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See detailToward discovery of novel key genes for pancreatic beta cell regeneration in zebrafish
Carril Pardo, Claudio Andrès ULiege; Bergemann, David ULiege; Massoz, Laura ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 14)

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic strategies to preserve beta-cell mass and function and improve insulin treatments, beta-cell replacement constitutes a promising alternative to replenish the pancreas with functional beta-cells. Several observations of pancreatic cell plasticity has led to the hope that triggering beta-cell regeneration within the pancreas could be harnessed in future therapies. Still, mammals show limited regenerative capabilities, making difficult the study of these mechanisms. In contrast, zebrafish is extensively used for regeneration studies notably of beta-cells. We recently showed that the adult zebrafish ducts display characteristics of embryonic pancreatic progenitors that can give rise to beta-cells in physiological and induced diabetic condition*, and we determined the transcriptomic profile of zebrafish pancreatic ducts during beta-cell regeneration. To identify new genes crucial for beta-cell regeneration we plan to investigate the role of about 10 selected candidate genes by analyzing invalidating mutations created by CRISPR/Cas9. Their effect on beta-cell regeneration will be studied in 7-20 old larvae which we have established as experimental platform for functional studies. This project should help decipher the molecular mechanism of beta-cell regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe MAR model : CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX results
Wyard, Coraline ULiege; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULiege; Fettweis, Xavier ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 14)

This research discusses the results obtained by running the MAR model over the CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX domains. The MAR results depend on its horizontal resolution (5 - 10 - 20 km), its version (v3.6 vs ... [more ▼]

This research discusses the results obtained by running the MAR model over the CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX domains. The MAR results depend on its horizontal resolution (5 - 10 - 20 km), its version (v3.6 vs v3.7), and on the reanalysis used as forcing. [less ▲]

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See detailAtelier de Grounded Theory Method
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 14)

De nombreuses publications se réclament de l'analyse par théorisation ancrée (Grounded Theory Method). Ce succès suggère même que cette technique constitue une formalisation générique de la recherche ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses publications se réclament de l'analyse par théorisation ancrée (Grounded Theory Method). Ce succès suggère même que cette technique constitue une formalisation générique de la recherche qualitative. Un examen approfondi révèle cependant que, de ces nombreux travaux se réclamant de la GTM, peu rencontrent effectivement les critères essentiels que constituent l'étiquetage de l'expérience vécue, la tenue d'un journal de bord et l'élaboration d'une conceptualisation originale. Croisant ses expériences de sociologue de terrain et de formateur en recherche qualitative, Christophe Lejeune met en garde contre les pièges que recèle la recherche qualitative et présente les solutions pratiques qu'y apporte l'analyse par théorisation ancrée. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Metabolomics Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) to the Development of New Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Inhibitors (PDK)
Arslan, Deniz ULiege; Schoumacher, Matthieu ULiege; Pirotte, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 14)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly population of industrialized countries. This blindness results from the deterioration of the macula, a small part of ... [more ▼]

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly population of industrialized countries. This blindness results from the deterioration of the macula, a small part of the retina specialized for the high-acuity vision. Exudative AMD, called “wet”, is characterized by the formation of new blood vessels growing under the retina according to a process named choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Currently, the aetiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unclear. Nevertheless, a recent metabolomics study performed on the serum of “wet” AMD patients and on a CNV murine model, that mimics the effect of “wet” AMD, have demonstrated that lactate level is clearly involved in the severity of the pathology as well as the relationship between lactate, CNV and AMD [1]. According to this result, we suggest a new therapeutic approach of AMD based on the normalization of blood lactate level. The modulation of the lactate plasma concentration by treatment of the animals with synthetic compounds and more specifically Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors significantly decrease the CNV. PDK and its four isoforms (PDK1-4) regulate the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a major role in the metabolic pathway of glucose, by reversible phosphorylation. Starting from these results, development of new PDK inhibitors could open the way to innovative treatment opportunities in AMD disease. Different analogues of (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (fig.1) have been already synthetized and pharmacological evaluation is currently in progress. According to the results obtained, various pharmacomodulations will be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLes documents d'urbanisme. Vers quel typologies de représentation sous le paradigme du BIM ?
Boutemadja, Abdelkader ULiege

Conference (2017, September 14)

Sous le nouveau paradigme du BIM et du SIG 3D, quel typologies de représentation graphique doivent adopter les documents d'urbanisme. Il s'agit d'une reflexion qui donne à entrevoir les possibilités de ... [more ▼]

Sous le nouveau paradigme du BIM et du SIG 3D, quel typologies de représentation graphique doivent adopter les documents d'urbanisme. Il s'agit d'une reflexion qui donne à entrevoir les possibilités de représentation qu'offrent les nouvelles technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation des mécanismes psychologiques du processus de radicalisation
Garcet, Serge ULiege

Conference (2017, September 14)

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See detailDevelopment of inversion techniques in Asteroseismology
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

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See detailEffects of cyproterone acetate and vertically-transmitted microsporidia parasite on Gammarus pulex sperm production
Gismondi, Eric ULiege; Fivet, Adeline ULiege; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULiege

