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See detailInvestigational insulin secretagogues for type 2 diabetes.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2016), 25(4), 405-22

INTRODUCTION: Insulin secretory defects are a key feature in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Classical insulin-secreting agents such as sulfonlyureas stimulate insulin secretion independent ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Insulin secretory defects are a key feature in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Classical insulin-secreting agents such as sulfonlyureas stimulate insulin secretion independent of glucose and cause hypoglycemia. Despite the advantages offered by incretin-based therapies, there is still a medical need for developing new insulin secretagogues for treating T2D. AREA COVERED: This article discusses: the new advances in the field of incretin-based therapies, glucokinase (GK) activators, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) or G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) agonists (GPR40, GPR119, GPR120), imeglimin and some other insulin secretagogues with diverse mechanisms of action still in preclinical development. EXPERT OPINION: New insulin secretagogues should offer major advantages over sulfonylureas and gliptins. The challenge is to avoid uncontrolled insulin secretion and minimize the risk of hypoglycemia, to protect cells from progressive loss of mass and function for a better durability of glucose control, and to offer a good safety profile. Numerous approaches are in development. However, it is too early to decide whether one new pharmacological class will emerge as a clinically useful insulin secretagogue in the near feature. [less ▲]

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See detailTitre II Usufruit, usage et habitation
Salvé, Arianne ULg; Lecocq, Pascale ULg; Boufflette, Sophie ULg et al

in Manuel de droits des biens. t. 2 Droits réels démembrés (2016)

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See detailOrbitally induced hierarchy of exchange interactions in zigzag antiferromagnetic state of honeycomb silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6
Zvereva, E.A.; Stratan, M.I.; Ushakov, A.V. et al

in Dalton Transactions (2016)

We report the revised crystal structure, static and dynamic magnetic properties of quasi-two dimensional honeycomb lattice silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data ... [more ▼]

We report the revised crystal structure, static and dynamic magnetic properties of quasi-two dimensional honeycomb lattice silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data are consistent with the onset of antiferromagnetic long range order at low temperatures with Néel temperature TN ~ 21.2 K. In addition, the magnetization curves revealed a field-induced (spin-flop type) transition below TN in moderate magnetic fields. The GGA+U calculations show the importance of the orbital degrees of freedom, which maintain a hierarchy of exchange interaction in the system. The strongest antiferromagnetic exchange coupling was found in the shortest Co-Co pairs and is due to direct and superexchange interaction between the half-filled xz+yz orbitals pointing directly to each other. The other four out of six nearest neighbor exchanges within the cobalt hexagon are suppressed, since for these bonds active half-filled orbitals turned out to be parallel and do not overlap. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra reveal a broad absorption line attributed to Co2+ ion in octahedral coordination with average effective g-factor g=2.40±0.05 at room temperature and show strong divergence of ESR parameters below ~ 150 K, which implies an extended region of short-range correlations. Based on the results of magnetic and thermodynamic studies in applied fields, we propose the magnetic phase diagram for the new honeycomb-lattice delafossite. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Neospora caninum infection modifies trophoblast cell populations and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 and 2 dynamics in pregnant dairy heifers.
Mur-Novales, R.; Serrano-Perez, B.; Garcia-Ispierto, I. et al

