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See detailThe global burden of chronic kidney disease: estimates, variability and pitfalls.
Glassock, RJ; Warnock, DG; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

in Nature Reviews Nephrology (2017), 13(2), 104-114

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See detailA dynamic, sex-specific expression pattern of genes regulating thyroid hormone action in the developing zebra finch song control system
Raymaekers, S.R.; Verbeure, W.; Ter Haar, S.M. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2017), 240

The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excel ... [more ▼]

The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excel- lent model to study developmental neuroplasticity. Despite the demonstrated influence of hormones such as sex steroids on this phenomenon, thyroid hormones (THs) – an important factor in neural devel- opment and maturation – have not been studied in this regard. We used in situ hybridization to compare the expression of TH transporters, deiodinases and receptors between both sexes during all phases of song development in male zebra finch. Comparisons were made in four song control nuclei: Area X, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), HVC (used as proper name) and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Most genes regulating TH action are expressed in these four nuclei at early stages of development. However, while general expression levels decrease with age, the activating enzyme deiodinase type 2 remains highly expressed in Area X, HVC and RA in males, but not in females, until 90days post-hatch (dph), which marks the end of sensorimotor learning. Furthermore, the L-type amino acid transporter 1 and TH receptor beta show elevated expression in male HVC and RA respectively compared to surrounding tissue until adulthood. Differences compared to sur- rounding tissue and between sexes for the other TH regulators were minor. These developmental changes are accompanied by a strong local increase in vascularization in the male RA between 20 and 30 dph but not in Area X or HVC. Our results suggest that local regulation of TH signaling is an important factor in the development of the song control nuclei during the song learning phase and that TH activation by DIO2 is a key player in this process. [less ▲]

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See detailA water retention model for compacted bentonites
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Della Vecchia, Gabriele; Charlier, Robert ULg

in Canadian Geotechnical Journal (2017)

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See detailA robust statistical approach to select adequate error distributions for financial returns
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Applied Statistics (2017), 44(1), 137-161

In this article, we propose a robust statistical approach to select an appropriate error distribution, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose a robust statistical approach to select an appropriate error distribution, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional approach, we don't use any GARCH-type estimation of the conditional variance. Instead, we propose to use a recently developed nonparametric procedure (Mercurio and Spokoiny, 2004): the Local Adaptive Volatility Estimation (LAVE). The motivation for using this method is to avoid a possible model misspecification for the conditional variance. In a second step, we suggest a set of estimation and model selection procedures (Berk-Jones tests, kernel density-based selection, censored likelihood score, coverage probability) based on the so-obtained residuals. These methods enable to assess the global fit of a set of distributions as well as to focus on their behavior in the tails, giving us the capacity to map the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate distributions. A bootstrap procedure is provided to compute the rejection regions in this semiparametric context. Finally, we illustrate our methodology throughout a small simulation study and an application on three time series of daily returns (UBS stock returns, BOVESPA returns and EUR/USD exchange rates) [less ▲]

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See detailFactors controlling spatial and temporal patterns of multiple pesticide compounds in groundwater (Hesbaye chalk aquifer, Belgium)
Hakoun, Vivien; Orban, Philippe ULg; Dassargues, Alain ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017)

Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To ... [more ▼]

Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To uncover which factors govern pesticide compound concentrations in a chalk aquifer, we develop a methodology based on time series analyses, uni- and multivariate statistics accounting for concentrations below detection limits. The methodology is applied to long records (1996–2013) of a restricted compound (bentazone), three banned compounds (atrazine, diuron and simazine) and two metabolites (deethylatrazine (DEA) and 2,6–dichlorobenzamide (BAM)) sampled in the Hesbaye chalk aquifer in Belgium. In the confined area, all compounds had non-detects fractions >80%. By contrast, maximum concentrations exceeded EU’s drinking-water standard (100 ngL-1) in the unconfined area. This contrast confirms that recent recharge and polluted water did not reach the confined area, yet. Multivariate analyses based on variables representative of the hydrogeological setting revealed higher diuron and simazine concentrations in the southeast of the unconfined area, where urban activities dominate land use and where the aquifer lacks protection from a less permeable layer of hardened chalk. At individual sites, positive correlations (up to τ =0,48 for bentazone) between pesticide compound concentrations and multi-annual groundwater level fluctuations confirm occurrences of remobilization. A downward temporal trend of atrazine concentrations likely reflects decreasing use of this compound over the last 28 years. However, the lack of a break in concentrations time series and maximum concentrations of atrazine, simazine, DEA and BAM exceeding EU’s standard post-ban years provide evidence of persistence. Contrasting upward trends in bentazone concentrations show that a time lag is required for restriction measures to be efficient. These results shed light on factors governing pesticide compound concentrations in chalk aquifers. The developed methodology is not restricted to chalk aquifers, it could be transposed to study other pollutants with concentrations below detection limits. Several factors govern pesticide compounds concentrations in the chalk: hydrogeological setting, land use, groundwater level fluctuations and persistence. [less ▲]

