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See detailVers une transition durable des quartiers urbains. Formulation d'un modèle d'innovation applicable à la politique des quartiers.
Ruelle, Christine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

La thèse démontre que la transition durable se produit de manière très inégale dans les quartiers urbains. Elle explore alors la question de l'action publique et de la manière dont les pouvoirs publics ... [more ▼]

La thèse démontre que la transition durable se produit de manière très inégale dans les quartiers urbains. Elle explore alors la question de l'action publique et de la manière dont les pouvoirs publics pourraient soutenir cette transition durable dans les quartiers. En particulier, le potentiel de la "politique des quartiers" est analysé et des amélioration sont proposées. La recherche-action est ensuite mobilisée pour pour enrichir cette politique de nouveaux instruments d'action, plus adaptés pour engager les habitants dans la dynamique de transition durable de leur quartier. [less ▲]

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See detailMycoplasmose bovine
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Djebala, Salem ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMerging carbon dioxide utilisation, bioresources and CO2-based process for sustainable low carbon footprints polyurethanes
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 29)

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic ... [more ▼]

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic driver for developing future low carbon footprints materials and technologies. With a global production estimated to 18 million tons for 2016, polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with applications in automotive, in building and construction, in coating, in the medical field, as flexible and rigid foams for thermal and/or acoustic insulation. Industrially, PU is produced by step-growth polymerization between di- or polyisocyanates and di- or polyols. However, isocyanates are extremely toxic compounds and made from even more toxic and explosive phosgene. Prolonged exposure to isocyanates vapour results in serious health damages such as skin irritation, asthma or DNA mutation whereas phosgene causes death. Because of the toxicity issues of these compounds associated to drastic changes in the REACH regulations limiting/banning the use of isocyanates, there is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. Valorising CO2 as C1 feedstock for producing precursors entering in the synthesis of polyurethanes by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) is a promising route to solve this challenge the polyurethane sector is facing. Through its global objective focussing on the synthesis of isocyanate-free low carbon footprint foamed materials for thermal insulation this research highlights benefits of merging bio-resources with carbon dioxide transformation and “physical” utilization. The success of the project relies on 3 key steps involving: i) The synthesis of bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates using new highly efficient organocatalysts: Due to the low reactivity of CO2 versus epoxides, addition of catalysts in the reaction medium is necessary. If lot of catalysts have been developed, their use generally suffers from some drawbacks. Indeed, most of the metal-based catalysts are highly sensitive to hydrolysis and oxidation or/and poorly selective and additionally, some of them are toxic whereas less/non-toxic and eco-friendly organocatalysts such as ionic liquids and halide salts are generally only efficient at very high temperature and pressure, so favouring the decomposition of catalyst. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new highly-efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst that showed unexpected catalytic activity for the fast (within a few minutes) and selective addition of CO2 onto model epoxides and epoxidized vegetable oils under solvent-free and mild experimental conditions. The use of this powerful dual organocatalyst was further extended to the first organocatalytic coupling of CO2 with less reactive oxetanes to produce hydroxyl telechelic oligocarbonate entering the synthesis of CO2-sourced conventional PUs. ii) The synthesis of sustainable non-isocyanate polyurethanes: Sustainable NIPUs were produced by step-growth polymerization between the so-produced bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates and biosourced amino-telechelic comonomers derived from linseed fatty acids according to a process compatible with existing industrial infrastructures (extrusion). iii) The foaming of NIPUs: Sustainable foams with thermal insulation were produced by the supercritical CO2 assisted foaming technology. Due to its solubility in polymers, CO2 can replace conventional flammable VOCs and ozone depletion chemical or physical blowing agents such as diazo compounds, hydrocarbons (pentane, isopentane…) or inert gases (nitrogen…) to produce (ultra)lightweight microcellular foams. By finely choosing the CO2 impregnation and the foaming conditions, foams with a thermal conductivity as low as 0.052 Wm-1K-1 were produced. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of sustainable thermally insulating NIPU foams. Such low carbon footprints materials will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Thoracic Impacts
Nsiampa Ndompetelo, ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Anti-personnel Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) are weapons that are designed to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil, suspect or hazardous behaviour with a low probability of severe ... [more ▼]

