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See detailDémocratie et populisme ; un combat pour le peuple
Debras, François ULg

Conference (2017, April 03)

L’appel au peuple contre des élites (politiques, économiques,…) constitue le cœur de la rhétorique populiste. Cependant, cette invocation du peuple, des hommes de la rue, des citoyens ordinaires n’est pas ... [more ▼]

L’appel au peuple contre des élites (politiques, économiques,…) constitue le cœur de la rhétorique populiste. Cependant, cette invocation du peuple, des hommes de la rue, des citoyens ordinaires n’est pas un acte strictement populiste. En effet, si la démocratie peut se définir, entre autre, comme le pouvoir au peuple, n’induit-elle pas alors un nécessaires recours à sa mobilisation ? Comment distinguer l’appel au peuple du discours populiste, d’un discours démocratique ? Plus précisément, comment pouvons-nous définir le peuple ? Et quels sont les enjeux politiques et idéologiques qui sous-tendent sa mobilisation dans la rhétorique populiste ? Pour répondre à cette interrogation, nous proposons, dans un premier temps, en nous appuyant sur la littérature scientifique, de clarifier la notion de peuple et de populisme. Dans un second temps, nous étudierons le discours politique du Front national français tout en mobilisant les apports théoriques précédemment analysés. Pour ce faire, nous concentrerons notre attention sur le programme du parti, les communications orales de ses principaux représentants ainsi que les différents éditoriaux publiés sur leurs sites internet. L’analyse est discursive. En guise de conclusion, nous reviendrons sur la classification du Front national en tant que parti populiste tout en essayant de dégager les points communs et les divergences que nous pouvons observer entre la notion de peuple telle que définie par la littérature scientifique sur la démocratie, le populisme et dans les discours du FN. À terme, nous espérons ainsi mieux comprendre la notion de peuple dans l’argumentaire frontiste ainsi que ses différents éléments constituants. [less ▲]

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See detailDes complots partout? Epistémologie du discours conspirationniste
Debras, François ULg

Poster (2017, April 03)

Il n’existe pas d’un côté des « farfelus » qui voient des complots partout et de l’autre, des scientifiques rationnels qui considèrent que les complots sont des divagations. L’adhésion aux théories du ... [more ▼]

Il n’existe pas d’un côté des « farfelus » qui voient des complots partout et de l’autre, des scientifiques rationnels qui considèrent que les complots sont des divagations. L’adhésion aux théories du complot n’est pas un simple oui ou non. C’est un curseur qui indique que chacun se pose des questions et émet des doutes. De plus, l’histoire témoigne de l’existence de multiples complots bien réels que nous ne nions pas (incident de Mukden, incident du golf de Tonkin, affaire des couveuses au Koweit,…). Les théories du complot nous invitent à ne pas croire aveuglément tout ce que nous racontent les médias. Mais, à l’inverse, il ne faut pas non plus déceler des complots partout et analyser un monde « lu à l’envers » où tout ce qui est présenté comme vrai est faux et inversement. [less ▲]

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See detailExploitation et instrumentation des mémoires
Nossent, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2017, April 03)

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See detailBeehive trials in Gamba (Gabon) with ecophysiological approaches. Panel Session 4, Mitigation approaches to reduce HWC.
Ngama, Steeve ULg

Conference (2017, April 03)

Food is often source of conflict between humans and wildlife in Gabon with elephants being the worst crop-raiders and “problem animals”. Damages to crops drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and ... [more ▼]

Food is often source of conflict between humans and wildlife in Gabon with elephants being the worst crop-raiders and “problem animals”. Damages to crops drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animals among rural people. Using beehives has been proposed as one of the best non-lethal methods to deter elephants from crop raiding; so we experienced whether the presence of the African honey bees species Apis mellifera adansonii deterred forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees on the one hand and if local people could perform modern beekeeping. We found that beehives can be effective deterrents of crop raiding by elephants, but rural people must actively manage hives to keep them at the optimum activity level. Most interestingly, modern beekeeping benefits wild bees preservation (because local people destroy them to collect honey), agriculture through pollination and could be effectively used as a bush-meat trade alternative. We learned from those experiences that conservation is performed and assumed daily by people sharing spaces and resources with wildlife. For that we need to transfer knowledge and capacities to them in order to achieve effective long lasting conservation outcomes. We also must go beyond aspirin (symptomatic) treatments by investigating elephant crop raiding root causes with multidisciplinary ecophysiological approaches. In animals ecophysiology examines the relevance of physiological processes to social, behavioural and ecological constraints with an eco-centric view. Thus, they will help get better understanding of what lead elephant to face threats such as bees or what could explain nutritional behavior and crop selection of elephants. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymptotic behavior of regular sequences
Leroy, Julien ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April)

