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See detailPsychological processes leading to activation or avoidance: Protective and vulnerability factors to depression
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Kinderman (2005, 2013) elaborated a psychological model of mental ill-health according to which biological, social and circumstantial factors lead to mental disorders through their conjoint effects on ... [more ▼]

Kinderman (2005, 2013) elaborated a psychological model of mental ill-health according to which biological, social and circumstantial factors lead to mental disorders through their conjoint effects on psychological processes (PP). Our research adopted the same framework. It focused on PP which characterize depression. More precisely, since inactivity (also conceptualized as behavioural avoidance) is one of the main feature of depression, the present research focused on PP which influence the behavioural avoidance (vulnerability factor to depression) and the behavioural activation (protective factor for depression). Three main aims were pursued: To investigate the influence of the biased PP on the behavioural avoidance. To find the PP which have a positive influence on the behavioural activation. To present an integration of our results with Kinderman’s model. Four hundred seventy-seven community adults (358 women, 119 men; x ̅ age = 34.25, SD = 11.85) completed an online survey assessing PP (negative repetitive thoughts, emotion regulation strategies, environmental rewards, self-image, inhibition/approach), avoidance, activation and depression. Since several questionnaires were used to assess each PP, factorial scores were computed for each one. Overall, confirmatory factor analyses highlighted that avoidance is positively linked to ruminations, negative emotion regulation strategies and poor environmental rewards and that activation is positively linked to positive self-image and high environmental satisfaction. Results will also be discussed according to the sex. According to their influence on both avoidance and activation, the environmental reward and the emotion regulation strategies appear to be important variables to work on during the treatment of depression. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tabous à l’école : quelle place pour le juge en classe ?
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des tabous qui suscitent des conflits. Une réflexion politologique est proposée par rapport au phénomène de judiciarisation. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an extension of the catalogue of particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries
De Becker, Michaël ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified ... [more ▼]

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified mainly through the detection of synchrotron radiation in the radio domain, and in a few cases thanks to the detection of non-thermal radiation in the high energy domain. The catalogue of PACWBs contains about 40 objects, covering a wide parameter space in terms of stellar wind and orbital parameters. So far, there is no evidence for a strict criterion to justify the occurrence of a particle acceleration process only in a small fraction of the colliding-wind binaries population, admitting the possibility that it might be a frequent property among massive stars. In this contribution, I address the issue of the frequency of particle accelerators among massive binaries, and I discuss observation strategies aiming at identifying new members of the catalogue. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à la caractérisation des cellules du ganglion spiralé et des cellules de Boettcher de l’épithélium cochléaire durant le développement chez les rongeurs
Cloes, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

As per a recent WHO report (2015), 360 million people worldwide suffer from invalidating deafness. In hearing physiology a central role is played by the sensory cells of the organ of Corti. The sensory ... [more ▼]

As per a recent WHO report (2015), 360 million people worldwide suffer from invalidating deafness. In hearing physiology a central role is played by the sensory cells of the organ of Corti. The sensory cells are responsible for the transduction of the acoustic stimuli into nerve impulses. Located nearby the sensory cells, Boettcher’s cells (BC) are barely known. The first part of our study aims at examining their morphology and ultrastructure during the postnatal development of the rat cochlear epithelium. Our morphological studies indicate that BC begin their differentiation around the 8th postnatal day (P8) and become mature around P20, once they are fully covered by Hensen’s and Claudius’ cells. Moreover, with the help of the transmission electron microscope, we noted the presence of apical tight junctions as long as BC are in contact with endolymph between P8 and P16. Our ultrastructural and immunohistological studies also show gap junctions between BC and the adjacent cells before the end of the covering process of BC. We also noted intermediate junctions between BC during the whole length of their maturation process. Finally we noticed cytoplasmic secretory granules and an accumulated material in the intercellular spaces between P8 and P25. Our data suggest that BC fulfill several functions in the cochlear epithelium: endolymphatic K+ recycling via the stria vascularis and the biosynthesis of the basilar membrane’s extracellular matrix. As the first and exclusive relay for the transmission of the auditory information to the central nervous system, the spiral ganglion (SG) is another key element of hearing physiology. The SG is mainly made up of neurons and glial cells. In an attempt to clarify the embryonic origin of the cells of the SG, we studied a strain of double transgenic mice Wnt1-Cre;Rosa26YFP, which are characterized by the permanent labelling of the neural crest cells by the YFP. We observed a constant labelling in the SG and in the stria vascularis, further supporting that the SG glial cells and the intermediate cells of the stria vascularis originate from the neural crests. However we also detected an additional and changeable positivity amongst the cells of the cochlear epithelium and osseous labyrinth, disqualifying the strain as a suitable tool of investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher male than female recombination rate in cattle is controlled by genetic variants effective in both sexes
Kadri, Naveen Kumar ULg; Harland, Chad ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 05)