Anti-personnel Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) are weapons that are designed to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil, suspect or hazardous behaviour with a low probability of severe or fatal injury. They are used both by military and law enforcement in situations of low-intensity conflicts like riot control, access denial, peacekeeping missions i.e. situations where the use of lethal force is not appropriate nor desired. The most used of these weapons are the Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal Weapons (KENLW). The underlying principle of KENLW is to launch a projectile with a mass varying between 5 g and 140 g at initial velocity up to 160 m/s, which by a mechanical action on the target, will cause enough physical pain to incapacitate or repel the target. But their use is not without risk as in practice, the impacts of Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal (KENL) projectiles on the human thorax resulted in injuries, some of the them were severe even fatal. Therefore there is a need to develop methods of assessment. These assessment methods are essential in order to help deciders in charge of non- lethal weapon procurement with technical information so they can choose the best product (weapon or projectile) available on the market; to give relevant information to the manufacturers in either developing new weapons or projectiles that are more effective, or improving the existing ones, and finally to the end-users (military or police forces) of these weapons, information on operational distance of engagement. In practice, it has been observed that the thorax is the body region where the impacts of KNL projectiles led to more significant injuries than other parts of the body apart from the head which is never targeted at. Therefore in the present thesis, only assessment of thoracic impacts is investigated. Besides tests on PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subjects), animals or human surrogates, one powerful tool that is used nowadays to assess the thoracic impacts is the finite element method (FEM). It has many advantages like the capability of accounting for complex geometries or complex material modelling and its cost-effectiveness. It also gives insight into physical variables (stresses, strains,...) inside the material which are inaccessible by other means. It helps for a better understanding of the injury mechanism. Moreover, it helps to reduce cadavers or animal testings. In the present thesis, only FEM is considered as tool for injury risk assessment. On the one hand, a thorax finite element (FE) model, the SHTIM (Surrogate Human Thorax Impact Model) has been developed for the injury risk assessment. Number of assumptions has been made relative to the thorax geometry and the material characteristics are based on literature. The model has been validated thanks to the results of experiments carried out by professor C. Bir. A viscous injury criterion was defined as the parameter relevant for the occurrence of the thorax skeletal injury. This criterion is used in the present thesis for the prediction of the thoracic injury outcome. On the other hand, FE models of six projectiles have been developed where most of material characteristics were taken from the literature. For the 40 mm sponge grenades, a new method of characterizing the deformable nose has been developed. The projectile FE models were validated by comparing numerical results to experimental results obtained from real firing tests of the projectile against a rigid wall structure. These firing tests have been performed within the Department ABAL. Good correspondence was found. Once the thorax FE model and the projectile FE models validated, numerical simulations of the impact between the thorax and the projectile were performed. Using the viscous injury criterion, risk assessment of the thorax impacts was carried out. For each projectile, a critical velocity was determined which thanks to the retardation can be linked to a minimum firing distance, the safe distance. This is the distance below which an impact will result in a higher risk of skeletal thoracic injury. This information is very important for the end-users (military, police). Moreover comparison of the performance of different KENL projectiles was carried out. Few years ago, the Department ABAL acquired a thorax mechanical surrogate, the 3RBID (3 Rib Ballistic Impact Dummy) for the prediction of thoracic injury. It was an opportunity to compare both surrogates and to see if the SHTIM results are consistent with the 3RBID results. Good correspondence has been found especially for projectiles with larger diameter like the 40 mm sponge grenades. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des pays émergents dans la gouvernance économique mondiale
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Zacharie, Arnaud ULg

in Annuaire français de Relations internationales (2016), XVII(2016),

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an ... [more ▼]

