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See detailOptimising workforce and energy costs by exploiting production flexibility
Cuvelier, Thibaut ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg

Conference (2017, July)

In a world where the electricity prices become more and more volatile, notably due to renewable energies, the industry is suffering from cost variations never seen before, especially when electro ... [more ▼]

In a world where the electricity prices become more and more volatile, notably due to renewable energies, the industry is suffering from cost variations never seen before, especially when electro-intensive. Nevertheless, the plants can significantly reduce this impact: some electro-intensive factories could shift their production to time periods where the electricity is cheaper, resulting in large savings. At the same time, the grid operator can remunerate this consumption adaptation as a flexibility service. Our research goal is to optimise the operations of a factory around this flexibility. We compute a production plan that adapts to price forecasts, but also flexibility levers that adjust this plan to react to unexpected price changes. We propose the unifying concept of reservoir to provide sufficiently good models for the plant's processes. Nevertheless, this methodology implies to have frequent production plan changes, which directly impacts the workers, as they may be asked to follow barely predictable schedules. This has a significant detrimental effect on their quality of life. As a consequence, the human aspect of flexibility must also be considered: we seek for production plans that consider both workforce and energy costs, and we then assign workers to work shifts while ensuring their well-being. This HR orientation is the most innovative contribution of this research project. [less ▲]

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See detailThe question of the methane increase through the retrieval of its isotopologues from FTIR ground-based observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Strong, Kimberley; Walker, Kaley

Poster (2017, July)

Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted by human activities in the Earth’s atmosphere. Although it is roughly 200 times less abundant than carbon dioxide, it is a 28 times more ... [more ▼]

Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted by human activities in the Earth’s atmosphere. Although it is roughly 200 times less abundant than carbon dioxide, it is a 28 times more potent greenhouse gas. Approximately one fifth of the changes in the Earth’s balance energy caused by human-linked greenhouse gases since the beginning of industrialization (~1750) is due to methane. Methane is emitted by both natural sources and human activities. Indeed, methane can be emitted to the atmosphere through coal mining, oil and gas exploitation, rice cultures, domestic ruminant animals, biomass burning, waste management, wetlands, termites, methane hydrates and ocean. Since the beginning of the industrialization, atmospheric methane concentrations have increased by 260% to reach 1824 pbb in 2013. From the 1980s until the beginning of the 1990s, atmospheric methane was significantly on the rise, then stabilized during 1999-2006 to rise again afterwards. To this day, the source or sink responsible of this latter increase remains unexplained. Through each emission process, heavy molecules of methane (with one additional neutron either on a carbon or on one hydrogen atom) are emitted along methane (12CH4). The main heavy molecules of methane, called isotopologues (13CH4 and CH3D), are respectively ~110 and ~60 000 times less abundant than methane. Despite their small abundances, they give crucial information on the concentration of methane in the atmosphere and its evolution. Indeed, both isotopologues are emitted with specific emission ratio depending on the emission sources. Determining isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane is therefore a unique tracer of its budget. While the non-monotonous trend of methane is subject of an extensive number of studies, to our knowledge, no study of the isotopic ratio of methane derived from ground-based solar observations has been published to date. Measurements of heavy methane from Fourier Transform InfraRed spectra recorded with state of the art spectrometers installed at Eureka [Arctic, Canada] and Toronto [Ontario, Canada] will help fill this gap. Indeed, the produced time series will ease data interpretation and contribute to a global view of the question of isotopologues. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système semencier en question
Hecquet, Corentin ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailFunctional refractory molds for metal casting built by additive manufacturing
Bister, Geoffroy; Hautcoeur, Dominique; Deschuyteneer, Dorian et al

Conference (2017, July)

Additive manufacturing is more and more used in the field of industry. This technique is notably employed in investment casting process in order to build cores and models. Nevertheless investment casting ... [more ▼]

Additive manufacturing is more and more used in the field of industry. This technique is notably employed in investment casting process in order to build cores and models. Nevertheless investment casting remains not cost effective in case of prototypes and very small series due to the quite large amount time needed to build and dry the molds. Additive manufacturing may also be used to directly shape metal parts but several problems are still linked to this technique as the presence of local defects in parts and the limitation of the number of metal or alloy available for this technique on the market. We propose an intermediate method that permits to build directly molds and cores by additive manufacturing using equipment initially dedicated to build metal parts. This method presents the main advantage to cast with a large variety of metals or alloys using a single ceramic material and only one set of building conditions. The properties of the casted parts are very similar with those produced by investment casting. This technique also permits the unique advantage to control the design of the shell thickness and structure in order to have a better control of the thermal fluxes during metal cooling. This would potentially ensure a better control of some casting defects. The use of alumina processed by selective laser melting (SLM) is shown and its outstanding resistance to temperature differential is demonstrated through casting trials with two diffferent representative alloys. Casting trials in industrial conditions will be illustrated. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium : Foreign Law in Belgian Courts -From Theory to Practice
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Nishitani, Yuko (Ed.) Treatment of Foreign Law – Dynamics towards Convergence ? (2017)

