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See detailMacroevolution of Specificity in Cyanolichens of the Genus Peltigera Section Polydactylon (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Miadlikoswka, Jolanta; Goffinet, Bernard et al

in Systematic Biology (2017), 66(1), 74-99

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See detailOn the Dynamics of the Deployment of Renewable Energy Production Capacities
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg

in Furze, James N.; Swing, Kelly; Gupta, Anil K. (Eds.) et al Mathematical Advances Towards Sustainable Environmental Systems (2017)

This chapter falls within the context of modeling the deployment of renewable en-ergy production capacities in the scope of the energy transition. This problem is addressed from an energy point of view, i ... [more ▼]

This chapter falls within the context of modeling the deployment of renewable en-ergy production capacities in the scope of the energy transition. This problem is addressed from an energy point of view, i.e. the deployment of technologies is seen as an energy investment under the constraint that an initial budget of non-renewable energy is provided. Using the Energy Return on Energy Investment (ERoEI) characteristics of technologies, we propose MODERN, a discrete-time formalization of the deployment of renewable energy production capacities. Be-sides showing the influence of the ERoEI parameter, the model also underlines the potential benefits of designing control strategies for optimizing the deployment of production capacities, and the necessity to increase energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailCorn stover as feedstock for the production of ethanol: chemical composition of different anatomical fractions and varieties
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Roiseux, Olivier; Vanderghem, Caroline et al

in Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining (2017)

The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been ... [more ▼]

The available grain corn stover produced in Belgium is estimated at 290 000 dry tons, a suffi cient amount to supply a biorefi nery. Differences regarding size, prematurity, and drying speed have been observed among the cultivated grain corn varieties in Wallonia (Belgium). This study aims to evaluate the variation in composition of different anatomical fractions (stalks, leaves, cobs, and husks) of three Walloon varieties of grain corn stover (SyMultitop, Padrino, and Alduna) with significant production volumes. In addition, the Padrino variety was assessed for variation in chemical composition at three harvesting times. Walloon grain corn stover contains large amounts of polysaccharides (33.4% to 41.3% of glucans and 13.9% to 28.2% of xylans) and lignin (10.4% to 15.3%). Some différences were noted between varieties and anatomical fractions. Depending on how the feedstock is harvested, it is possible to produce between 79 and 81 M liters of ethanol per year without adversely affecting soil sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailSedimentologic and paleoclimatic reconstructions of carbonate factory evolution in the Alborz Basin (northern Iran) indicate a global response to Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) glaciations
Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Kulagina, E.; Voeten, D.F.A.E. et al

in Sedimentary Geology (2017), 348

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See detailPour une sémiotique des pratiques émergentes, ou: à quoi pense un médium?
Badir, Sémir ULg; Provenzano, François ULg

in Badir, Sémir; Provenzano, François (Eds.) Pratiques émergentes et pensée du médium (2017)

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See detailPratiques émergentes et pensée du médium
Badir, Sémir ULg; Provenzano, François ULg

Book published by Academia-L'Harmattan (2017)

Qu’y a-t-il de commun entre le street art, les mooc ou les forums médicaux en ligne ? Il s’agit, dans tous les cas, de pratiques culturelles qui dépendent fortement des techniques qui en soutiennent ... [more ▼]

Qu’y a-t-il de commun entre le street art, les mooc ou les forums médicaux en ligne ? Il s’agit, dans tous les cas, de pratiques culturelles qui dépendent fortement des techniques qui en soutiennent l’émergence dans l’espace public. Le projet du présent volume est d’interroger ces pratiques émergentes pour la pensée médiatique qu’elles délivrent. La perspective d’analyse est sémiotique et se décline à travers une série d’études de cas qui cartographient notre imaginaire culturel contemporain. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of landslide hazard in the environmental hotspot areas of the Kyrgyz Tien-Shan: Spatial analysis and Numeric modelling
Torgoev, Almazbek ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This PhD research was initiated in parallel with the Nato Science for Peace project “Prevention of Landslide Dam Disasters in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic”. During this project a large amount of ... [more ▼]