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See detailSedation of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness During Neuroimaging: Effects on Resting State Functional Brain Connectivity.
KIRSCH, Murielle ULg; Guldenmund, P; Ali Bahri, Mohamed et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (2017), 124(2),

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See detailDivergence of wavelet series: A multifractal analysis
Esser, Céline ULg; Jaffard, Stéphane ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

We show the relevance of a multifractal-type analysis for pointwise convergence and divergence properties of wavelet series: Depending on the sequence space which the wavelet coefficients sequence belongs ... [more ▼]

We show the relevance of a multifractal-type analysis for pointwise convergence and divergence properties of wavelet series: Depending on the sequence space which the wavelet coefficients sequence belongs to, we obtain deterministic upper bounds for the Hausdorff dimensions of the sets of points where a given rate of divergence occurs, and we show that these bounds are generically optimal, according to several notions of genericity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lipid 5-phoshatase SHIP2 controls renal brush border ultrastructure and function by regulating ERM proteins activation
Sayyed, Sufyan Ali ULg; JOURET, François ULg; Vermeersch, Marjorie et al

in Kidney International (2017)

The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body ... [more ▼]

The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body homeostasis. Here, using the lipid 5-phosphatase Ship2 global knock-out mice, proximal tubule-specific Ship2 knock-out mice and a proximal tubule cell model where SHIP2 is inactivated, we show that SHIP2 is a negative regulator of microvilli formation, thereby controlling solute reabsorption by the proximal tubule. We found increased PtdIns(4,5)P2 substrate and decreased PtdIns4P product when SHIP2 was inactivated, associated with hyperactivated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins and increased Rho-GTP. Thus, inactivation of SHIP2 leads to increased microvilli formation and solute reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule. This may represent an innovative therapeutic target for renal Fanconi syndromes characterized by decreased reabsorption of solutes by this nephron segment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe picard moderne : un état de la recherche
Baiwir, Esther ULg

Book published by Centre d'Etudes Médiévales et Dialectales (2017)

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See detailThree-Dimensional Morphology of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract: Impact on Grading Aortic Stenosis Severity.
Caballero, Luis; Saura, Daniel; Oliva-Sandoval, Maria Jose et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (2017), 30(1), 28-35

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement is a critical step in the quantification of aortic valve area. The assumption of a circular morphology of the LVOT may induce some errors. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement is a critical step in the quantification of aortic valve area. The assumption of a circular morphology of the LVOT may induce some errors. The aim of this study was to assess the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the LVOT and its impact on grading aortic stenosis severity. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with aortic stenosis were studied retrospectively. LVOT dimensions were measured using 3D transesophageal echocardiography at three levels: at the hinge points (HP) of the aortic valve and at 4 and 8 mm proximal to the annular plane. Results were compared with standard two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements. RESULTS: Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography showed a funnel shape that was more circular at the HP and more elliptical at 4 and 8 mm proximal to the annular plane (circularity index = 0.92 vs 0.83 vs 0.76, P < .001). Cross-sectional area was smaller at the HP and larger at 4 and 8 mm from the annular plane (3.6 vs 3.9 vs 4.1 cm2, P = .001). The best correlation between two-dimensional and 3D transesophageal echocardiographic dimensions was at the HP (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.86). When the HP approach was selected, there was a reduction in the percentage of patients with low flow (from 41% to 29%). CONCLUSIONS: A large portion of patients with aortic stenosis have funnel-shaped and elliptical LVOTs, a morphology that is more pronounced in the region farther from the annular plane. Two-dimensional LVOT measurement closer to the annular plane has the best correlation with 3D measurements. Measurement of the LVOT closer to the annular plane should be encouraged to reduce measurement errors. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiopulmonary exercise testing is a better outcome predictor than exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.
Domanski, Olivia; Richardson, Marjorie; Coisne, Augustin et al