in Veterinary parasitology (2016), 216

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes abortion in cattle worldwide. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG-1), produced by binucleate trophoblast cells, are used for pregnancy diagnosis and as a marker of foetal-placental well-being, while PAG-2, produced by both mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells, may serve as an indicator of abortion risk. In prior work, natural N. caninum infection was found to modify plasma PAG-1 and PAG-2 patterns. The present study examines PAG-1 and PAG-2 dynamics and trophoblast cell populations following experimental infection with N. caninum. The study population was comprised of 17 N. caninum seronegative Holstein-Friesian heifers. On day 110 of gestation, 6 heifers were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) taquyzoites of N. canimum. Plasma samples for PAG-1 and PAG-2 determinations were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 42 post infection. During the study course, pregnancy was normally expressed in all controls while three infected heifers lost their foetuses. All heifers were euthanised on day 42 post infection and placentome samples from the 14 non-aborting heifers were collected to examine trophoblast cell populations. Plasma PAG-1 and PAG-2 concentrations in non-infected heifers increased until the day of euthanasia while non-aborting infected heifers showed a temporary fall in PAG-1 (P<0.004) and PAG-2 (P<0.002) concentrations from 7 to 14 days post infection (dpi). The two dams aborting at 14 and 21 dpi and a third dam with a mummified foetus upon euthanasia showed dramatic PAG-1 and PAG-2 reductions from 14 dpi to undetectable levels upon euthanasia. A stereological study of placentomes revealed significantly higher relative proportions of mono- (P=0.035) and binucleate (P=0.029) trophoblast cells at 42 dpi in non-infected heifers than infected non-aborting heifers. According to our findings, following experimental N. caninum infection on day 110 of gestation, non-aborting heifers showed a brief reversible drop in plasma PAG-1 and 2 concentrations two weeks later and reduced proportions of bi- and mono-nucleate trophoblast cells 42 days after infection. In aborting dams, dramatically reduced PAG levels were related to severe placental damage and a non-viable pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 Chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et al

in Communications in Statistics : Theory & Methods (2016)

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailEdouard Poty: a bio- and bibliography
Denayer, Julien ULg; Aretz, Markus ULg; Barchy, Laurent et al

in Geologica Belgica (2016), 19(1-2), 3-6

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See detailPatterns of Loving: Erna Brodber, Nothing's Mat
Romdhani, Rebecca ULg

in SX Salon: A Small Axe Literary Platform (2016), 21

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See detailReference Method and Reference Material Are Necessary Tools to Reveal the Variability of Cystatin C Assays
Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Kuster, Nils; Delatour, Vincent et al

in Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine (2016), 140(2), 117-118

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See detailIntroduire des animaux dans le cabinet du clinicien
Servais, Véronique ULg

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation. Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detailMagnetic Shielding with Bulk High Temperature Superconductors: Improvement of the Shielded Volume in Hollow Cylinders
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Hogan, Kevin ULg et al

in Muralidhar, Miryala (Ed.) Superconductivity: Applications Today and Tomorrow (2016)

The superconducting HTS hollow cylinder has been one of the first geometries to demonstrate its utility as an efficient passive magnetic shield, and particularly for DC magnetic shielding. The shielding ... [more ▼]

The superconducting HTS hollow cylinder has been one of the first geometries to demonstrate its utility as an efficient passive magnetic shield, and particularly for DC magnetic shielding. The shielding performances can be characterized by two parameters: (i) the shielding factor SF, defined as the ratio between the applied magnetic induction Bapp and the magnetic induction inside the shield Bin and (ii) the threshold induction Blim for which the shielding factor becomes lower than a given level. The main drawback of the hollow cylinder geometry is that the shielding is only effective in the central region of the tube and decreases towards the tube extremities because of the field penetration through the open ends. In order to improve the performances at tube extremities and hence increase the shielded volume, the tube should be closed. This can be achieved by using a superconducting vessel or by closing one or both extremities with a cap. This chapter describes the experimental and the numerical analysis of the DC shielding performances of a Bi-2223 tube closed by a superconducting Bi-2223 cap, for an axial configuration. The first part is dedicated to the experimental study of two tubes of different lengths when they are closed at one extremity or closed at both extremities. We also study the effect of the gap size between the cap and the tube. In the second part, we use numerical simulations to highlight the possible improvements and to optimize the design. In particular we study the influence of the critical current density and of the thickness of the cap. [less ▲]

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See detailCompagnies d’aventure et armées françaises. Le cas des campagnes de Gênes et de Naples à l’époque du Grand Schisme d’Occident
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Pépin, Guilhem; Lainé, Françoise; Boutoulle, Frédéric (Eds.) Routiers et mercenaires pendant la guerre de Cent ans. Hommage à Jonathan Sumption. Actes du colloque de Berbiguières (13–14 septembre 2013) (2016)

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See detailQuantitative assessment of mouse mammary gland morphology using automated digital image processing and TEB detection.
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Gérard, Céline ULg; Gallez, Anne ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2016)

The assessment of rodent mammary gland morphology is largely used to study the molecular mechanisms driving breast development and to analyze the impact of various endocrine disruptors with putative ... [more ▼]