We herein study genetic recombination in three dairy cattle populations from France, New-Zealand and the Netherlands. We apply a new phasing algorithm extracting familial information suited for large half ... [more ▼]

We herein study genetic recombination in three dairy cattle populations from France, New-Zealand and the Netherlands. We apply a new phasing algorithm extracting familial information suited for large half-sib families to reconstruct haplotypes and detect cross-overs (CO). The software is robust to genotyping and map errors. We identify more than 2,000,000 CO events in sperm cells transmitted by 3008 sires to 94,603 offspring, and more than 500,000 CO events in oocytes transmitted by 11,497 cows to 25,390 offspring. When measured in identical family structures, the average number of CO in males (24.0) was found to be larger than in females (21.8). In males, recombination rates were higher closer to telomeres whereas in females, recombination rates dropped at both centromeres and telomeres (probably as a result of lower informativity). The heritability of the global recombination rate (GRR) was close to 0.20 in males and to 0.08 in females. Genetic correlation ranged from 0.38 to 0.69 depending on the population, indicating that shared variants are influencing GRR in both genders. Haplotype-based genome-wide association studies revealed four genome-wide significant QTL, including two previously identified ones (involving REC8 and RNF212). For all QTLs, there was a positive correlation between haplotype effects across sexes, ranging from 0.35 to 0.68. We selected two reference panels of respectively 122 and 215 bulls sequenced at cover > 15x to impute variants in the New-Zealand and French populations. All variants identified by next-generating sequencing in 5 Mb windows encompassing the QTL peaks were imputed with Beagle in order to perform a sequence-based association study. For three QTLs, we identified missense mutations in genes known to be involved in meiosis among the most significantly associated variants. These variants were perfectly associated with the haplotypes underlying the QTL effects. The variant identified in RNF212 had already been reported, whereas missense mutations in MLH3 (N408S) and HFM1 (S1189L) are new findings. Surprisingly, variants previously identified in REC8 did not capture the QTL effect whereas variants in RNF212B, PPP1R3E, BCL2L2, HOMEZ and PABPN1 had much stronger association with the phenotype. The three missense mutations were significant in both genders with two of them accounting for approximately 10% of the genetic variance in males (the allelic substitution effect being approximately equal to one additional CO per genome). Our results are very different from reports of recombination in other species. For instance, in human, recombination rate is higher in females, distinct variants affect recombination rate in males and females and the genetic correlation is close to 0 whereas in cattle, we observed a higher recombination rate in males controlled by shared variants effective in both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbeddedness as a facilitator of sustainable entrepreneurship
Dufays, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

This conceptual paper builds on stakeholder theory and the embeddedness argument to shift from the "what" to the "how" question on sustainable entrepreneurship. It shows that sustainable entrepreneurship ... [more ▼]

This conceptual paper builds on stakeholder theory and the embeddedness argument to shift from the "what" to the "how" question on sustainable entrepreneurship. It shows that sustainable entrepreneurship is a highly embedded process and that this high embeddedness facilitates the sustainability character of entrepreneurship. [less ▲]