Cette contribution, rédigée initialement à l'occasion du Congrès de l'Académie internationale de droit comparé de Vienne en 2014, esquisse le régime du droit étranger dans la pratique belge. Elle a comme ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution, rédigée initialement à l'occasion du Congrès de l'Académie internationale de droit comparé de Vienne en 2014, esquisse le régime du droit étranger dans la pratique belge. Elle a comme objectif de révéler la tension qui existe entre le statut théorique fort généreux qu'occupe le droit étranger en droit international privé belge et l'application en pratique de ce droit. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome after tracheal resection and anastomosis for correction of a tracheal stenosis in a sport pony
Salciccia, Alexandra ULg; Roose, Charlotte; Joostens, Zoé ULg et al

Poster (2017, July)

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report our experience using tracheal resection and anastomosis to treat a severe trauma-induced tracheal stenosis (< 1 cm diameter of lumen) involving 2 tracheal rings causing a loud respiratory noise at rest in a 14 y.o. event pony. Methods: The pony was trained to wear a martingale preoperatively. Before the surgery, a distal tracheotomy was performed for placement of the tracheal tube for maintenance of gaseous anaesthesia. Through a 35 cm ventral midline cervical incision, the trachea was exposed and separated from adjacent tissues. Stay sutures were placed in tracheal cartilage adjacent to the segment to be removed. The 2 tracheal rings involved in the stricture were subsequently removed. On both remaining segments of the trachea, the mucosa was turned back over the open end and sutured to the adventitia. The head was then flexed and tracheal ends were apposed using 5 stainless steel wires placed equidistantly around the trachea without mucosal penetration. The anastomosis was completed by a simple continuous suture of resorbable material on the adventitia. A closed suction drain was applied in the soft tissue before routine closure of the subcutaneous and cutaneous layers. The martingale was applied before the recovery from anaesthesia, which was uneventful. The tracheotomy tube and the suction drain were left in place for 48h. The martingale was removed after 3 weeks. The pony was discharged 1 month after surgery. Control endoscopies were performed during hospitalisation and at 7, 10, 17, 21 and 30 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Results: A moderate cicatrix recurred. The excessive tissue was injected with triamcinolone and then with 4% formaldehyde during the first endoscopies and remained stable thereafter. Some stainless steel cerclages broke and displaced slightly. This caused the formation of a self-resolving seroma caudally to the trachea. A moderate respiratory noise was still audible at low-intensity work, which was resumed 4 months postoperatively. However, work was stopped before achieving the preoperative level because the pony developed a lameness. Conclusions: Although a moderate tracheal cicatrix recurred after surgery, tracheal resection and anastomosis clearly improved the quality of life of this pony. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the modelling of coupled hydro-mechanical behaviour of interfaces for offshore foundations
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Rasmussen, Amalie (Ed.) Marine Engineering: Emerging Developments and Global Challenges (2017)

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See detailEarly detection of university students with potential difficulties
Hoffait, Anne-Sophie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg

Conference (2017, July)

Using data mining methods, this paper presents a new means of identifying freshmen's profiles likely to face major difficulties to complete their first academic year. We aim at early detection of ... [more ▼]

Using data mining methods, this paper presents a new means of identifying freshmen's profiles likely to face major difficulties to complete their first academic year. We aim at early detection of potential failure using student data available at registration, i.e. school records and environmental factors, with a view to timely and efficient remediation and/or study reorientation. We adapt three data mining methods, namely random forest, logistic regression and artificial neural network algorithms. We design algorithms to increase the accuracy of the prediction when some classes are of major interest. These algorithms are context independent and can be used in different fields. They rely on a dynamic split of the observations into subclasses during the training process, so as to maximize an accuracy criterion. Four classes are so built: high risk of failure, risk of failure, expected success or high probability of success. Real data pertaining to undergraduates at the University of Liège (Belgium), illustrates our methodology. With our approach, we are now able to identify with a high rate of confidence (90%) a subset of 12.2% of students facing a very high risk of failure, almost the quadruple of those identified with a non-dynamic approach. By testing some confidence levels, our approach makes it possible to rank the students by levels of risk and a sensitivity analysis allows us to find out why some students are likely to encounter difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailGood practices in adapted physical activity for cancer patients and survivors: opinion of the Raviva program participants
Rompen, Jérôme ULg; Scharff, Jules; Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2017, July)

