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See detailBash Tapa (Iraq). The Pottery from the First Excavation Campaign
Mas, Juliette ULg

Conference (2014, November)

Bash Tapa is a circa 8 ha settlement, located 35 km South of Erbil, in Iraqi Kurdistan. Its exploration was began in September 2013 by a french archaeological mission, led by L. Marti (CNRS, Paris). When ... [more ▼]

Bash Tapa is a circa 8 ha settlement, located 35 km South of Erbil, in Iraqi Kurdistan. Its exploration was began in September 2013 by a french archaeological mission, led by L. Marti (CNRS, Paris). When the sounding carried out on the top of the site allowed us to explore middle-assyrian levels, the stratigraphical step trench excavated on the southern slope of the tell revealed six phases of occupation dating to the 3rd millennium BC, from the Ninevite 5 to the Early Dynastic III periods. A first evaluation of the pottery material recovered in this operation revealed that there are different traditions represented at the site. In fact, while the material dated from the beginning of the Early Bronze Age is clearly related to the Northern tradition, the most recent 3rd millennium levels identified so far have provided us with pottery which could be connected to Central Mesopotamia, and more specifically to the Diyala region. This paper will give a first overview of the pottery from the first campaign of excavation at Bash Tapa, mainly focusing on 3rd millennium material, its links with the other regions of Near East and its significance for chronology. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic tracing of sediment components that are assimilated by epibiontic juveniles of Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea)
Plotieau, Thomas; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lavitra, Thiery et al

in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (2014), 94(7), 1485-1490

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic ... [more ▼]

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic fraction it assimilates in practice. In this study we report experimental results where H. scabra’s diet was supplemented with various 15N-labelled organic fractions of sediment. We used juveniles weighing between 38- 88 mg at the beginning of the experiment (ca. 2 cm long and 30 days old). Their growth was measured over a four week period and their 15N composition recorded. The results showed that H. scabra juveniles assimilated all added organic components from both dissolved and particulate fractions of the sediment. Bacteria seem to be an important food source for juveniles, even more so than microphytobenthos (diatoms). [less ▲]

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See detailLe Moyen Âge dans les jeux vidéo
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Barnabé, Fanny ULg

Article for general public (2014)

Si le Moyen Âge peut sembler, de prime abord, une source d’inspiration particulièrement prolifique pour le jeu vidéo, c’est moins en tant que période historique qu’en tant que réservoir d’un imaginaire ... [more ▼]

Si le Moyen Âge peut sembler, de prime abord, une source d’inspiration particulièrement prolifique pour le jeu vidéo, c’est moins en tant que période historique qu’en tant que réservoir d’un imaginaire fantastique qu’il influence ce dernier. Cette influence remonte aux premières heures de l’histoire du médium : les jeux d’aventure textuels, par exemple, à la suite de l’œuvre initiatrice Adventure (William Crowther et Don Woods, 1977), prenaient généralement place dans un univers médiéval-fantastique largement inspiré de la licence Donjons et Dragons. La tendance récurrente à user d’un tel cadre thématique s’est ensuite maintenue sans discontinuer, accompagnant les évolutions du médium vidéoludique, comme en témoignent le nombre de jeux de rôle ou de jeux massivement multijoueurs qui, aujourd’hui encore, prennent place dans ce type d’univers. Pour ceux qui souhaiteraient s’imprégner de cette époque fascinante – tant pour son histoire que pour l’imaginaire qui lui est associé – nous avons sélectionné quelques œuvres à parcourir. [less ▲]

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See detailL'identité wallonne en clair-obscur. Ce dont on est fier (ou pas) en wallonie
Jacquemain, Marc ULg; Italiano, Patrick ULg

in Cardelli, Rebecca; Bornand, Thierry; Brunet, Sébastien (Eds.) Le Baromètre social de la Wallonie. Engagement, confiance, représentations et identités (2014)

L'article synthétise les éléments que les Wallons mettent en avant, positifs ou négatifs, qui viennent donner un contenu à leur sentiment d'appartenance. Du côté positif, domine l'image d'une Wallonie ... [more ▼]

L'article synthétise les éléments que les Wallons mettent en avant, positifs ou négatifs, qui viennent donner un contenu à leur sentiment d'appartenance. Du côté positif, domine l'image d'une Wallonie paradoxalement plutôt "rurale" où il fait bon vivre, où les paysages sont agréables et les gens accueillants. Du côté négatif, si le chômage et la gouvernance sont mentionnés, ce qui domine c'est une préoccupation fort pragmatique : l'état des routes. [less ▲]

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See detail25ans après, les Wallons sont-ils toujours belges ?
Italiano, Patrick ULg; Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Cardelli, Rebecca; Bornand, Thierry; Brunet, Sébastien (Eds.) Baromètre social de la Wallonie. Engagement confiance, représentation et identité (2014)