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See detailDensité et complexité du lien fraternel: le contexte de la parentification
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailLa Shoah au cinéma. Entre histoire, mémoire et politique.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

De "Nuit et brouillard" (1955) à "La rafle" (2010) en passant par "Holocaust" (1979) ou "La liste de Schindler" (1993), la Shoah est depuis les années cinquante au centre d’innombrables films de fiction ... [more ▼]

De "Nuit et brouillard" (1955) à "La rafle" (2010) en passant par "Holocaust" (1979) ou "La liste de Schindler" (1993), la Shoah est depuis les années cinquante au centre d’innombrables films de fiction et documentaires. Considérée tour à tour comme un événement à montrer pour préserver la mémoire du trauma ou, à l’inverse, comme un moment d’histoire irreprésentable par excès d’horreur ou défaut d’images, la destruction systématique des juifs d’Europe par les nazis pose inévitablement des questions de cinéma, de mémoire, et d’histoire politique. En revenant sur plusieurs films, célèbres ou moins connus, la conférence « La Shoah au cinéma. Entre histoire, mémoire et politique » propose un aperçu abondamment illustré des modes de représentation et des enjeux mémoriels et politiques d’une dizaine de films de ces soixante dernières années, pour mieux comprendre pourquoi et comment la représentation cinématographique de la Shoah a profondément déterminé notre vision du passé européen, notre usage idéologique de la mémoire, nos réactions face aux montées extrémistes d’aujourd’hui, et notre lecture de tensions géopolitiques contemporaines plus larges. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of GEOS-Chem for the interpretation of long-term FTIR measurements at the Jungfraujoch and other NDACC sites
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 04)

We present recent and ongoing investigations using 3D CTM GEOS-Chem model simulations for the interpretation of long-term FTIR measurements performed at selected NDACC sites.

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See detailThe crucial role of soil when modelling the impact of climate change on crop production
Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Shcherbak, Iurii et al

in Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bosch, David; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafa (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1st ASABE Climate Change Symposium - Adaptation and Mitigation (2015, May 03)

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See detailCarbon dioxide, a cheap bio-sourced building block for cyclic carbonates and non-isocyanate polyurethanes
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

Poster (2015, May 03)

Due to concerns about global warming combined with the decrease of fossil resources, new carbon feedstocks that are abundant, renewable, non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly must be ... [more ▼]

Due to concerns about global warming combined with the decrease of fossil resources, new carbon feedstocks that are abundant, renewable, non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly must be explored to produce chemicals. Besides the valorization of bio-based raw materials, the chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into added-value products has gained interest in both academia and industry. To date, the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides with the formation of cyclic carbonates is one of the most promising ways to valorize CO2 at an industrial scale. Indeed, cyclic carbonates find applications as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries, as aprotic polar solvents or as useful intermediates for polycarbonates. Cyclic carbonates also react with primary amines to produce 2-hydroxyethylurethane. This reaction can be extrapolated to the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPU) by polyaddition of bifunctional cyclic carbonates with diamines.5 This study aims (i) at developing a new highly efficient organocatalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates under mild experimental conditions and (ii) their valorization as monomers to produce non-isocyanate polyurethanes. First, we have identified a bicomponent organocatalyst, composed of a judicious combination of an organocatalyst and an activator, for the very fast synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides under very mild reaction conditions. Kinetics of reactions were followed by online Raman spectroscopy measurements under pressure. NMR titrations were realized to evidence the mechanism of activation of this novel organocatalytic system that will be discussed in detail in this talk. The second objective relies on the development of new efficient organocatalysts for the synthesis of high molar masses NIPUs in short reaction times. Organic compounds interacting with the cyclic carbonate by hydrogen bonding were identified and their catalytic activity was demonstrated for model compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomic analysis of the green microalga Chlamydomonasreinhardtii cultivated under day/night conditions
Willamme, Rémi ULg; Alsafra, Zouheir; Arumugam, Rameshkumar et al

in Journal of Biotechnology (2015)

