young people used familiarity more accurately than both groups of old participants and MCIs, with MCIs being equivalent to “younger-old” and “older-old”. However, MCIs displayed a high rate of familiarity-based false alarms. The resort to recollection decreased with age and in MCIs. Finally, Group × Format interaction revealed that young people (but not the other groups) could use recollection more often in the “forcedchoice” task compared to the “yes/no” task. Conclusions. Recollection and familiarity decline progressively in healthy aging. In MCI, recollection is more affected than familiarity, but patients demonstrated a more liberal use of familiarity. Finally, test format did not influence strongly the results. [less ▲]

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See detailL’artiste commissaire dans son histoire et son actualité
Bawin, Julie ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 18)

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See detail“Everything was losing definition and outline”: Re-membering Trauma Fiction in Gail Jones’s Sorry
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

Conference (2016, March 18)

In an article, Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones confesses of her novel Sorry that it has “a political-allegorical aspect – as one would expect, claiming such a title” (2008, 79). Published in ... [more ▼]

In an article, Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones confesses of her novel Sorry that it has “a political-allegorical aspect – as one would expect, claiming such a title” (2008, 79). Published in 2007, that is, one year prior to the formal apology delivered by the Australian government to the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, Sorry engages in a reflection on the ethics of reconciliation. Written in response to Jones’s wish to acknowledge the debt to the Stolen Generations, the novel also offers new possibilities of ethical mourning, allowing the dead to return and the voiceless to speak. My paper will seek to explore the ways in which Jones draws on trauma fiction to bypass not only the unsayable dimension of Australia’s history and what she elsewhere criticises as the trauma model’s “transferential gesture of victim surrogacy” symptomatic of postcolonising settler cultures (2004, 162) but also the representational difficulties inherent in trauma. Moreover, it is by introducing into her novel the concept of traumatic time, “a time that is broken, and […] recursive” (qtd. in Block 2008) and which mirrors on the level of form and structure the effects that trauma exerts on its victims, that Jones she recreates a narrative model that echoes an Australian discourse pre-dating the Bringing Them Home report – that is tinged with amnesia, fragmented memories, and silence –, against which she will assert her own counter-discourse. Works Cited: - Block, Summer. 09 May 2008. “Interview: Gail Jones.” Interview. January Magazine. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. - Jones, Gail. 2004. “Sorry-in-the-Sky: Empathetic Unsettlement, Mourning, and the Stolen Generations.” In Imagining Australia: Literature and Culture in the New New World, edited by Judith Ryan and Chris Wallace-Crabbe, 159-171. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. - Jones, Gail. 2007. Sorry. London: Harvill Secker. - Jones, Gail. 2008. “Speaking Shadows: Justice and the Poetic.” In Just Words?: Australian Authors Writing for Justice, edited by Bernadette Brennan, 76-86. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press. [less ▲]

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See detailMarker et mémoire
Pieron, Julien ULg

Conference (2016, March 18)

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See detailÉcrire (malgré) l'espace aéré. Yves Berger et Edward Abbey au seuil du parc national américain
Di Gregorio, Luca ULg

Conference (2016, March 18)

Edward Abbey et Yves Berger ont nourri l’essentiel de leurs œuvres de leur fascination commune pour l’Ouest américain : plus spécifiquement pour la région du Grand Bassin et le pays des canyons – pays de ... [more ▼]

Edward Abbey et Yves Berger ont nourri l’essentiel de leurs œuvres de leur fascination commune pour l’Ouest américain : plus spécifiquement pour la région du Grand Bassin et le pays des canyons – pays de sable et de grès, pays minéral, sidéral, qui concentre plusieurs des plus fameux parcs naturels des États-Unis. Mais si leur passion s’attache au même objet d’élection – les paysages sublimes du Sud-Ouest –, l’un et l’autre divergent par les voies qu’ils empruntent et les points de vue d’où ils se postent pour le goûter, et surtout pour en rendre compte par l’écriture. En effet, un Océan entier sépare leurs positions vis-à-vis de la nature américaine – mais pas uniquement : chacun représente aussi, pour son pays respectif, une bonne part de l’ethos et de l’habitus qui y valorise d’ordinaire l’écrivain. Ancien ranger saisonnier, Abbey est un écrivain activiste et baroudeur, s’affichant en prise directe avec le terrain, tandis que Berger, protagoniste influent du milieu littéraro-éditorial parisien, rêve d’Amérique en même temps qu’il siège parmi les jurés du Goncourt. En première analyse donc, rien, hormis une vague parenté de génération et un goût du Nouveau Monde, ne justifierait l’association de deux écrivains aussi éloignés l’un de l’autre. Mais nonobstant ce gouffre sociogéographique, ce qui, en dernière analyse, rapproche nos deux auteurs, réside dans l’obstacle commun qui perturbe leur abord de l’Amérique sauvage: le National Park Service et son immense réseau d’espaces aérés naturels, quadrillant, pour les protéger (et les promouvoir), les plus fameux paysages de l’Ouest. Là où Abbey rejoint Berger, et réciproquement, c’est dans cette façon de mal assumer l’importun isolant phénoménologique qu’est le parc, d’éprouver une nette complication à écrire et ressentir la Nature au travers de son interférence. Phénomène non-naturel par excellence, ce seuil que pose le parcage leur pose, à eux, un lourd problème, puisqu’il leur renvoie la part d’impossible du rapport qu’ils désirent cultiver avec le Grand Ouest. Là encore cependant, même cet « impossible » se manifeste différemment à chacun. Comment, pour le ranger Abbey, évoquer une intimité native avec le cosmos en dépit du cadenassage institutionnel dont il est partie prenante? Comment, pour le Français Berger, passer dignement en Amérique à la façon d’un vrai voyageur, en évitant de rendre l’effet d’un touriste anonyme, téléguidé par le balisage et la signalétique du parc naturel ? Heurtant le désir d’immanence à la wilderness de l’un, le parc compromet aussi l’aspiration au voyage authentique de l’autre : tel est le « problème » du parc, dont on analysera ici quelques symptômes et solutions poétiques au sein de deux œuvres ayant pour cadre la région des Four Corners1 : l’incontournable Desert Solitaire (1968) d’Abbey, véritable bible du Nature Writing en Amérique, dialoguera ainsi avec La Pierre et le Saguaro (Prix de la langue française, 1990) d’Yves Berger. Mais préalablement, et alors que le National Park Service fête cette année son centenaire, il convient de faire un rapide point théorique et phénoménologique sur ce qu’implique et recouvre l’objet culturel « parc américain ». [less ▲]