Introduction The Belgian Foundation against Cancer proposes an adapted physical activity (APA) program for cancer patients and survivors, called Raviva (http://www.cancer.be/raviva-bouger-pour-se-sentir ... [more ▼]

Introduction The Belgian Foundation against Cancer proposes an adapted physical activity (APA) program for cancer patients and survivors, called Raviva (http://www.cancer.be/raviva-bouger-pour-se-sentir-mieux).The activities are supervised by instructors with inconstant trainings and experiences. Contrary to other countries, Belgian APA instructors do not necessarily need to follow specific education programs such those proposed by the ACSM (Schmitz et al., 2010) or other organizations that propose exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to identify good practices in APA for cancer patients and survivors concerning activity characteristics and instructors behaviors, from the point of view of the Raviva program participants. Methods Firstly, an online questionnaire was submitted to Raviva participants; 72 of them filled it in. Secondly, 3 video-stimulated recall interviews were conducted after 3 different Raviva sessions (fitness, yoga and aqua-aerobics), each time with another participant. Results and discussion The sessions characteristics that participants like the most are related to the choice and quality of the proposed exercises (22% of responses) and to the perceived benefits of the activities (20%). The most appreciated qualities for an instructor are related to his/her human qualities (43%) and his/her expertise (32%). What participants like least about the sessions is a poor organization (27%) and what they like least about the instructors is linked to bad choices of exercises (18%). The video-stimulated recall interviews confirmed these data and provided more precision. Finally, we noticed that differences in responses were observed depending on the type of activity participants took part in. These findings could help instructors adapt their practices to their participants’ needs in order to promote adherence to physical activity among this population. References Schmitz, K. H., Courneya, K. S., Matthews, C., Demark-Wahnefried, W., Galvão, D. a, Pinto, B. M., … Schwartz, A. L. (2010). American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(7), 1409‑26. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e0c112 [less ▲]

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See detailAntarctic sea ice trophic status
Van der Linden, Fanny ULg; Moreau, Sébastien; Champenois, Willy ULg et al

Poster (2017, July)

The sea ice ecosystem is characterized by steep gradients in temperature, salinity, light and nutrient availability. Despite these challenging environmental conditions, sea ice provides a dynamic habitat ... [more ▼]

The sea ice ecosystem is characterized by steep gradients in temperature, salinity, light and nutrient availability. Despite these challenging environmental conditions, sea ice provides a dynamic habitat for diverse communities of microorganisms. These communities include a wide variety of organisms from different taxonomic groups such as algae, bacteria, heterotrophic protists, fungi as well as viruses [Horner et al., 1992; Deming, 2010; Thomas and Dieckmann, 2010; Poulin et al., 2011]. In the frame of the YROSIAE project (Year-Round survey of Ocean-Sea-Ice-Atmosphere Exchanges), carried out at Cape Evans in McMurdo Sound (Antarctica) from Nov. 2011 to Dec. 2012, ice cores, seawater, and brine material were collected at regular time intervals. Physical properties (salinity, temperature, texture) and biogeochemical parameters (pCO2, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, macro-nutrients) were analysed. We will here particularly consider changes inused dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) , used as a proxiesy of net community production and autotrophic biomass, respectively. A high spatial and temporal variability in ice algal biomass and DIC evolution were observed. From spring, very high chl-a concentrations (>2400μg.L^(-1)) were observed at the bottom of the ice, a common feature of land fast ice in the McMurdo Sound. This suggests high primary production. However Strikingly, , at the same time, nutrients at the bottom of the ice increased significantly suggesting high heterotrophyremineralisation. In the middle of the ice column, evolution of DIC is was marked by a succession of autotrophic and heterotrophic phases. The overall increase of DIC suggests that the ice interior was rather heterotroph. Such sea ice system should expel CO2. Yet, strong under-saturation in CO2 and DIC depletion appeared at the ice surface, suggesting that sea ice was taking up CO2 from the atmosphere. On the whole, land fast sea ice in McMurdo Sound appears as a puzzling ecosystem. It is able to support elevated growth of autotrophic organisms at the bottom, but still appears to be heterotrophicin parallel to high remineralization, while the top of the ice appears to be rather heterotrophic but stilland able to pump CO2 from the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of endophytic entomopathogenic fungus on plant attractivity in aphid-virus-plant interactions
Fingu Mabola, Junior Corneille ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Boullis, Antoine ULg et al