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See detailOut of the ground: two coexisting fossorial toad species differ in their emergence and movement patterns
Székely, Diana ULg; Cogalniceanu, Dan; Székely, Paul et al

in Zoology (2017), 121

Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology.The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources ... [more ▼]

Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology.The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and P. syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil. We employed a night vision recording system combined with video-tracking analyses in a replicated laboratory setting to quantify individual movement patterns, a procedure that has not been used until now to observe terrestrial amphibians. Most individuals appeared on the surface every night and returned to their original burrow (about 60% of the times), or dug a new one around morning. There was a large temporal overlap between the two species. However, P. syriacus was significantly more active than P. fuscus in terms of total distance covered and time spent moving, while P. fuscus individuals left their underground burrow more frequently than P. syriacus. Consequently, P. fuscus adopted more of a sit-and-wait behaviour compared to P. syriacus, and this could facilitate their coexistence. The use of night video-tracking technologies offered the advantage of individually tracking these secretive organisms during their nocturnal activity period and getting fine-grain data to understand their movement patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailSignification et notification en Europe Entre efficacité et droits de la défense
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2017, April)

Cette présentation a comme objectif d'offrir un aperçu de la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice relative au Règlement 1393/2007

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See detailInterest of creatine supplementation insoccer
Miny, Kevin ULg; Burrowes, J; Jidovtseff, Boris ULg

in Science & Sports (2017), 32(2), 61-72

Objectives This review article aimed to summarize the current state of understanding on creatine supplementation for soccer players. In other words, it investigated the beneficial (and potentially ... [more ▼]

Objectives This review article aimed to summarize the current state of understanding on creatine supplementation for soccer players. In other words, it investigated the beneficial (and potentially negative) effects of this supplementation on sport-specific skills and performance in soccer players. Furthermore, this article accordingly discussed the safest and most recommended protocols for the consumption of creatine by these athletes. News Studies have shown that creatine supplementation can have positive effects on sprint and vertical jump performances in soccer players. This supplementation may also enhance soccer players’ muscle strength and adaptation to a high-intensity training regimen. Besides, creatine may be able to enhance muscle glycogen (as well as phosphocreatine) storage, reduce oxidative stress, and improve muscular repair and hypertrophy. Interestingly, creatine supplementation does not seem to affect aerobic performance. Prospects and projects Soccer players could take creatine during pre-season training (3 to 5g/day) in order to help them endure a high-intensity training regimen and enhance their muscular strength and adaptation resulting from strength and/or resistance training. A lower dosage (less than 3g/day) might also be sufficient and beneficial during the season in case of fatigue, in order to sustain adequate levels of phosphocreatine and glycogen in the muscles. Occasional intakes (about 3g) before games and/or extenuating practices could also give a physical and mental boost to the players. Conclusion Most of the studies measured the effects of creatine on skills or physical performances in isolation from the true athletic demands of soccer match play. In conclusion, there is still a need for more research in order to determine whether creatine supplementation is ergogenic regarding the (aerobic) capacity to repeat (very) high-intensity actions, more particularly during competitive soccer. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of tillage on greenhouse gas emissions by an agricultural crop and dynamics of N2O fluxes: Insights from automated closed chamber measurements
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Soil & Tillage Research (2017), 167

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O ... [more ▼]

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O fluxes. Gas measurements were performed from June to October 2015 in a Belgian maize crop, with homemade automated closed chambers, allowing continuous measurement at a high temporal resolution. After 7 years of treatment, CO2 and N2O average emissions were significantly larger in the RT parcel than in the CT parcel. This observation was attributed to the effect of tillage on the distribution of crop residues within the soil profile, leading to higher soil organic C and total N contents and a greater microbial biomass in the upper layer in RT. A single N2O emission peak triggered by a sudden increase of water- filled pore space (WFPS) was observed in the beginning of the measuring campaign. The absence of large emission afterwards was most likely due to a decreasing availability of N as crop grew. N2O background fluxes showed to be significantly correlated to CO2 fluxes but not to WFPS, while the influence of soil temperature remained unclear. Our results question the suitability of reduced tillage as a “climate-smart” practice and suggest that more experiments be conducted on conservation practices and their potent negative effect on environment. [less ▲]