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017), 24(29), 2341723421

Endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) and parasitism can both interfere with the reproduction process of organisms. The amphipod Gammarus pulex is the host of the vertically transmitted microsporidia ... [more ▼]

Endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) and parasitism can both interfere with the reproduction process of organisms. The amphipod Gammarus pulex is the host of the vertically transmitted microsporidia Dictyocoela duebenum, and this work was devoted to the investigation of the effect of an exposure to the anti-androgen compound, cyproterone acetate (CPA), and/or of the presence of D. duebenum on the spermatozoa production and length. Significant reduction of the spermatozoa production was observed when G. pulex males were uninfected and exposed to CPA. There also appeared a lower number of spermatozoa when D. duebenum infects G. pulex, whatever the exposure condition. Moreover, we highlighted that CPA has no effect on spermatozoa production when males are infected by D. duebenum, and no treatment has impacted the spermatozoa length. Our results suggest CPA and D. duebenum could impact the endocrine system of G. pulex and especially processes close to the spermatozoa production (e.g., androgenic gland, androgen gland hormone released, gonad-inhibiting hormone synthesized by X-organ). However, as no mechanism of action was highlighted, further testing need to be performed to improve the understanding of their impacts. Finally, results confirm that vertically transmitted microsporidia could be a confounding factor in the endocrine disruption assessments in Gammaridae. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to distinguish between nouns and classifiers in Binominal Naming Constructions? Answers from two Western Amazonian languages
Van linden, An ULiege; Rose, Françoise

Conference (2017, September 13)

Western Amazonian languages stand out in showing classifiers that – in addition to the well-established classifier environments – also appear as derivational devices on nouns (Payne 1987; Aikhenvald 2000 ... [more ▼]

Western Amazonian languages stand out in showing classifiers that – in addition to the well-established classifier environments – also appear as derivational devices on nouns (Payne 1987; Aikhenvald 2000; Seifart & Payne 2007). Since classifiers are commonly assumed to originate in nouns (Aikhenvald 2000), classifier languages confront us with an analytical problem in the domain of Binominal Naming Constructions (BNCs), i.e. how to distinguish between the derivational use of classifiers on nouns (1)-(2) and noun-noun compounds (3)-(4). The present paper addresses this problem on the basis of primary data collected on Harakmbut (isolate, Peru), e.g. (1) and (3), and Mojeño Trinitario (Arawak, Bolivia), e.g. (2) and (4), two unrelated (and not in contact) Western Amazonian languages. While Mojeño Trinitario will be shown to be a multiple classifier language with an extensive set of classifiers, Harakmbut turns out to show (a small set of) classifiers only, in fewer environments. Yet, both languages will appear to behave strikingly similarly in the domain of BNCs. (1) classifier-derived nouns in Harakmbut a) siro-pi metal-CLF:stick ‘knife’ (cf. Hart 1963: 1) b) siro-pu’ metal-CLF:cylindrical;hollow ‘metal tube’ (cf. Hart 1963: 1) (2) classifier-derived nouns in Mojeño Trinitario a) yuk(u)-pi fire-CLF:long;flexible ‘candle’ b) wray(u)-'a chicken-CLF:oval ‘chicken egg’ (3) noun-noun compounds in Harakmbut a) ndumba-kuwa forest-dog ‘bush dog’ (Helberg 1984: 252; Tripp 1995: 194) b) äwït-ku giant.otter-head ‘giant otter’s head; person with giant otter’s head’ (4) noun-noun compounds in Mojeño Trinitario a) mari-chóchoku stone-river.bank ‘stony riverbank’ b) paku-miro dog-face ‘dog’s face; person with dog’s face’ In this paper, we will discuss how noun-classifier derivation compares to noun-noun compounding at the phonological, prosodic, semantic and syntactic levels in both Harakmbut and Mojeño Trinitario. For example, noun-noun compounds consist of clear “Thing-roots” (Haspelmath 2012) in both languages, with one element being the morphosyntactic and semantic head. In noun-CLF formations, however, classifiers do not really denote a “thing”, but rather a shape or quality; they do not contain a head. As a factor bearing on this analytical problem, we will show that in both languages the noun/classifier distinction is blurred by the fact that there is a class of nouns that share many features with the canonical classifiers. In both languages, these nouns refer to parts of entities, such as bodyparts, cf. (3b) and (4b), or plant parts. Morphologically, these are bound roots, which require affixation to obtain independent nominal status, specifically possessor prefixes in Mojeño Trinitario and (semantically empty) nominalizing prefixes in Harakmbut. Interestingly, in both languages such N-N compounds as (3b) and (4b) can be used as endocentric compounds in their literal sense, but they can also be used exocentrically to refer to a person whose (physical) characteristics resemble those of the referent of the endocentric compound. In Mojeño Trinitario, such exocentric uses take determiners for human referents, whereas neither component noun refers to a human entity (Harakmbut lacks any formal indication for such uses). More generally, we will examine to what extent these bound nouns can be analysed as incipient classifiers, and formulate diachronic hypotheses informed by our analysis of BNCs. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of SERS nanosensors for the detection of small bioactive molecules by cellular analysis in complex matrices: Application to dopamine
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 13)