Poster (2017, July)

Endophytic entomopathogenic fungi (EEPF) are biological control agents able to live in their host plants in a symbiotic interaction and secrete secondary metabolites in the host plant tissues interacting ... [more ▼]

Endophytic entomopathogenic fungi (EEPF) are biological control agents able to live in their host plants in a symbiotic interaction and secrete secondary metabolites in the host plant tissues interacting with pests and phytopathogenic agents like plants virus. This is the case of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) transmitted by the Bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus) and the Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius). This virus is one of the most economically important phytoviruses affecting major world cereal crops such as wheat, rice and corn, causing significant yield losses. In this study, we investigated the influence of EEPF presence in the plant tissues on the vector’s orientation preference by considering the insect virus-infection status. We performed a choice test in Petri dishes and collection of volatile compounds emitted by plants. The impact of these interactions between plant-fungi-virus is finally discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLanguage and analogical reasoning in children with Specific Language Impairment: The effect of articulatory suppression
Krzemien, Magali ULg; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Stoffels, Valentine ULg et al

Poster (2017, July)

Analogical reasoning shares a mutual influence with language development: analogical reasoning is improved by labelling analogical items with words describing the relations that they contain. Conversely ... [more ▼]

Analogical reasoning shares a mutual influence with language development: analogical reasoning is improved by labelling analogical items with words describing the relations that they contain. Conversely, structural alignment, a core mechanism of analogical reasoning, allows the acquisition of novel words and the development of grammar (Gentner, 2010). Given those findings, some authors have taken interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, and specifically of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Those children have worse performance than their age-matched peers without language disorders in linguistic or non-linguistic analogical tasks (Leroy, Maillart, & Parisse, 2014). Our aim here is to see if this weakness is due to their language disorders and if they use the same verbal strategies as their peers to solve an analogical task. To experience these assumptions, we use a perceptual analogical task following an A:B::C:D paradigm: participants have to find the relation between two geometric forms A and B and to apply it to the C term in order to find the D term among distractors. The distractors either share perceptual features with the C term, what creates a competition that shall be inhibited, or not. Moreover, children are faced with three interfering task conditions: one without any interfering task, one with an articulatory suppression secondary task and one with a tapping secondary task, which is used in order to measure the general dual task demands. Comparing the results of these conditions will allow us to evaluate the impact of language and verbal strategies on analogical reasoning in control and SLI children. [less ▲]

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See detailMigraine triggers and habituation of visual evoked potentials
Lisicki Martinez, Marco ULg; Ruiz-Romagnoli, Emiliano; Piedrabuena, Raul et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

Background: Identifying specific subsets of patients within the clinical spectrum of migraine could help in personalizing migraine treatment. Profiling patients by combining clinical characteristics and ... [more ▼]

Background: Identifying specific subsets of patients within the clinical spectrum of migraine could help in personalizing migraine treatment. Profiling patients by combining clinical characteristics and neurophysiological biomarkers is largely unexplored. We studied the association between migraine attack triggers and habituation of visual evoked potentials. Methods: We personally interviewed 25 patients about their migraine triggers following a structured list, and measured the N1-P1 habituation slope over six blocks of 100 averaged pattern-reversal VEP afterwards. Results: The mean number of triggers per patient was 4.52 1.42. Habituation slopes differed significantly between subjects who reported stress as a migraine trigger (deficient VEP habituation) and subjects who did not (preserved VEP habituation). For the remaining categories, the mean amplitude slope was always positive, indicating deficient habituation, and was not significantly different between subgroups. Conclusions: Migraine patients not reporting perceived stress as a trigger for their attacks might constitute a distinct clinic-physiological subset within the migraine spectrum. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Poetics of (In)visibility: A Stylistic Analysis of Caryl Phillips's Foreigners: Three English Lives
Tunca, Daria ULg

in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (2017), 48(3-4), 159-186

Caryl Phillips’s multi-voiced texts have often been studied through the lens of Bakhtinian polyphony. In this essay, I focus on the volume of fictionalized biographies Foreigners: Three English Lives ... [more ▼]