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an increasingly multipolar world, external policies of the main emerging countries are aimed more at legitimizing their status of regional powers rather than at promoting a truly democratic multilateralism. By doing so, the global shift in wealth puts the multilateralism to the test. Although emerging countries have claimed more room in the international economic organizations, many of their demands have not been heard by the Western traditional powers, which prompted them to launch their own initiatives. This creates an increasing fragmentation of international financial and trade rules, which makes more complex the political conditions for effectively regulate the international system. Although emerging countries have contributed to challenge the legitimacy of the global economic governance architecture, they have so far failed to change its nature or to make it more consistent. [less ▲]

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See detailCitizen science in the nuclear field: An exploration of its potential in governing nuclear incidents, accidents, and post-disaster situations
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Van Hoyweghen, Ine et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g ... [more ▼]

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g. educational goals) and emanates within democratic and participatory cultures (e.g. the open science movement), it potentially broadens scientific research and facilitates public participation in science policy. Whereas the role of CS is well documented in fields such as amateur astronomy, biohacking, video gaming, etc., there is a dearth of research about the role of CS in the nuclear field. Yet, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, CS has demonstrably contributed to filling knowledge and information gaps, as citizens in the affected areas monitor radioactivity in the environment and communicate about environmental risks (e.g. Citizens’ Radioactivity Monitoring Project). In this process, citizen scientists have voiced ardent criticism of government and industry, as these institutes are seen to deliberately inhibit open knowledge sharing. Taking these insights as an entry point, this paper probes the potential of CS in the governance of nuclear incidents/accidents, emergency situations, and in post-disaster recovery. Drawing on past and present CS initiatives connected to nuclear incidents and accidents in Japan, the USA, Canada, and the UK, it conceptualizes the social spaces in which CS emerges; ascertains which knowledge, information and decision-making challenges CS addresses; and determines which collective lessons can be drawn to ensure more legitimate and socially robust nuclear governance. Particular attention is given to the role governments, industries, and established scientists can, and should, assume as potential facilitators, patrons, or challengers of a more collective, open approach to disaster preparedness and response. The latter category comprises social scientists, who in Japan have been criticized for “disengaging” with CS practice, thereby limiting opportunities for contextual learning about disasters and even hampering post-trauma disaster recovery. The paper engages with the following conference themes: The future role of publics in processes of government/governance; Empowering publics in new innovation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCell death signaling in cancer cells treated by Photodynamic Therapy
Fettweis, Grégory ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) are an extremely aggressive and infiltrating type of brain cancer. Despite heavy therapies and extensive fundamental and applied research, the median survival of patients ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) are an extremely aggressive and infiltrating type of brain cancer. Despite heavy therapies and extensive fundamental and applied research, the median survival of patients remains about 15 months after diagnosis for over a decade. Therefore, there is an emergency to find new approaches and therapeutic targets for treating this cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) recently demonstrated a high potential in the treatment of GBM. Moreover, GBMs induced cell death by PDT is dependent of an atypical RIP3-dependent programmed necrosis. In parallel, GBMs activate a pro-survival autophagic pathway in order to recycle PDT-damaged structures and organelles. In our PhD thesis, we investigated the regulation of this autophagic process and found that TSC2 protein had an important role in autophagy activation by PDT. Indeed, PDT treatment quickly activates the kinase MK2, which phosphorylates TSC2 on serine 1254. We then showed that phosphorylation of this serine was crucial for autophagy activation, which makes TSC2 a crucial pro-survival factor in GBMs treated with PDT. Finally, we demonstrated that protein 14-3-3 ζ (YWHAZ) interacts with TSC2 and protects TSC2 serine 1254 phosphorylation from phosphatase actions after PDT. In the same time we conducted a proteomic analysis on RIP3 immunoprecipitate. The major implication of this analysis is the demonstration that RIP3 interacts with TSC2 and YWHAZ. Finally, we showed that RIP3 interacts better with the non-phosphorylated form of TSC2 than with the phosphorylated form, suggesting a RIP3 interference in the TSC2-dependent autophagy activation process. These data were submitted for publication in "Scientific Reports". In the second part of this thesis, we also investigated the influence of RIP3 expression on osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell death. U2OS expressing or not RIP3 were treated with PDT and cell death mechanisms have been investigated. We first demonstrated that in both cell lines, apoptosis was the major cell death mechanism. Secondly, we noticed an over-activation of various caspases in cells expressing RIP3 despite a stronger resistance to PDT. This could be explained by a lower activation of autophagy in cells not expressing RIP3. Thirdly, we showed that in RIP3 expressing cells, residual necrosis was RIP1-dependent. We therefore suggest that RIP3 is able to influence the cell death process. These data were published in "Laser in surgery and medicine." [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(13), 4817-4827