in International Journal of Cardiology (2017), 227

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship between peak VO2 and AS severity criteria derived from rest and supine exercise echocardiography (SEE) has never been explored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether low peak VO2 (<85% of predicted value) is associated with severity parameters in SEE, and poor clinical outcome. METHODS: Fifty one asymptomatic patients (mean age of 54+/-21years) with moderate to severe aortic stenosis (Vmax>3m/s) and left ventricle ejection fraction>50% prospectively underwent resting and SEE and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). RESULTS: Peak VO2 was lower than expected (21.9+/-7.4mL/kg/min), i.e. <85% of predicted value in 57% patients, secondary to cardiac limitation in most of them (69%). In multiple regression analysis, age, BMI and female gender were the only independent determinants of peak VO2. Interestingly no parameter derived from SEE was associated with peak VO2. After 21+/-7month follow-up, no patient died, 20 underwent cardiac surgery. Peak VO2<85% of predicted value was associated with lower event free survival compared to normal peak VO2 (57%+/-11% vs 93+/-6%, p=0.036) whereas no exercise echocardiographic parameter could predict such events. Peak VO2>/=85% had a negative predictive value of 97%. CONCLUSION: CPX detects a high proportion of false asymptomatic AS patients with poorer outcome that cannot be predicted by SEE markers of AS severity. Assessment of aerobic capacity should be part of current approach within a "watchful waiting" strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailHéra, Apollon et l'Héraion de Délos à la période archaïque
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Mazarakis Ainian, Alexandre (Ed.) Les sanctuaires archaïques des Cyclades (2017)

L’Héraion de Délos fut identifié en 1911, quand les archéologues de l’École française d’Athènes mirent au jour un dépôt archaïque dans un édifice surmonté du temple dorique toujours visible au flanc du ... [more ▼]

L’Héraion de Délos fut identifié en 1911, quand les archéologues de l’École française d’Athènes mirent au jour un dépôt archaïque dans un édifice surmonté du temple dorique toujours visible au flanc du mont Cynthe. Des inscriptions archaïques sur les objets dédiés attestèrent qu’Héra était la déesse honorée en ce lieu. Les interprétations de son culte dans l’île ont alors oscillé entre deux pôles : c’était soit une manière pour les Déliens d’apaiser sa colère contre Léto qui avait donné naissance à Apollon, ainsi que le raconte l’Hymne homérique au dieu, soit une tentative de maintenir sur l’île des fidèles tentés d’aller honorer la déesse dans le grand sanctuaire de Samos. Ces deux points de vue sont infondés : le premier, parce que les traditions narratives ont leur propre langage qui ne peut être projeté comme tel sur les cultes ; le second, parce que le désir d’honorer Héra à Délos peut être expliqué en soi, sans faire référence à une prétendue compétition avec le fameux sanctuaire de la déesse samienne. Afin de fonder l’analyse du dossier sur des prémisses plus valides, trois questions sont ici posées. 1) Qui furent les fidèles de la déesse pendant la période archaïque, des femmes, des hommes, des Délien(ne)s, des étrangers ? 2) Quelle place l’Héraion occupait-il parmi les autres sanctuaires déliens et quel était le rôle d’Héra parmi les autres dieux de Délos ? 3) Pouvons-nous utiliser l’Hymne homérique à Apollon pour comprendre le culte d’Héra et la situation de son temple sur l’île ? Ces trois questions sont abordées l’une après l’autre : la première par une analyse des types d’offrandes faites à Héra et de l’identité des dédicants qui ont inscrit leur démarche ; la deuxième en prenant en considération l’ensemble du panthéon délien archaïque ; la troisième en évaluant attentivement ce qu’implique, sur un plan narratif, la colère d’Héra contre Léto. [less ▲]

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See detailEditor's Choice - Management of Descending Thoracic Aorta Diseases: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS).
Riambau, V.; Bockler, D.; Brunkwall, J. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2017), 53(1), 4-52

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See detailLe juge doit-il être frappé d'anathème? Examen de la responsabilité civile pour la faute du juge en droits québécois et belge
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Lacroix, Mariève

in Les dynamiques de modernisation de la justice dans les pays du nord et du sud (2017)

L'article présenté dans le cadre du colloque de Casablanca est un résumé des travaux de droit comparé menés à propos de la question de la responsabilité civile pour la faute des juges dans l'exercice de ... [more ▼]

L'article présenté dans le cadre du colloque de Casablanca est un résumé des travaux de droit comparé menés à propos de la question de la responsabilité civile pour la faute des juges dans l'exercice de leur fonction, au Québec et en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detail3D electrical resistivity tomography of karstified formations using cross-line measurements
Van Hoorde, Maurits; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Dumont, Gaël ULg et al

in Engineering Geology (2017), 220

The acquisition of a full 3D survey on a large area of investigation is difficult, and from a practitioner’s point of view, very costly. In high-resolution 3D surveys, the number of electrodes increases ... [more ▼]