Le chapitre parcourt la mesure des sentiments d'identité des wallons depuis 25 ans: les vagues d'enquête de 1988 à 2013 montrent les fluctuations des sentiments d'appartenance wallon, belge et européen en ... [more ▼]

Le chapitre parcourt la mesure des sentiments d'identité des wallons depuis 25 ans: les vagues d'enquête de 1988 à 2013 montrent les fluctuations des sentiments d'appartenance wallon, belge et européen en fonction sur le long terme, où apparaît clairement une déception par rapport à l'Europe après une euphorie initiale chez les jeunes, et qui ne se comble pas avec le temps. La donnée structurelle la plus stable est que les identités wallonne et belge sont complémentaires et non concurrentielles: à chaque enquête, cette corrélation est massive. Par contre, le sentiment d'être différent des Flamands a considérablement augmenté entre 2007 et 2013, ainsi que, sur la dernière période, le sentiment d'être différent de tous les "outgroups" qui augmente. [less ▲]

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See detailStress and singing accuracy: What is the relationship?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2014, October 31)

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will ... [more ▼]

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will have an influence on vocal accuracy. In addition, the quality of a musical performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In order to clarify the effects of stress on singing accuracy and to explore solutions to favor the positive consequences of stress, we ran an experiment in collaboration with the Royal Conservatory of Liège. Thirty-one music students were asked to learn a simple melody. There were then recorded in a stressful condition (i.e., a music examination) and a non-stressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances (in terms of respect of melodic contour, precision of intervals and respect of the tonality) was objectively analyzed. As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the non-stressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. The results encourage searchers to take into account the stress level of the performer when evaluating singing accuracy. In addition, it seems pertinent to work on the perception of somatic and cognitive symptoms in higher music institutions and to try to diminish the stress level of students, in order to favor the positive consequences of stress on the quality of musical performances. Thanks to this method, we are actually focusing on studies designed to better understand the effects of stress on speaking voice. [less ▲]

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See detailPlutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant Signaling & Behavior (2014)

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col ... [more ▼]

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to three temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27 °C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over two time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27 °C after the two time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22 °C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. [less ▲]

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See detailcaractérisation physico-chimique et minéralogique de matériaux calcaro-dolomitiques en vue de la production de liants et produits dérivés
Matamba Jibikila, Raphaël ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Due to their abundance and availability, limestone and dolomitic rocks are among the most valued resources in the world. As natural stones, they have many applications, both in trade and industrial ... [more ▼]

Due to their abundance and availability, limestone and dolomitic rocks are among the most valued resources in the world. As natural stones, they have many applications, both in trade and industrial sectors. Moreover, regardless of the scope of these materials, they must meet specific mineralogical and mechanical or physico-chemical properties, depending on the sector. Environmental requirements and sustainable management of mineral resources, have forced companies to reduce the value of naturally occurring materials, focusing oriented processing of waste materials or alternative approach. Moreover, technological developments have led to new applications requiring maximum purity of the material also led farmers to manage natural resources in a more rational manner. Mbuji-Mayi Region in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has huge limestone and dolomitic deposit; located in the " Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup". Nevertheless, the city suffers from a serious lack of sustainable infrastructure to consolidate its development and remains dependent on the supply of construction and building materials from other regions, located sometimes more than 1000 km from the Mbuji-Mayi site. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the potential use of Mbuji-Mayi supergroup materials to produce binder or derivated products in a sustainable management of mineral resources way. Thus, dolomitic samples were taken from Kanshi S13B and S70 Lubi drill cores, while limestone facies are from artisanal quarries in the region. They were then prepared and characterized. Techniques used are: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and the differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy combined with chemical microanalysis (SEM / EDX). The results obtained after raw materials characterization showed that the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup contains pure dolomite (respective mean CaO and MgO contents of 20.5 and 30%), impure dolomites and impure limestones. uniaxial compressive strength test, water absorption coefficient, and porosity were measured. Results were satisfactory in terms of the use of materials such as rubbles or building stones. Thermal and microscopic analyzes of pure dolomite, showed that these materials have high added value in the areas of refractory, glass manufacture or dolomitic lime production. Finally, a binder (CS1c) prepared from impure limestone, posted quite sufficient characteristics for applications with low mechanical stress. Metakaolin prepared from local raw material, was used to improve the characteristics of the binder CS1c. The analysis of the properties of the mixture CS1c-metakaolin, helped us to understand the role of some mineral phases, in contributing to the development of mechanical strength of such binders.   [less ▲]

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See detailLa représentation commerciale comme objet principal du contrat
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (2014/35),