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See detailWork environment and work-to-family conflict: Mediating role of work investment.
Babic, Audrey ULg; Stinglhamber, Florence; Barbier, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2017, April)

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See detailLessons learned from combined experimental and numerical modelling of urban floods
Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal et al

Conference (2017, April)

Field data for validating hydraulic models remain scarce, They are often limited to inundation extents and water marks, which provide little insights into the dynamic features of the flow in urbanized ... [more ▼]

Field data for validating hydraulic models remain scarce, They are often limited to inundation extents and water marks, which provide little insights into the dynamic features of the flow in urbanized floodplains, such as the discharge partition in-between the streets and the velocity fields. To address this issue, a unique experimental setup representing a whole urban district was built in the laboratory ICube in Strasbourg and the state-of-the-art shallow- water model Wolf 2D was tested against the experimental measurements (An'ault et al, 2016), The numerical model was also used to extend and refine the analysis of the laboratory observations. The experimental model (5 m >< 5 m) represents a square urban district with a total of l4 streets of different Widths and 49 intersections (crossroads). The inflow discharge can be controlled in each street individually and the outflow discharges were measured downstream of each street. The numerical model Wolf was developed at the University of Liege and has been extensively used in flood risk research (Beckers et al, 2013, Bruwier et al. 2015, Detrembleur et al. 2015). Several lessons could be learned from this combined experimental and numerical analysis. First, we found that the discharge partition in—between the streets is primarily controlled by the street widths. Second, although the standard shallow-water equations reproduce satisfactorily tnost of the flow characteristics, adding a turbulence model improves the prediction of the shape and length of the flow recirculations in the streets. Yet, this has little influence on the discharge partition because the computed recirculation widths are hardly affected by the turbulence model. The experiments and the numerical model also show that the water depths in the streets remain fairly constant in~between two intersections, while they drop suddenly downstream of each intersection as a result of complex flow interactions at the intersections. This hints that friction has little influence on the water depths obtained in the experiments. However, tailored numerical tests demonstrate that this is a direct consequence of the distorted nature of the experimental setup. Indeed, the ratio between the water depth and the street width is close to 1 in the experiments, while it would be at least one order of magnitude lower in real-world conditions, even for extreme floods. Finally, remote sensing data, such as digital elevation models, are generally available on a regular grid, which makes it convenient to use also a Cartesian grid for hydraulic modelling, We show here that the discretization of the geometry of the buildings on such a Cartesian grid has a major influence on the modelling accuracy (overestimation of the overall flow resistance). An extended shallow-water model based on non-isotropic porosity parameters is shown to improve substantially the prediction of the discharge partition in-between the streets. It is therefore considered as a valuable tool to advance urban flood modelling in practice. From the lessons learned here, we recommend that future research focuses on the design and exploitation of a less distorted experimental model, as well as on the analysis of extra flow processes such as transient conditions and interactions between overland flow and pressurized flow in underground passages. [less ▲]

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See detailA laser profilometry technique for monitoring fluvial dike breaching in laboratory experiments
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2017, April)

A challenging aspect for experimental modelling of fluvial dike breaching is the continuous monitoring of the transient breach geometry. In dam breaching cases induced by flow overtopping over the whole ... [more ▼]