The assessment of rodent mammary gland morphology is largely used to study the molecular mechanisms driving breast development and to analyze the impact of various endocrine disruptors with putative pathological implications. In this work, we propose a methodology relying on fully automated digital image analysis methods including image processing and quantification of the whole ductal tree and of the terminal end buds (TEB) as well. It allows to accurately and objectively measure both growth parameters and fine morphological glandular structures. Mammary gland elongation was characterized by two parameters: the length and the epithelial area of the ductal tree. Ductal tree fine structures were characterized by: 1) branch end-point density, 2) branching density and 3) branch length distribution. The proposed methodology was compared to quantification methods classically used in the literature. This procedure can be transposed to several software and thus largely used by scientists studying rodent mammary gland morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailPostretrieval overconfidence and anosognosia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
Genon, Sarah ULg; Mélon, Marlène; Salmon, Eric et al

Conference (2016)

General self awareness (anosognosia) and metacognitive monitoring in memory tasks are both impaired in AD, but how they relate to each other is still an open question. We examined awareness with the ... [more ▼]

General self awareness (anosognosia) and metacognitive monitoring in memory tasks are both impaired in AD, but how they relate to each other is still an open question. We examined awareness with the Anosognosia Questionnaire Dementia (AQD) and monitoring within a memory task, during retrieval with feeling-of-knowing (FOK) and post-retrieval, with judgment-of-confidence (JOC). FOKs/JOCs were performed for names of people either previously linked to self or other. AD showed both impaired FOK and JOC. They also showed lower self metamemory effect in their JOCs and lower awareness of their behavioral functioning in the AQD, which was specifically related to overconfidence in their JOCs for self-related items. Thus, anosognosia and altered postretrieval monitoring for self-related information may be related in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailAdding mucins to an in vitro batch fermentation model of the large intestine induces changes in microbial population isolated from porcine feces depending on the substrate
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Everaert, Nadia ULg et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2016), 92(2), 13

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to ... [more ▼]

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to increase their activity. This study investigates whether this dependence on mucus is substrate-dependent and to which extend other genera are impacted by the presence of mucus. Inulin and cellulose were fermented in vitro by a fecal inoculum from pig in the presence or not of mucin-beads in order to compare fermentation patterns and bacterial communities. Mucins increased final gas production with inulin and shifted short-chain fatty acids molar ratios (P<0.001). QPCR analyses revealed that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. decreased with mucins, but Bacteroides spp. increased when inulin was fermented. A more in-depth community analysis indicated that the mucins increased Proteobacteria (0.55 vs. 0.25 %, P=0.013), Verrucomicrobia (5.25 vs. 0.03 %, P=0.032), Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Akkermansia spp.. Proteobacteria (5.67 vs. 0.55 %, P<0.001) and Lachnospiraceae (33 vs. 10.4 %) were promoted in the mucuscompared to the broth, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. The introduction of mucins affected many microbial genera and fermentation patterns, but from PCA results, the impact of mucus was independent from the fermentation substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to novely and cocaine stimulant effects: lack of stability across environments in female Swiss mice
Nyssen, Laura ULg; Brabant, Christian ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2016), 233

Rationale: In humans, novelty/sensation seeking is seen as a personality trait with a positive relationship with addiction vulnerability. In animal studies, one of the standard proce-dures to model ... [more ▼]

Rationale: In humans, novelty/sensation seeking is seen as a personality trait with a positive relationship with addiction vulnerability. In animal studies, one of the standard proce-dures to model novelty seeking is the "response to novelty," i.e., the levels of locomotor activity in a new environment. In rodents, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the response to novelty and several effects of drugs, especially the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Objectives: The present study was designed to test in mice whether the response to novelty is stable across environments and whether its relationship with the stimulant effects of cocaine is altered by environmental changes. Experiment 1 assessed the responses to novelty of the same mice in two different novel environments. Experiment 2 tested the correlation between response to novelty and acute stimulant effects of cocaine recorded in two distinct environments. Results: The results show a weak correlation only during the first 5 min of the session between the responses to novelty measured in two distinct environments. Experiment 2 demonstrates that novelty responses and stimulant effects of cocaine are positively correlated only when both behavioral responses are measured in the same environment. In contrast, the relationship between response to novelty and acute stimulant effects of cocaine is completely lost when the behavioral responses are recorded in two different environments. Conclusions: The present results question the usual interpretation of the correlation between the response to novelty and the stimulant effects of cocaine as reflecting a relationship between two underlying individual stable characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the green payment within the scheme of the new Common Agricultural Policy (2015-2020): first results for 2015 in Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULg; Terrones Gavira, François ULg