This PhD research was initiated in parallel with the Nato Science for Peace project “Prevention of Landslide Dam Disasters in the Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic”. During this project a large amount of thematic data on slope instabilities and landslide dams in the Kyrgyz Tien-Shan was collected. The thesis uses this information to investigate applied and fundamental aspects of the regional mapping of the landslide susceptibility, hazard and, partially, risk. The target areas selected for the PhD research are the Mailuu-Suu River Valley (southern Kyrgyzstan) and the surroundings of the Minkush settlement (central Kyrgyzstan). They represent the areas of former uranium mining hosting numerous storage sites of tailing material and waste rock. Additionally, these areas are characterised by a high level of landslide activity induced by the human and environmental impacts. The landslides in those areas present a high risk to the society and infrastructure, potentially triggering serious environmental consequences. Structurally, the thesis is composed of two parts: Part A and Part B. These parts are different both with respect to the research methodology and the scientific targets. The common goal of both parts is the development effective techniques to regionally assess landslide hazard in mountainous areas marked by complex geomorphological, tectonic and geological settings. Due to the remote access, such areas are often lacking background information and in-situ data that are required for the precise prediction of landslide occurrence and impacts. In such cases the spatial analysis often helps to better characterise regional and, partly, local landslide susceptibility. The regional studies allow us to outline the basic relationships between affecting factors and landslide occurrence. Such results also become the basis for effective planning of in-situ investigations and localised measurements. Part A of thesis is focused on the applied aspects of spatial analysis. This part assembles a set of the well-established approaches and methods to model landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. The studies start with the compilation of database spatially combining various thematic information. The first type of such thematic data is represented by the multi-temporal landslide inventories. These inventories are extracted applying different sources of remote sensing data, including the satellite and aerial imagery. The second type of thematic data describes the spatial distribution of factors affecting the level of landslide activity. The mapping of affecting factors is performed by applying conventional remote sensing techniques and spatial analysis tools. The collected thematic data are then used to extract the landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. In total, four conceptually different approaches are applied to map the landslide susceptibility, both on a qualitative and quantitative basis. The results of the quantitative susceptibility mapping and thematic data are further used to calculate the landslide hazard for each part of the studied area. The calculated landslide hazard is characterized both by spatial and temporal components. The results of the landslide hazard assessment are finally used to estimate the risk of the direct impacts of landslides on selected exposed elements, including the uranium tailings sites. One of the well-established approaches used in Part A is the Newmark method. It maps the seismically triggered landslide susceptibility based on the computed co-seismic displacements. The simplicity of this method is attractive to many researches around the world studying seismically-triggered landslide hazards. Nevertheless, the simplifications adopted in this method strongly limit the reliability of the final predictions. In the second part of thesis we provide a critical overview of the Newmark method and attempt to propose conceptual improvements of the existing mapping practice. To reach the targeted challenges we combine the spatial analysis with the dynamic simulations in the 2D and 3D domains. The studied models represent the actual topographic and geologic settings of the landslide-prone slopes. The simulations provide acceleration time histories that are recorded in different parts of the model surface. The analyses of these records allow us to outline the amplification impacts related to the topographic and geological site effects. The modelled amplification factors are analysed with respect to their link to the local geological and topographic settings. Thus, we study how the structural or material settings of the model can impact the recorded geological amplification. Such impacting parameters can be represented by the layer thickness, inclination of the underground contacts or the contrast of the shear wave velocity (Vs) values. The 2D topographic modelling investigates the way how the pure topographic amplification factors can be predicted based on the surface morphology. The studies show that the surface curvature can be considered as a key parameter to predict the amplification factors. This idea is further investigated in the 3D modelling studies applying different input signals and the materials of varying Vs. The results of this modelling are integrated into a single database which is subjected to spatial analysis. This finally allows us to develop a simple proxy which maps the impacts of the topographic site effects based on morphological parameters extracted from the Digital Elevation Model of the target area. Additionally, the subset of the 2D dynamic tests analyses the shear displacements triggered by the seismic shaking. Those displacements are recorded in the models with simplified geometry, as well as in the ones presenting the real topographic settings. The recorded displacements are cross-correlated with parameters characterising the seismic impacts. The results of analyses allow us to develop a new law which can easily be used in the GIS-based studies. The proposed law applies a set of the conventional parameters as well as a novel predictor which has never been used by any regional law before.The conceptual improvements proposed in Part B are finally tested by applying them to the geodatabase compiled in the first part of thesis. Related results are then compared with those that were produced by using the conventional Newmark method. The validation tests should assess performance of the developed proxies to improve the predictions of seismically-triggered landslides. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced silicate weathering of tropical shelf sediments exposed during glacial lowstands: a sink for atmospheric CO2
Wan, Shiming; Clift, Peter D.; Zhao, Debo et al