A challenging aspect for experimental modelling of fluvial dike breaching is the continuous monitoring of the transient breach geometry. In dam breaching cases induced by flow overtopping over the whole breach crest (plane erosion), a side view through a glass wall is sufficient to monitor the breach formation. This approach can be ex- tended for 3D dam breach tests (spatial erosion) ifthe glass wall is located along the breach centreline. In contrast using a side view does not apply for monitoring fluvial dike breaching, because the breach is not symmetric in this case. We present a non-intrusive, high resolution technique to record the breach development in experimental models of fluvial dikes by means of a laser profilometry (Rifai et al. 2016). Most methods used for monitoring dam and dike breaching involve the projection of a pattern (fringes, grid) on the dam or dike body and the analysis of its deformation on images recorded during the breaching (e.g., Pickett et al. 201 1, Frank and Hager 2014). A major limitation of these methods stems from reflection on the water surface, particularly in the vicinity of the breach where the free surface is irregular and rippled. This issue was addressed by Spinewine et al. (2004), who used a single laser sheet so that reflections on the water surface were strongly limited and did not hamper the accurate processing of each image. We have developed a similar laser profilometry technique tailored for laboratory experiments on fluvial dike breaching. The setup is simple and relatively low cost. It consists of a digital video camera (resolution of 1920 >< 1080 pixels at 60 frames per second) and a swiping red diode 30 mW laser that enables the projection of a laser sheet over the dike body. The 2D image coordinates of each defomied laser profile incident on the dike are transformed into 3D object coordinates using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) algorithm. All 3D object coordinates computed over a swiping cycle of the laser are merged to generate a cloud of points. The DLT-based image processing method uses control points and reference axes, so that no prior knowledge is needed on the position, orientation and intrinsic characteristics of the camera, nor on the laser position. Refraction of the light and laser rays across the water surface needs to be taken into account, because the dike is partially submerged during the experiments. An ad hoc correction is therefore applied using the Snell-Descartes law. For dtis purpose, planar approximations are used to describe the shape of the water surface. In the presen- tation, we will discuss the resulting uncertainty and will detail the validation of the developed method based on configurations of known geometry with various complexity. The presented laser profilometry technique allows for a rapid non-intrusive measurement of the dike geometry evolution. It is readily available for laboratory experiments and has proven its performance (Rifai et al. 2017). Further adjustments are needed for its application to cohesive dike material due to the reduced visibility resulting from the higher turbidity of water. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical usefulness of bone turnover marker concentrations in osteoporosis.
Morris, H. A.; Eastell, R.; Jorgesen, N. R. et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2017), 467

Current evidence continues to support the potential for bone turnover markers (BTM) to provide clinically useful information particularly for monitoring the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment. Many of the ... [more ▼]

Current evidence continues to support the potential for bone turnover markers (BTM) to provide clinically useful information particularly for monitoring the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment. Many of the limitations identified earlier remain, principally in regard to the relationship between BTM and incident fractures. Important data are now available on reference interval values for CTX and PINP across a range of geographic regions and for individual clinical assays. An apparent lack of comparability between current clinical assays for CTX has become evident indicating the possible limitations of combining such data for meta-analyses. Harmonization of units for reporting serum/plasma CTX (ng/L) and PINP (mug/L) is recommended. The development of international collaborations continues with an important initiative to combine BTM results from clinical trials in osteoporosis in a meta-analysis and an assay harmonization program are likely to be beneficial. It is possible that knowledge derived from clinical studies can further enhance fracture risk estimation tools with inclusion of BTM together with other independent risk factors. Further data of the relationships between the clinical assays for CTX and PINP as well as physiological and pre-analytical factors contributing to variability in BTM concentrations are required. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition between symmetric and asymmetric flow in rectangular shallow reservoirs — a case of maximum dissipation?
westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2017, April)

Shallow reservoirs are often used in hydraulic engineering as sediment traps or storage basins, Sedimentation within these reservoirs depends on the flow pattern, which in turn depends on the shape of the ... [more ▼]

Shallow reservoirs are often used in hydraulic engineering as sediment traps or storage basins, Sedimentation within these reservoirs depends on the flow pattern, which in turn depends on the shape of the reservoir. For short rectangular reservoirs, the main jet flows straight from the inlet to the outlet with on both sides identical recirculation zones. In longer reservoirs, however, the main jet reattaches to the side of the reservoir leading to a small and a large recirculation zone. Previous studies have found an empirical geometric relation describing the switch between these two different flow patterns. In this study, we demonstrate that this switch in flow pattern coincides with a maximization of energy dissipation in the shear layer between the main jet and the recirculation zones. To show this we described the power received from the jet by the recirculation zone as the product of a fluid-fluid friction coefficient and the square of the velocity difference times the shear velocity of the recirculation zone. This power is balanced by the bottom friction of the recirculation zone. Energy dissipation in the shear layer is then determined as the difference between the power performed by the jet and the power received by the recirculation zone. In this setup, energy dissipation is maximized by optimizing the friction coefficient. We show that for short reservoir lengths, energy dissipation is higher in the case of a symmetric flow pattern, while for longer reservoir the energy dissipation is higher for asymmetric flow patterns. The simulated switch between the two flow patterns appears to be very close to the empirical relation. This suggests that the flow pattem adapts in order to maximize energy dissipation between the jet and recirculation zones. The strength of this approach lies in the fact that no detailed knowledge of small scale processes is needed, while large scale structure formation can still be predicted. [less ▲]