in Quality-Access to Success (2016), (Supplement), 10-14

At the end of 2013, a new Common Agricultural Policy was defined at the European level, including the implementation of the so-called “green payment”, which obliges farmers to respect three new conditions ... [more ▼]

At the end of 2013, a new Common Agricultural Policy was defined at the European level, including the implementation of the so-called “green payment”, which obliges farmers to respect three new conditions in order to get financial support through direct payments. The year 2015 being the first implementation year, the consequences on Walloon agriculture are examined. It appears that 50% of Walloon farmers are not obliged to practice crop diversification, while 16% are obliged to have at least two crops on their arable land and 33% are obliged to have at least three crops on their arable land. Less than 1% does not respect the new diversification rules. Concerning the obligation to have at least 5% of ecological focus area on the arable land, it appears that 54% of Walloon farmers are in conditions not to be obliged to respect the measure. When they implement the measure, the percentage of ecological focus areas in arable land reaches 6.9% as a mean and 2.4% do not reach the requested 5%. Finally, it can be said that the green payment does not represent a big constraint for Walloon farmers, though eventual economic consequences are still to be precised, while environmental benefits are strengthened. [less ▲]

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See detailLymphocytoses B monoclonales : de la revue de la littérature à la pratique de laboratoire.
KEUTGENS, Aurore ULg; Foguenne, Jacques; Gothot, André ULg et al

in Annales de biologie clinique (2016), 74(2), 168-175

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as an asymptomatic condition characterized by the presence of less than 5,000 monoclonal B-cells per microliter and the absence of clinical signs or ... [more ▼]

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as an asymptomatic condition characterized by the presence of less than 5,000 monoclonal B-cells per microliter and the absence of clinical signs or symptoms of a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Most MBL cases involve B cells presenting an identical phenotype to CLL (CLL-like MBL) with a Catovsky-Matutes score of 3 to 5 and share the same chromosomal abnormalities than CLL. Depending on the absolute B cell count, one may distinguish low-count CLL-like MBL (<500 B cells/muL) which have no evidence of progression, no reduction in overall survival, no increase in infection risk and do not require any specific follow-up. Patients with clinical CLL-like MBL (>500 B cells/muL) have a 1% to 2% per year risk of progression to CLL requiring therapy, a higher risk of infectious complications and mortality implicating an annual follow-up by hematologist. MBL may also express other less common phenotypes and are named atypical MBL in case of CD5 antigen expression (Catovsky-Matutes score: 1-2) and non-CLL-like MBL for CD5 negative cases (Catovsky-Matutes score: 0-2). Their poorer prognosis implicates imaging studies, bone marrow biopsy and cytogenetic analysis in addition to physical examination in order to rule out non-hodgkinien lymphoma, and require a more frequent follow-up. This review focuses on key concepts in the classification, diagnosis, monitoring and biology of MBL in laboratory practice. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.
Carly, F.; Niu, H.; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology (2016), 43(4), 517-23

High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen ... [more ▼]

High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (<4 % DO). Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work. [less ▲]

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See detailA comprehensive density functional theory study of the key role of fluorination and dual hydrogen bonding in the activation of the epoxide/CO2 coupling by fluorinated alcohols
Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2016), 6(43), 36327-36335

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was ... [more ▼]

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Thus, it was shown that increasing the number of electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl substituents in HBDs strengthens their proton donor capability and allows a better stabilization by hydrogen bonding of the intermediates and transition states. In addition, the high efficiency of fluorinated monoalcohol activators is related to a dual hydrogen bonding mechanism by two fluorinated molecules that cooperatively contribute to the CO2/propylene oxide coupling. [less ▲]

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