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See detailControlled synthesis of ethylene-vinyl acetate based copolymers by organometallic mediated radical polymerization
Demarteau, Jérémy ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sumerlin, Brent S.; Tsarevsky, Nicolay V. (Eds.) et al Controlled Radical Polymerization: Materials (2015)

The controlled radical copolymerization of ethylene (E) and vinyl acetate (VAc) is further investigated by organometallic- mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) using Co(acac)2 as controlling agent at ... [more ▼]

The controlled radical copolymerization of ethylene (E) and vinyl acetate (VAc) is further investigated by organometallic- mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) using Co(acac)2 as controlling agent at ethylene pressure up to 100 bar. The effect of ethylene pressure on kinetics, level of control and copolymer composition, is discussed. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymers (EVAs) with low dispersities and ethylene content reaching 57 mol% are notably reported. This work also successfully addresses the precision design of EVA-containing block copolymers, i.e. PVAc-block-EVA. In this case, the order of the synthesis of the blocks is a key parameter. The “PVAc-first” strategy is by far more practical and efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Madhusudhan, Nikku et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in ... [more ▼]

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper we report a 4-$\sigma$ detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence of circumstellar/circumplanetary material appear plausible and motivate future long-term monitoring of the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotometric identification of the periods of the first candidate extragalactic magnetic massive stars
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Walborn, Nolan R.; Morrell, Nidia et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 577

Galactic stars belonging to the Of?p category are all strongly magnetic objects exhibiting rotationally modulated spectral and photometric changes on timescales of weeks to years. Five candidate Of?p ... [more ▼]

Galactic stars belonging to the Of?p category are all strongly magnetic objects exhibiting rotationally modulated spectral and photometric changes on timescales of weeks to years. Five candidate Of?p stars in the Magellanic Clouds have been discovered, notably in the context of ongoing surveys of their massive star populations. Here we describe an investigation of their photometric behaviour, revealing significant variability in all studied objects on timescales of one week to more than four years, including clearly periodic variations for three of them. Their spectral characteristics along with these photometric changes provide further support for the hypothesis that these are strongly magnetized O stars, analogous to the Of?p stars in the Galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of bottom currents on the sedimentary processes at the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth, Greece
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Beck, Christian; Hubert, Aurelia ULg et al

in Marine Geology (2015)

We investigated the sedimentary processes that were active during the Holocene in the Gulf of Corinth, using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and gravity cores. Seismic reflection data clearly ... [more ▼]

We investigated the sedimentary processes that were active during the Holocene in the Gulf of Corinth, using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and gravity cores. Seismic reflection data clearly show the presence of shallow-water sediment drifts at the western end of the Gulf, close to the Rion Sill that links the gulf to the Ionian Sea. Short cores indicate that drifts are composed of homogenous bioturbated mud in their upper part. The drift deposits flank a wide central area where the sea floor is eroded and where pre-Holocene deposits locally outcrop. The sea floor morphology in this area is marked by furrows oriented in different directions and by a depression attributed to the action of bottom-currents. The magnetic fabric of sediment samples from the drift, shelves, sub-basins and from the basin floor show a significant anisotropy and a similar orientation of Kmax axes along core. The largest anisotropy (P = 1.043 ± 0.007) is observed in the drift and is interpreted as resulting from the action of bottom currents. The similar orientation of Kmax axes in the other cores, collected from areas East of the drifts, suggests that bottom currents also affect sediment deposition in the rest of the study area, even if seismic profiles and core analyses demonstrate that gravitational processes such as submarine landslides and turbidity currents exert the main control on sediment transport and deposition. Average Kmax axes for four cores were reoriented using the declination of the characteristic remanent magnetization. Kmax axes show variable orientations relatively to the slope of the sea floor, between along-slope and roughly parallel to the contour lines. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from blind tests: residues on grinding stones and flaked stone tools
Rots, Veerle ULg; Hayes, Elspeth; Cnuts, Dries ULg et al

Conference (2015, May)

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See detailStone tool use and hominin evolution
Fullagar, Richard; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2015, May)

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