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers ... [more ▼]

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers remains challenging despite their extensive use in various fields of applications and the clear benefits to finely tune their properties. Here, we report on a two-step strategy for the synthesis of tailor-made poly(vinylamine) derivatives through the organometallic- mediated radical (co)polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl- acetamide and/or N-methylvinylacetamide followed by acid hydrolysis of the acetamide groups. A series of well-defined homopolymers as well as statistical and block copolymers with pendant primary and/or secondary amines having controlled molar masses, compositions, and low dispersities were produced accordingly. The reactivity ratios of the comonomers as well as the composition drift along the chain were determined in order to have a precise idea of the polymer structures. These advances represent a significant step toward an efficient platform for synthesis of this important class of amino group-containing (co)polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailHolocene paleoclimate reconstructions from belgian continental archives
Allan, Mohammed ULg; VERHEYDEN, sophie; CRUCIFIX, Michel et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high ... [more ▼]

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high interest due to their dating possibilities and their possibility to preserve multi-proxy records of environmental and climatic dynamics. Combining studies on speleothems and peatbogs from the same area will provide an age-constrained reconstruction of climatic variability at annual resolution for key intervals of the Holocene. The reconstructed precipitation and temperature curves in NW European settings, as proposed in HOPES, are essential to better constrain the Northern Hemisphere climatic record and to test climate models. Our strategy is derived from a comparative study of two continental archives speleothems and peatbogs. Time series of elemental and stable isotope geochemistry will be established for the 2 archives. For peatbog, the reconstructions of temperature (derived from stable C and O isotope), precipitation (derived from humification) and dust flux (from elementary geochemical signature) would track climate changes with subdecadal resolution. As an innovative part, Laser Ablation analyse of elemental geochemistry on impregnated peat section will allow to reach an annual resolution in the dust flux. For speleothems, records of temperature (derived from oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of calcite) and effective rainfall (derived from geochemical ratios) would reach a seasonal resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailA Selective and Highly Sensitive MIR Photoacuostic Sensor for Trace Gas Monitoring
Lassen, M; Lamar, L; Balslev-Harder, D et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

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See detailTransparent superhydrophobic coatings from amphiphilic-fluorinated block copolymers synthesized by aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Dirani, Ali; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(24), 3998-4003

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of ... [more ▼]

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of this aqueous solution onto glass followed by an appropriate thermal treatment promotes the self-assembly of the hybrid material with the formation of superhydrophobic, robust and transparent coatings. [less ▲]

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See detailL'acétonémie : un bien ou un mal nécessaire pour la vache laitière ?
Beckers, Yves ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMapping and investigating phase anomalies in GPS data onboard Low Earth Orbiters
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Bruinsma, Sean; Loyer, Sylvain et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on ... [more ▼]