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See detailAn investigation into the fraction of particle accelerators among colliding-wind binaries. Towards an extension of the catalogue
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Benaglia, Paula; Romero, Gustavo E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 600

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) are multiple systems made of early-type stars able to accelerate particles up to relativistic velocities. The relativistic particles can interact ... [more ▼]

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) are multiple systems made of early-type stars able to accelerate particles up to relativistic velocities. The relativistic particles can interact with different fields (magnetic or radiation) in the colliding-wind region and produce non-thermal emission. In many cases, non-thermal synchrotron radiation might be observable and thus constitute an indicator of the existence of a relativistic particle population in these multiple systems. To date, the catalogue of PACWBs includes about 40 objects spread over many stellar types and evolutionary stages, with no clear trend pointing to privileged subclasses of objects likely to accelerate particles. This paper aims at discussing critically some criteria for selecting new candidates among massive binaries. The subsequent search for non-thermal radiation in these objects is expected to lead to new detections of particle accelerators. On the basis of this discussion, some broad ideas for observation strategies are formulated. At this stage of the investigation of PACWBs, there is no clear reason to consider particle acceleration in massive binaries as an anomaly or even as a rare phenomenon. We therefore consider that several PACWBs will be detected in the forthcoming years, essentially using sensitive radio interferometers which are capable of measuring synchrotron emission from colliding-wind binaries. Prospects for high-energy detections are also briefly addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes retardateurs de flamme bromés : impact sur l'environnement et la santé des individus exposés
Dufour, Patrice ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2017), 75(2), 146-157

Depuis l’antiquité, l’homme utilise des moyens chimiques pour protéger ses biens des incendies. Efficaces et faciles d’emploi, les retardateurs de flamme bromés sont utilisés depuis plusieurs décennies de ... [more ▼]

Depuis l’antiquité, l’homme utilise des moyens chimiques pour protéger ses biens des incendies. Efficaces et faciles d’emploi, les retardateurs de flamme bromés sont utilisés depuis plusieurs décennies de façon massive dans l’industrie du plastique. À l’instar d’autres composés organohalogénés, les retardateurs de flamme bromés sont très persistants dans l’environnement et capables de s’accumuler le long de la chaîne alimentaire. De nombreux auteurs ont mis en évidence leur présence dans notre environnement, chez différentes espèces animales mais également dans le sérum humain. Plus inquiétant encore, l’homme est exposé à ces polluants dès la grossesse et par la suite via le lait maternel. Cette exposition pourrait avoir des conséquences sur notre santé. De nombreuses études in vitro, in vivo ou épidémiologiques ont mis en lumière une influence néfaste des retardateurs de flamme bromés sur notre système endocrinien, principalement au niveau de la fonction thyroïdienne mais également de la reproduction, du neurodéveloppement chez l’enfant et du métabolisme avec un risque accru de développer un diabète. Si une certaine prise de conscience a déjà eu lieu au niveau des autorités et de certaines grandes entreprises, de nouvelles études sont nécessaires pour confirmer les tendances déjà dégagées, élucider les mécanismes sous-jacents et déterminer s’il existe des synergies avec d’autres polluants tels que par exemple les PCB. [less ▲]

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See detailDes "fabriques de mosquée" à Bruxelles?
Husson, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Le bourgmestre de Bruxelles a proposé la création de "fabriques de mosquées" pour encadrer l'action des lieux de culte musulmans. Cette carte blanche lui répond, en expliquant qu'un tel instrument existe ... [more ▼]

Le bourgmestre de Bruxelles a proposé la création de "fabriques de mosquées" pour encadrer l'action des lieux de culte musulmans. Cette carte blanche lui répond, en expliquant qu'un tel instrument existe déjà et que cela ne répondra par ailleurs pas à certaines inquiétudes exprimées. [less ▲]

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