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2017), 200

Atmospheric CO2 and global climate are closely coupled. Since 800 ka CO2 concentrations have been up to 50% higher during interglacial compared to glacial periods. Because of its dependence on temperature ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric CO2 and global climate are closely coupled. Since 800 ka CO2 concentrations have been up to 50% higher during interglacial compared to glacial periods. Because of its dependence on temperature, humidity, and erosion rates, chemical weathering of exposed silicate minerals was suggested to have dampened these cyclic variations of atmospheric composition. Cooler and drier conditions and lower non-glacial erosion rates suppressed in situ chemical weathering rates during glacial periods. However, using systematic variations in major element geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopes and clay mineral records from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1143 and 1144 in the South China Sea spanning the last 1.1 Ma, we show that sediment deposited during glacial periods was more weathered than sediment delivered during interglacials. We attribute this to subaerial exposure and weathering of unconsolidated shelf sediments during glacial sealevel lowstands. Our estimates suggest that enhanced silicate weathering of tropical shelf sediments exposed during glacial lowstands can account for ~9% of the carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere during the glacial and thus represent a significant part of the observed glacial-interglacial variation of ~80 ppmv. As a result, if similar magnitudes can be identified in other tropical shelf-slope systems, the effects of increased sediment exposure and subsequent silicate weathering during lowstands could have potentially enhanced the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during cold stages of the Quaternary. This in turn would have caused an intensification of glacial cycles. We attribute this to subaerial exposure and weathering of unconsolidated shelf sediments during glacial sealevel lowstands. Our estimates suggest that enhanced silicate weathering of tropical shelf sediments exposed during glacial lowstands can account for ~9% of the carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere during the glacial and thus represent a significant part of the observed glacial-interglacial variation of ~80 ppmv. As a result, if similar magnitudes can be identified in other tropical shelf-slope systems, the effects of increased sediment exposure and subsequent silicate weathering during lowstands could have potentially enhanced the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during cold stages of the Quaternary. This in turn would have caused an intensification of glacial cycles. [less ▲]

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See detailLa « discrimination à rebours » au sein du marché intérieur : une illégalité qu’il ne faut pas voir au niveau européen ?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017)

Cet article dresse un panorama de la jurisprudence sur les situations purement internes au droit du marché intérieur et du phénomène juridique de la discrimination à rebours. Il est conclu qu'une telle ... [more ▼]

Cet article dresse un panorama de la jurisprudence sur les situations purement internes au droit du marché intérieur et du phénomène juridique de la discrimination à rebours. Il est conclu qu'une telle discrimination est inhérente au régime juridique de l'Union européenne caractérisé par le principe d'attribution des compétences. Il convient aux Etats membres d'y apporter des solutions fondées sur leurs droits constitutionnels respectifs. [less ▲]

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See detailLe non bis in idem en droit de la concurrence : un monde de différence avec le pénal ?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

in Franssen, Vanessa; Thiel, Delphine (Eds.) EXISTE-T-IL ENCORE UN SEUL NON BIS IN IDEM AUJOURD'HUI ? (2017)

Ce chapitre analyse l'application du principe de non bis in idem dans le contexte du droit européen de la concurrence, la comparant aux applications du même principes dans de domaines connexes.

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See detailArtefact présente Tante Leny. L'underground hollandaise importée en France
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Brève analyse du rôle de passeur culturel joué par Artefact dans leurs traductions de la bande dessinée underground hollandaise, via le collectif Tante Leny presenteert!.

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See detail'Mourning and Metafiction in Peter Carey's Chemistry of Tears'
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Collier, G, Davis, G; Ledent, B (Eds.) The Cross-Cultural Legacy: Critical and Creative Writings in Memory of Hena Maes-Jelinek (2017)

Peter Carey’s recent novel shares the concern with ‘unoriginality’ which has become a hallmark of his later fiction. It can actually be argued that, through this new variation on a known theme, he ... [more ▼]

Peter Carey’s recent novel shares the concern with ‘unoriginality’ which has become a hallmark of his later fiction. It can actually be argued that, through this new variation on a known theme, he purports to move beyond the clichéd postmodern paradox that authenticities – whether psychological or aesthetic – are always essentially made up, in order to consider the matter from another angle, pondering the perilous moment when an overtly fabricated object somehow mysteriously springs to life. If, as the title suggests, even our most personal emotions can be rationalized in terms of chemical reactions, why then could we not pursue a reverse path of investigation and envisage material reality as the source providing the components for the creation of spirit? This is the subjective context in which the protagonist Catherine, who works as a horologist (clockwork expert) in a London museum, must reconstruct a nineteenth-century mechanical swan suspected by some to be harbouring the soul of its original maker. Interestingly Catherine, herself a die-hard rationalist, finds herself shaken by a devastating bereavement which makes her unusually open to any form of consolation – including the self-indulgence of nostalgia, but also of cocaine and alcohol – which is why she will whole-heartedly embrace the welcome distraction offered by her work of mechanical reconstruction. As part of her attempt to understand the structure of the automaton, she feels that she must immerse herself in the diaries left behind by the commissioner of the work, an Englishman named Henry Brandling animated by his faith that the elaborate toy may release enough energy in his consumptive son, Percy, to save him from his otherwise lethal condition. Thus Carey creates an opening into the rationalist fabric of his protagonist’s present, allowing her to entertain anachronistic fantasies about the life-saving (let alone life-giving) properties of true art. Inasmuch as Catherine’s perusal of the diaries eventually facilitates a circuitous confrontation of her own grief, so that her excursions into the past serve to shore up her fragile sense of a future, the text appears to vindicate its own fantastic claims about the demiurgic, or at least redemptive, powers of art. Perhaps predictably, some reviewers balked in the face of this species of self-promotion, repeating the oft-expressed view that Carey’s fiction, in view of its deliberate straining of the laws of credibility, finally fails to emerge from an enmeshment in its own favoured themes of forgery and imitative inadequacy. The ultimate question asked by the work is then whether it must be seen to be equal to its own promise of transcendence. The present paper, by way of its own descent into the past (and particularly through a comparison with My Life as a Fake which rehearses similar themes), will try to provide an answer, notably by circumscribing the intention of a text in which metafiction assumes a metaphysical dimension possibly unique in Carey’s corpus. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mise en œuvre du droit de plainte en Belgique francophone. Observation des processus de médiation en soins de santé
Dubois, Christophe ULg; Vandeninden, Elise ULg