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See detailImmobile and Trapped Populations
Zickgraf, Caroline ULg; Perrin, Nathalie ULg

in Gemenne, François; Ionesco, Dina; Mokhnacheva, Daria (Eds.) The Atlas of Environmental Migration (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (9 ULg)
See detailCore Content Classification in General Practice Family medicine (3CGP) The Q-Codes user guide
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

user guide and general explanation pages for the Q-codes, a classification of managerial issues in General Practice / Family Medicine

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See detailLa Province au défi de la Sixième réforme de l'État
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference (2016, March 17)

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See detailLa société rend-elle les jeux vidéo violents ?
Delbouille, Julie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Cette communication revient sur la construction et l'évolution des différents discours associés au jeu vidéo dans l'espace médiatique : évoquant l'importance de la rhétorique médicale dans la seconde ... [more ▼]

Cette communication revient sur la construction et l'évolution des différents discours associés au jeu vidéo dans l'espace médiatique : évoquant l'importance de la rhétorique médicale dans la seconde moitié des années 80, elle s'attarde sur l'émergence des thématiques de la violence et de l'addiction au cours des années 90, ainsi que sur le récent développement d'un discours sur le jeu vidéo en tant qu'objet culturel, patrimonial, et artistique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Bullshit Abstract: From Critique to Reflexive Practice
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg; Claisse, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2016, March 17)

Academics use the abstract to summarize and communicate a research paper’s focus, methods, findings, and conclusions. However, not all abstracts are convincing. Many are bland, uninspired, or outright ... [more ▼]

Academics use the abstract to summarize and communicate a research paper’s focus, methods, findings, and conclusions. However, not all abstracts are convincing. Many are bland, uninspired, or outright stupid, as authors do not always know what they want to say or how to communicate complex research in the space of a few hundred words. They hence often convey the kind of “intelligent stupidity,” which Robert Musil (1937) said could hardly be “distinguished from talent, progress, hope or improvement.” By implication, abstracts are prone to contain and perpetuate “academic bullshit” (Frankfurt 2005), broadly understood as forms of academic expression that meet the stylistic academic standards but generate content that is deceptive, doubtful, or irrelevant. Taking this inherent disposition towards bullshit in the academic abstract as its entry point, this paper presents ten self-authored “bullshit abstracts,” which draw inspiration from various academic fields. Far from denouncing bullshit outright, it acknowledges the inevitable character of bullshit in academic writing (Eubanks and Schaeffer 2008). It urges academics to reflexively consider, and perform, their roles as researchers and writers in view of the challenges they face today, such as reputation management and the pressure in academia to publish or perish; and their complete lack of sensitivity to the odorous aspects of writing. [less ▲]

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See detail"Parcours fléchés. Seuils et traversées dans l'œuvre de Marc-Antoine Mathieu"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2016, March 17)

Cette communication se propose d'étudier "Sens" (2014), le dernier album du dessinateur français Marc-Antoine Mathieu. Plus spécifiquement, il s'agissait, conformément au thème directeur du Congrès de St ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se propose d'étudier "Sens" (2014), le dernier album du dessinateur français Marc-Antoine Mathieu. Plus spécifiquement, il s'agissait, conformément au thème directeur du Congrès de St. Louis, d'examiner l'œuvre de Mathieu sous l'angle de son dispositif péritextuel (première de couverture, prologue, couverture intérieure). [less ▲]

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See detailIn-tune versus out-of-tune: On the perception of pitch accuracy
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Speech/Talk (2016)

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