The acquisition of a full 3D survey on a large area of investigation is difficult, and from a practitioner’s point of view, very costly. In high-resolution 3D surveys, the number of electrodes increases rapidly and the total number of electrode combinations becomes very large. In this paper, we propose an innovative 3D acquisition procedure based on the roll-along technique. It makes use of 2D parallel lines with additional cross-line measurements. However, in order to increase the number of directions represented in the data, we propose to use cross-line measurements in several directions. Those cross-line measurements are based on dipole-dipole configurations as commonly used in cross-borehole surveys. We illustrate the method by investigating the subsurface geometry in a karstic environment for a future wind turbine project. We first test our methodology with a numerical benchmark using a synthetic model. Then, we validate it through a field case application to image the 3D geometry of karst features and the top of unaltered bedrock in limestone formations. We analyze the importance of cross-line measuring and analyze their capability for accurate subsurface imaging. The comparison with standard parallel 2D surveys clearly highlighted the added value of the cross-lines measurements to detect those structures. It provides crucial insight in subsurface geometry for the positioning of the future wind turbine foundation. The developed method can provide a useful tool in the design of 3D ERT survey to optimize the amount of information collected within a limited time frame. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Health Insurances as Social Remittances: The Case of Congolese Immigrants in Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Lizin, Olivier

in Magdalena, Nowicka; Vojin, Šerbedžija (Eds.) Migration and Social Remittances in a Global Europe (2017)

For many years, the migration and development literature has looked at the impact of financial remittances on immigrant relatives’ access to health care. More recent work on social remittances also ... [more ▼]

For many years, the migration and development literature has looked at the impact of financial remittances on immigrant relatives’ access to health care. More recent work on social remittances also examined the circulation of ideas and practices through migration and its impact on behavior and consumption patterns in the home country. Surprisingly, however, migration scholars have neglected the interactions between remittances and local health systems in countries of origin. This is all the more surprising considering the abundant literature on health and development that has documented numerous non-governmental initiatives to improve access to care in the Global South in recent years. Among those initiatives, community-based health insurances (CBHI) have attracted significant attention. CBHI are voluntary risk-pooling schemes run by not-for-profit organizations; they collect fees among users at the local level and organize access to care with providers. While the growing literature on CBHI is shedding light on the potential of civil society organizations to replace or compensate for weak public health systems, it forgets that —in many parts of the world— access to the necessary capital to join those schemes is still very dependent on emigration of some family members. In other words, for many families worldwide, strategies to access health care have become transnational. In this chapter we look at a specific form of CHBI that we call ‘transnational health insurance’ (THI). These insurance schemes are set up by immigrants in cooperation with a multitude of actors including, on the one hand, health insurance companies and development aid agencies in destination countries and, on the other hand, health care providers in countries of origin. THIs offer health coverage to a selected number of non-migrant relatives in the home country based on a premium paid directly by immigrants to the insurance company in their country of residence. Analyzing the creation and implementation of one THI in the Belgian-Congolese postcolonial context allow us in the last part the paper to discuss the concept of hybridity in the study of remittances as well as identify the drivers of immigrant transnational engagement in the area of health. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand la métrique grecque offre un problème stimulant à la programmation informatique
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in Faure, Richard; Zucker, Arnaud; Mellet, Sylvie (Eds.) Poétique de la syntaxe. Rythmique de la langue. Hommages à Michèle Biraud (2017)

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See detailMolecular Tools for the Detection and Quantification of Toxigenic Cyanobacteria
Kurmayer, Rainer; Sivonen, Kaarina; Wilmotte, Annick ULg et al

Book published by Wiley (2017)

A guide to state-of-the-art molecular tools for monitoring and managing the toxigenicity of cyanobacteria Runaway climate change has made the monitoring and management of toxigenic organisms in the ... [more ▼]

A guide to state-of-the-art molecular tools for monitoring and managing the toxigenicity of cyanobacteria Runaway climate change has made the monitoring and management of toxigenic organisms in the world’s bodies of water more urgent than ever. In order to influence public policy regarding the detection and quantification of those organisms, it is incumbent upon scientists to clearly demonstrate to policy makers the increase of toxigenic cyanobacteria and the threats they pose. As molecular methods can handle many samples in short time, they are the most reliable, cost-effective tools currently available for tracking cyanotoxicity worldwide. This volume arms scientists with the tools they need to track toxigenicity in surface waters and food supplies and, hopefully, to develop new techniques for managing the spread of toxic cyanobacteria. This book offers the first comprehensive treatment of molecular tools for monitoring cyanotoxicity. Growing out of the findings of the landmark European Cooperation in Science and Technology Cyanobacteria project (CYANOCOST), it provides detailed, practical coverage of the full array of available molecular tools and protocols, from water sampling, nucleic acid extraction, and downstream analysis—including PCR and qPCR based methods—to genotyping (DGGE), diagnostic microarrays, and community characterization using next-gen sequencing techniques. [less ▲]

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