in Revue Française des Affaires Sociales (2017), 1(1), 79-96

This article concerns the treatment of patients’ rights cases in French‐speaking Belgian hospitals by the “mediator”, that is, the person who has the legal duty of dealing with grievances arising from the ... [more ▼]

This article concerns the treatment of patients’ rights cases in French‐speaking Belgian hospitals by the “mediator”, that is, the person who has the legal duty of dealing with grievances arising from the application of this right of complaint. What happens to a patient’s complaint? This is the question that this article attempts to answer through a report on the “local” organization of mediation ser‐ vices within the hospital. It thus clari es the links and divergences between the formal discourses accompanying the implementation of the mediation function in health care on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the actual practices of media‐ tion determined by the work of mediators in the hospital. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning of Real-time Power Systems Reliability Management Response
Duchesne, Laurine ULg; Karangelos, Efthymios ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in PowerTech Manchester 2017 Proceedings (2017)

In this paper we study how supervised machine learning could be applied to build simplified models of real-time (RT) reliability management response to the realization of uncertainties. The final ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study how supervised machine learning could be applied to build simplified models of real-time (RT) reliability management response to the realization of uncertainties. The final objective is to import these models into look-ahead operation planning under uncertainties. Our response models predict in particular the real-time reliability management costs and the resulting reliability level of the system. We tested our methodology on the IEEE-RTS96 benchmark. Among the supervised learning algorithms tested, extremely randomized trees, kernel ridge regression and neural networks appear to be the best methods for this application. Furthermore, by using feature “importances” computed by tree-based ensemble methods, we were able to extract the most relevant variables to predict the response of real-time reliability management, and thus obtain a better understanding of the system properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural and functional correlates of glutamate concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex.
Arrubla Martinez, Jorge Andres ULg; Farrher, Ezequiel; Strippelmann, Johanna et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (2017)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers ... [more ▼]

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers in which glutamate levels were measured in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. The advantages of simultaneous electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-MRI) were exploited and the subjects were measured in the same session and under the same physiological conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG were measured in order to investigate the functional and microstructural correlates of glutamate. The concentration of glutamate (institute units) was calculated and those values were tested for correlation with the metrics of resting state fMRI, DTI, and EEG electrical sources. Our results showed that the concentration of glutamate in the PCC had a significant negative correlation with the tissue mean diffusivity in the same area. The analysis of resting state networks did not show any relationship between the concentration of glutamate and the intrinsic activity of the resting state networks. The concentration of glutamate showed a positive correlation with the electrical generators of alpha-1 frequency and a negative correlation with the generators of alpha-2 and beta-1 electrical generators. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailFlux penetration in a superconducting film partially capped with a conducting layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Gladilin, V. N.; Tempere, J. et al

in Physical Review B (2017)

The influence of a conducting layer on the magnetic flux penetration in a superconducting Nb film is studied by magneto-optical imaging. The metallic layer partially covering the superconductor provides ... [more ▼]

The influence of a conducting layer on the magnetic flux penetration in a superconducting Nb film is studied by magneto-optical imaging. The metallic layer partially covering the superconductor provides an additional velocity-dependent damping mechanism for the flux motion that helps protecting the superconducting state when thermomagnetic instabilities develop. If the flux advances with a velocity slower than w = 2/µ0σt, where σ is the cap layer conductivity and t is its thickness, the flux penetration remains unaffected, whereas for incoming flux moving faster than w, the metallic layer becomes an active screening shield. When the metallic layer is replaced by a perfect conductor, it is expected that the flux braking effect will occur for all flux velocities. We demonstrate this effect by investigating Nb samples with a thickness step. Some of the observed features, namely the deflection and the branching of the flux trajectories at the border of the thick centre, as well as the favoured flux penetration at the indentation, are reproduced by time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations. [less ▲]

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