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See detailEngineering of poly(2-oxazoline)s for a potential use in biomedical applications
Legros, Camille ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

This PhD work is based on the design of poly(2-oxazoline) (POx) hydrogels and nanogels, by chemical or physical cross-linking, aimed to be used for biomedical applications. Nanogels were first prepared in ... [more ▼]

This PhD work is based on the design of poly(2-oxazoline) (POx) hydrogels and nanogels, by chemical or physical cross-linking, aimed to be used for biomedical applications. Nanogels were first prepared in dilute media and in inverse emulsion based on a statistical copolymer made of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline and ethylene imine units. These stimuli-responsive nanogels were swelling in acidic media and were cleaved in reductive environment. They proved to be non-cytotoxic and act as protein repellent. Second, a reactive platform based on a statistical POx polymer bearing aldehyde functionalities was engineered, enabling the synthesis of graft and cross-linked POx. Last, a block copolymer made of 2-methyl- and 2-isopropyl-2- oxazoline units, proved to self-assemble into micelles when heated above its LCST, for a short period of time (< 1h30). When annealed for a longer time (> 1h30), crystallization-driven self-assembly led to the formation of different morphologies (fiber rods and cross-linked micelles). [less ▲]

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See detailInjections de PRP et tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, October 30)

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See detailInjury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts
Oukara, Amar ULg; Robbe, Cyril; Nsiampa, Nestor et al

in The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal (2014), 8(2014), 75-83

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use ... [more ▼]

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of functionalized polyamide 6 by anionic ring-opening polymerization
Tunc, Deniz ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The studies presented in this thesis aim to copolymerize ԑ-caprolactam (CL) with different derivatives of α-amino-ԑ-caprolactam (which has a functionalizable primary amine) via anionic ring-opening ... [more ▼]

The studies presented in this thesis aim to copolymerize ԑ-caprolactam (CL) with different derivatives of α-amino-ԑ-caprolactam (which has a functionalizable primary amine) via anionic ring-opening polymerization. By using this strategy, we describe: (i) the synthesis of thermally more stable fluorinated polyamide 6 having a hydrophobic surface; (ii) the synthesis of polyamides 6 bearing pendant cinnamoyl groups, which are thermo- and photoresponsivechromophore groups, and demonstrating their reversible crosslinking as well as improved thermo-mechanical properties; (iii) the copolymerization ofCL with a crosslinker (N-functionalized α-amino-ԑ-caprolactambis-monomers) into crosslinked polyamides 6.As part of our continuing interest in polyamide 6 chemistry, we developed the combination of anionic ring-opening polymerization of CL and chain-growth condensation polymerization of ethyl 4-butylaminobenzoate in order to obtain aliphatic/aromatic polyamides in one-step. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physical and biological controls on the distribution of gases and solutes in sea ice from ice growth to ice decay
Zhou, Jiayun ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Les changements dans l’extension et les propriétés de la glace de la mer, liés au réchauffement climatique, affectent l’écosystème polaire, ainsi que les interactions entre l’atmosphère, la glace de mer ... [more ▼]