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on precise geodesy. Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is of major concern in the frame of altimetry or gravity recovery missions like GOCE or GRACE. Using the GPS receiver onboard, orbits at cm-level accuracy are generally achieved in both kinematic and reduced-dynamic approaches using dual frequency code and phase measurements. GPS data processing generally uses the Ionospheric-Free (IF) combination to get rid of the ionospheric delay, which is varying with the season, latitude, local time and solar activity. However, large discrepancies in the orbit determination are still observed over polar and equatorial regions, which turn into artefacts and errors in the derived scientific products (gravity field, sea surface height…). More precisely, large RMS values are strongly correlated to phase anomalies occurring on GPS receivers: cycle slips, data unavailability or enhanced measurement noise, especially on L2 signal. Phase anomalies are generally observed when the satellite orbit crosses regions where ionospheric scintillations occur, which are defined as rapid fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GNSS signals. The occurrence of scintillations exhibits large day-to-day variations and depends mainly on geomagnetic latitude, season and local time. At low latitudes, maximum occurrence of scintillations is observed 15-20° on either side of the geomagnetic equator. Scintillations also occur at auroral and polar latitudes, where their intensity increases with increasing geomagnetic activity. This paper aims at detecting, mapping and understanding the phase anomalies experienced by LEO satellites and analyzing their correlation with geomagnetic activity, latitude, season and local time. Several LEO satellites at different altitudes are analyzed (e.g. SWARM, GRACE or JASON), which allows a multi-layer analysis of the underlying ionospheric phenomenon, including scintillation. The latter are generally measured with several indices, like the amplitude index S4 or the phase index SigmaPhi (σφ), which are usually derived from 100Hz measurements performed by dedicated scintillation monitors. In this study, we compute a similar index (called pseudo-σφ) using GPS phase data at 1Hz coming from POD GNSS antenna. A detailed study of the occurrence rate and the severity of pseudo-σφ, together with cycle slips and other spurious phase data, will be performed for different LEO satellites. [less ▲]

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See detailAudition au Sénat sur une proposition de loi spéciale visant à modifier la loi spéciale sur la Cour constitutionnelle (proposition Doc. parl. 6-273/1)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Report (2016)

Audition publique en Commission des affaires institutionnelles du Sénat, 3 juin 2016

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See detailConception of a near-IR spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 27)

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s performances. Then, the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses such as resolution checking. Eventually, the star positioning system onto the central fiber core is explained. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the temporal dynamics of suspended sediment fluxes using discrete sampling and continuous turbidity measurements in the Meuse and Scheldt watersheds (Wallonia, Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULg

Conference (2016, June 27)

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several ... [more ▼]

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several projects were conducted to estimate the erosion rates in watersheds ranging from 16 to 2900 km². Both discrete sampling methods (allowing the coverage of a large area through field campaigns during major floods or moderate hydrological events) and continuous turbidity measurements devices (studying a small number of locations with a small sampling interval and a wide range of sampled flow rates) were tested in these projects. At the region scale (Figure 1), the mean annual sediment erosion rate reaches several hundreds of tons per square kilometre and per year in the loess belt (Senne, Dyle and Gette watersheds) with a huge sensibility to extreme hydrological events while the mean annual sediment transport value reaches 20 t.km-2.yr-1 in Lorraine, 34 t.km-2.yr-1 in Ardenne and 69 t.km-2.yr-1 in Entre-Vesdre-et-Meuse. The aims of our researches are 1) the determination of the effect of the sampling frequency on the annual sediment transport rate estimation ; 2) the definition of the prerequisites to perform efficient turbidity measurements in rivers with high suspended load concentrations ; 3) the identification of the sources of errors due to the interpolation methods through a comparison of several methods proposed in the literature allowing the quantification of long-term erosion rates using a small number of discrete samples ; 4) the observation and explanation of clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops in relationship with the sequence of floods occurring in large watersheds and 5) the highlighting of the regional differentiation in the erosion rates, particle size and proportion of organic matter in the suspended load samples due to spatial variations of the soil substrate and the land cover characteristics. [less ▲]

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