Caryl Phillips’s multi-voiced texts have often been studied through the lens of Bakhtinian polyphony. In this essay, I focus on the volume of fictionalized biographies Foreigners: Three English Lives (2007) to demonstrate that the polyphonic nature of Phillips’s work resides not only in the structural confrontation of characters’ and narrators’ voices but also in the inscription of the writer’s own subjectivity within these individual discourses. Borrowing methods from the discipline of stylistics, I first focus on the use of adjectives and modality in the opening section of Foreigners, “Dr. Johnson’s Watch,” to establish how the first-person narrator’s gradual transition from tentativeness to self-confidence constitutes a way for the implied author, on the one hand, to expose the thwarted logic of the colonially-tinted discourse of his eighteenth-century narrator and, on the other, to offer larger reflections on the process of ideological encoding inherent in the writing of historiography. Such an investigation based on modality furthers allow me to challenge the critical consensus according to which the second section of the book, “Made in Wales,” is a straightforward factual account. Indeed, I suggest that the story of the rise and fall of mixed-race boxer Randolph Turpin is in fact a highly polyphonic narrative featuring increasingly marked clashes in modality and point of view. These, I argue, may draw attention precisely to the problematic construction of historiographical discourse deceptively made to appear so commonsense by the narrator of “Dr. Johnson’s Watch.” [less ▲]

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See detailIs a new definition of intermodal transport interesting for transferring flows from road to more environmentally friendly modes?
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Caris, An

Conference (2017, July)

Road remains the most used mode in Europe. Even if it is appreciated for its responsiveness, flexibility, and quickness, road transport is however responsible for negative impacts on its environment like ... [more ▼]

Road remains the most used mode in Europe. Even if it is appreciated for its responsiveness, flexibility, and quickness, road transport is however responsible for negative impacts on its environment like air pollution or climate change. Intermodal freight transport i.e. the transportation of goods using two or more modes of transport, in the same loading unit, without handling of the goods themselves is identified by the European Commission as an interesting solution for limiting the negative impacts of transport. In the classical conception of intermodal transport, pre- and post-haulage travels are supposed to be short, and to be performed by road transport, whereas the long-haul travel is done using rail or inland waterways (IWW). The objective of this study is to determine the impact on intermodal attractiveness of allowing other combinations of modes than the classical road-rail/IWW-road combination, during an intermodal travel. The goal is to determine the flow distribution of goods between direct transportation by road, rail or IWW, and any combination of these modes using intermodal transport. The novelty consists in taking into account three modes of transport in a mixed integer programming model, and to allow the transfer from any mode to any other at intermodal terminals where these modes coexist. For testing the hypothesis of intermodal transport attractiveness on medium to long distance, the model is applied to experimental data at the European level. [less ▲]

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See detailWEATHERING ON THE DEVONIAN SLATES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A BENTONITE LAYER IN THE WESTERWALD (GERMANY)
Fontaine, François ULg; Hamaekers, Helen; Hoffmann, Andreas et al

Conference (2017, July)

The Westerwald region is one of the largest and oldest clay mining areas of Germany. Those deposits were formed during the Eocene and Oligocene as a result of the weathering, erosion and redeposition of ... [more ▼]

The Westerwald region is one of the largest and oldest clay mining areas of Germany. Those deposits were formed during the Eocene and Oligocene as a result of the weathering, erosion and redeposition of Devonian rocks. During the Miocene, intense volcanic activities led to a large basalt cover, protecting the clays from the erosion. The two main goals of this study are first to improve the knowledge on the weathering processes of the Devonian slates that led to the current setting of those clay deposits by studying the mineralogical and chemical composition of the clays with depth. The second goal is to characterize a bentonite layer underneath the Miocene basalt cover using quantitative X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, BET, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscope. A 20 meter deep quarry mining the Devonian bedrock in southern Westerwald has been sampled on its entire depth. The XRD results show no significant variations of the mineralogy with depth, except for the phyllosilicates. The minerals of the < 2 μm fraction are illite, kaolinite, smectite and mixed-layers minerals (vermiculite-chlorite and illite-chlorite). The proportions of the minerals in the mixed-layers chlorite-vermiculite vary with depth. At the bottom of the quarry, the proportion of vermiculite is very low while in the top, the proportion of vermiculite is higher. This is explained by the degree of the weathering, logically more intense at the top of the quarry. Trace elements compositions are currently being investigated. A 3 meter thick greenish to brownish bentonite layer has been found in the eastern part of the Westerwald region. The XRD performed on different samples of this bentonite shows a relatively heterogeneous composition: montmorillonite (60-80%), kaolinite (5-12%), illite (0-7%), goethite (2-15%), talc (0-10%), K-feldspars (0-7%), plagioclase (0-4%) and traces of amphibole and pyroxene. This bentonite is probably the result of the weathering of volcanic ashes. Since there are not many outcrops of this bentonite layer, its spatial distribution is studied by drilling. [less ▲]

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