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 ... [more ▼]

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 cells. First, the synthesis of the SERS substrate, gold nanoparticles, and its characterization. Then the development of the method with the help of a design of experiments and the demonstration of the specificity of the method over other structurally related catecholamines. And finally, the implementation of the method on the culture medium of PC-12 cells, on an HEPES buffer having served to wash the cells and on the PC-12 cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (11 ULiège)
See detail"Cadrer, c'est choisir." Introduction à l'éducation aux médias.
Hamers, Jérémy ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailEffects of wildflower strips and an adjacent forest on aphids and their natural enemies in a pea field
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Mouchon, Pierre; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in Insects (2017), 8(3), 99

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation ... [more ▼]

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%), questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced data processing for high-contrast imaging - Pushing exoplanet direct detection limits with machine learning
Gómez González, Carlos ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Since ancient times, mankind has wondered whether other solar systems exist around other stars somewhere in the Universe. It took many centuries to finally prove the existence of extra-solar planetary ... [more ▼]

Since ancient times, mankind has wondered whether other solar systems exist around other stars somewhere in the Universe. It took many centuries to finally prove the existence of extra-solar planetary systems. Nowadays, more than 3500 exoplanets have been discovered, mostly thanks to indirect detection methods. Indeed, the task of directly detecting exoplanets through high-contrast imaging (HCI) is a formidable challenge, and has only been enabled in the last decade thanks to advances in instrumentation and dedicated image processing algorithms. This last component of the exoplanet direct imaging pipeline is what ultimately pushes the detection limits and sensitivity of HCI instruments and survey campaigns. Unfortunately, the HCI community has been slow in adopting the latest developments in data management and machine learning for analyzing the increasing amount of available data. This dissertation is an attempt to fill in this very gap, and develops at the interface of computer science, machine learning, statistics, and astrophysics. This work contributes to the field of data processing for HCI in two main ways. On one hand, I have developed an open source \texttt{Python} library for taking HCI data from the raw state up to the characterization of companions. It implements state-of-the-art approaches and is positioning itself as one of the de facto software solutions for building HCI pipelines. I have also participated to the critical analysis of data from different first and second generation HCI instruments. On the other hand, I have approached the task of exoplanet detection in angular differential imaging sequences from a computer vision and machine learning perspective. This interdisciplinary work has led to novel algorithmic solutions, extending unsupervised learning techniques widely used in HCI and proposing advanced supervised learning approaches based on cutting-edge deep learning models. My novel algorithms have been presented using a robust performance assessment framework to produce large comparative performance studies. These studies show the improved sensitivity vs specificity trade-off of the proposed supervised detection approach. The proposed algorithms bring the possibility of re-processing existing HCI databases to maximize their scientific return and potentially improve the demographics of directly imaged exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic Development and Structural Change
Van Neuss, Leif ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture ... [more ▼]

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture (primary sector), manufacturing (secondary sector) and services (tertiary sector). Increasingly connected to the study of modern growth, the analysis of structural change has known an important revival over recent decades, due in part to the economic concerns associated with the movement of deindustrialization that has particularly affected the world’s most economically successful countries since the last third of the 20th century. These concerns have indeed fed many discussions on the causes and consequences of structural change, as well as on the role of policy instruments in driving and accompanying the inter-sectoral reallocation of activity. The first part of the thesis gets particularly interested in the driving forces behind the process of structural change. It begins by placing structural change in a very long historical perspective, notably shedding light on the factors that contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, an event characterized by the acceleration of structural change and traditionally considered as a turning point in the history of mankind because it eventually brought about modernity. It then analyzes the main causes of structural change in market economies, putting a particular emphasis on two mechanisms of structural change that have been largely overlooked in the recent multi-sector growth literature: changes in input-output (sectoral) linkages and changes in comparative advantage via globalization and trade. With respect to trade, an empirical analysis reveals that global exchanges have the potential to influence significantly and substantially a country’s sectoral patterns of employment, and that the estimated contribution of trade, especially of trade with developing countries, to recent structural change (deindustrialization) in affluent countries may be revised upwards when resorting to better-suited indicators of trade in manufactures. The second part of this doctoral thesis deals more with the economic effects of structural change. In particular, it proposes a new shift-share method, which is an accounting method aimed at computing the impact of the economic structure - or structural change - on a territory’s economic performance. By way of illustration, it provides an application to manufacturing employment in the Belgian provinces between 1995 and 2007. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom seed to vegetable and from vegetable to seed : constructing a right to existence
Hecquet, Corentin ULiege

Conference (2017, September 12)

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See detailSimultaneous detection of Wheat dwarf virus, northern cereal mosaic virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus and rice black-streaked dwarf virus in wheat by multiplex RT-PCR
Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Wenwen et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2017), 249

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (4 ULiège)