Les changements dans l’extension et les propriétés de la glace de la mer, liés au réchauffement climatique, affectent l’écosystème polaire, ainsi que les interactions entre l’atmosphère, la glace de mer et l’eau sous-jacente. Cependant, des incertitudes subsistent quant aux changements potentiels qui affecteront la biogéochimie de la glace de mer dans un futur proche. Afin de mieux comprendre les changements potentiels qui affecteront la biogéochimie de la glace de mer, nous avons étudié les facteurs qui influencent la distribution de certains composés dissouts (e.g., nutriments, matière organique dissoute (DOM)) et gazeux (e.g., Ar, O2, N2, CH4) au sein de la glace de mer, depuis la croissance de la glace, jusqu’à sa fonte. Les résultats ont été obtenus à partir d’une expérience de 19 jours dans un bassin expérimental à Hambourg (Allemagne) et une étude de terrain de 5 mois à Barrow (Alaska). Ils ont été ensuite comparés aux propriétés physiques de la glace (température, salinité et autres paramètres dérivés) et à des paramètres biologiques (activité bactérienne, abondance bactérienne, chlorophylle-a et phaeopigments). Nos travaux ont montré que les propriétés physiques de la glace exercent une forte influence sur la répartition des composes biogéochimiques dans la glace de mer, à travers leur impact sur la dynamique des saumures, la formation de bulles de gaz et la perméabilité de la glace. Nous avons décrit 4 stades dans la dynamique des saumures qui influencent la distribution des composés dissouts (e.g., silice et DOM) dans la glace. Cependant, le gaz inerte étudié (Ar) montre une dynamique différente de celle des composés dissouts, indiquant un mécanisme de transport différent. Nous suggérons que la formation de bulles de gaz dans la glace de mer est le mécanisme responsable de cette différence, parce que les bulles de gaz devraient migrer vers le haut, à cause de leur différence de densité par rapport aux saumures, alors que les saumures sont drainées vers le bas à cause de la gravité. Nos observations montrent également que le seuil critique de perméabilité pour l’ascension des bulles de gaz devrait se trouver entre 7.5 et 10 % de volume relatif en saumure ; seuil qui est plus élevé que les 5 % suggérés pour le transport de saumure vers le bas. L’augmentation de la perméabilité de la glace et les échanges de gaz prolongés tendent à amener les concentrations de gaz vers leur valeur de solubilité, sauf lorsque l’eau sous-jacente présente une sursaturation par rapport à l’atmosphère (e.g., CH4), ou lorsque une production in-situ se produit au sein de la glace (e.g., O2). Etant donné que l’ammonium et O2 s’accumulent clairement dans les couches de glace où la convection est limitée, nous suggérons que les variations de ces composés biogéochimiques dans la glace dépendent de la balance entre le transport physique et l’activité biologique ; l’impact de cette dernière sur les composés biogéochimiques est particulièrement visible lorsque le taux de production biologique du composé excède largement la vitesse d’élimination du composé par le transport physique. Nous avons ensuite discuté du potentiel d’utiliser Ar et N2 comme traceurs inertes pour corriger l’impact des processus physiques sur les variations de O2, afin de déterminer la production communautaire nette dans la glace de mer. Les propriétés chimiques de certains composés biogéochimiques (e.g., nitrate, ammonium, DOM) pourraient également influencer leur répartition au sein de la glace de mer, en plus des processus physiques et biologiques. Cependant, il est nécessaire d’avoir plus d’études à ce sujet pour confirmer cela. Enfin, sur base de nos résultats, nous présentons une mise à jour des processus qui régulent la répartition des gaz dans la glace de mer, avec des références à des observations récentes qui illustrent chacun des processus. Nous donnons également un aperçu des changements qui pourraient affecter la biogéochimie de la glace de mer à l’avenir, et des pistes de recherches pour une quantification précise de ces changements. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoWeb - Transforming a professional bioimages platform into a learning tool for histology
QUATRESOOZ, Pascale ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Rollus, Loïc ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, October 30)

In 2012, medical studies in Belgium has undergone an important reform that leads to a rocketing rise of the number of students. The University of Liège took this renewed context as an opportunity to ... [more ▼]

In 2012, medical studies in Belgium has undergone an important reform that leads to a rocketing rise of the number of students. The University of Liège took this renewed context as an opportunity to thoroughly revamp its teaching methods in histology, extending CYTOMINE [1] (http://cytomine.be : a web-based, image storage, annotation, and analysis platform) with new pedagogical features. [less ▲]

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See detailLe TSM (Test Spectral Métacognitif) : 10 caractéristiques pour relever 5 défis de la formation
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

in Actes du 28° Congrès de l'AIPU 2014 Mons Belgique du 18 au 22 mai 2014 (2014, October 30)

Les cinq défis de l'éducation auxquels le TSM vise à apporter des réponses relèvent (1) de la maîtrise d'un domaine disciplinaire, (2) de la maîtrise de'habiletés et compétences générales comme la ... [more ▼]

Les cinq défis de l'éducation auxquels le TSM vise à apporter des réponses relèvent (1) de la maîtrise d'un domaine disciplinaire, (2) de la maîtrise de'habiletés et compétences générales comme la vigilance cognitive et la lecture de consignes, (3) de compétences métacognitives, (4) du développement épistémique et (5) de la motivation à apprendre. Par 10 caractéristiques, le TSM vise à contribuer à ces cinq défis A LA FOIS. Après une introduction théorique à la problématique, un TSM de démonstration (de 16 questions) est présenté. l-Le lecteur peut l'expérimenter sur lui-même, puis télécharger les réponses correctes et enfin traiter ses résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailCapacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence- based pallet loading and axle weight constraints
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics (2014)

In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle weight restrictions are incorporated in a vehicle routing model. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that incorporating axle weight restrictions in a vehicle routing model is possible and necessary for a feasible route planning. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportation companies. Trucks with overloaded axles represent a significant threat for traffic safety and may cause serious damage to the road surface. Transporters face high fines when violating these limits. A mixed integer linear programming formulation for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is provided. Results of the model are compared to the results of the model without axle weight restrictions. Computational experiments demonstrate that the model performs adequately and that the integration of axle weight constraints in vehicle routing models is required for a feasible route planning. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween dialect and idiolect in Deir el-Medineh
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, October 29)

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