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See detailWhat drives the development of community energy in Europe? The case of wind power cooperatives
Bauwens, Thomas ULg; Gotchev, Boris; Holstenkamp, Lars

in Energy Research & Social Science (2016), 13

The dominant model of energy infrastructure has historically been conceived in a very centralized fashion, i.e. with hardly any citizen involvement in energy generation. Yet, increasing attention is being ... [more ▼]

The dominant model of energy infrastructure has historically been conceived in a very centralized fashion, i.e. with hardly any citizen involvement in energy generation. Yet, increasing attention is being paid to the transition process towards a more decentralized configuration. This article examines the factors likely to foster citizen and community participation as regards wind power cooperatives in Denmark, Germany, Belgium and the UK. Using Elinor Ostrom’s Social-Ecological System Framework, the analysis highlights a double-edged phenomenon: prevailing and growing hostility towards cooperatives, on the one hand, and, on the other, strategic reactions to this evolution. What comes out indeed is that, throughout most of these countries, the emergence of some coordinated inter-organizational actions among cooperatives enables them to survive in their critical environment. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Bera, François ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2),

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little information, however, is available about the impact of climatic factors on the release of semiochemicals from this diffusive system. Objectives. The objective of this scoping study was to investigate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. Method. The impact of the three climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads was evaluated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and a laboratory scale volatile collection system. The influence of relative humidity on bead water content and size, with and without this semiochemical, was also investigated using a gravimetric method and an easy-to-use photographic device, respectively. Results. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a significant increase in the E-β¬-caryophyllene release rate. Neither relative humidity nor airflow, however, had a significant effect on the release of this semiochemical when relative humidity and wind speed ranged from 33% to 75% and from 6.61 x10-4 m.s-1 to 2.05 x10-2 m.s-1, respectively. The isotherm curves obtained were characteristic of food products and biopolymer materials. The isotherm shapes were not modified by the incorporation of the semiochemical into alginate beads, and showed an important increase in water content when relative humidity values exceeded 85%. Fortunately, this water content increase did not affect bead size, which facilitates the calculation of E-β-caryophyllene release. Conclusion. The present study shows for the first time the impact of the three main climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. It allows learning more about how these biological control devices operate in order to optimize future field trials. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the genotoxicity of substances migrating from polycarbonate replacement baby bottles to identify chemicals of high concern.
Mertens; Simon, Coraline ULg; Van Bossuyt et al

in Food & Chemical Toxicology (2016), 89

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See detailBarley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots synthesise volatile aldehydes with a strong age-dependent pattern and release (E)- non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal after mechanical injury
Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), 104

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major ... [more ▼]

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major importance for setting up experiments to study the implication of these compounds in biotic interactions. Such analyses, however, remain challenging because of the belowground location of plant root systems. In this context, this study describes the evolution of the root VOC production pattern of barley (Hordeum distichon L.) at five developmental stages from germination to the end of tillering and evaluates the emission of the identified VOCs in an artificial soil. VOCs produced by crushed root tissues and released by unexcavated root systems were analysed using dynamic sampling devices coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology (synchronous SCAN/SIM). The results showed that, at each analysed developmental stage, crushed barley roots produced mainly four volatile aldehydes: hexanal; (E)-hex-2-enal; (E)-non-2-enal; and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. Higher total and individual VOC concentrations were measured in 3-day-old seminal roots compared with older phenological stages. For each developmental stage, the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was greater for linoleic acid than α-linolenic acid and the greatest LOX activities using linoleic and α- linolenic acids as substrates were measured in 7- and 3-day-old roots, respectively. The analysis of VOCs released by barley roots into the soil showed that (E)-non-2- enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal were the only VOCs emitted in quantifiable amounts by mechanically injured roots. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailLes 'Liégeois engagés' de la guerre de Sept Ans (1757). Une mise à l'épreuve de l'identité personnelle
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Genton, François; Niklas, Thomas (Eds.) Soldats et civils au XVIIIe siècle. Echanges épistolaires ett culturels (2016)

The relationships between the men enrolled by the French army and the reactions of their relatives. The loss of their national and linguistic identity. The role of Jacques-Joseph Fabry, author of the ... [more ▼]

The relationships between the men enrolled by the French army and the reactions of their relatives. The loss of their national and linguistic identity. The role of Jacques-Joseph Fabry, author of the 'Liégeois engagé' as an informer for the British army. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutions récentes de l'évaluation de la recherche. Quelques concepts pertinents
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Zaccai, Edwin (Ed.) Penser la science: L’évaluation de la recherche en question (2016)

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See detailGrammaire matérielle et erreur de catégorie
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016), 12(1),

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See detailProposal for standardized ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)
Collins, Sally; Anna, Ashcroft; Braun, Thorsten et al

in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016)

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See detailJouer avec les mots, pourquoi et comment ?
Rigo, Michel ULg

Learning material (2016)

Ce texte reprend l'essentiel de ma présentation à la Brussels Math. Summer School du 4 août 2015. Il s'agit d'une courte introduction à la combinatoire des mots. A l'instar de Raymond Queneau et ses cent ... [more ▼]

Ce texte reprend l'essentiel de ma présentation à la Brussels Math. Summer School du 4 août 2015. Il s'agit d'une courte introduction à la combinatoire des mots. A l'instar de Raymond Queneau et ses cent mille milliards de poèmes, nous construisons des suites aux propriétés surprenantes. Pour ne pas allonger le texte, nous avons décidé d'éviter l'emploi d'automates finis. Les premiers résultats en combinatoire des mots remontent au début du siècle précédent, avec les travaux du mathématicien norvégien Axel Thue. Cette branche des mathématiques étudie la structure et les arrangements apparaissant au sein de suites finies, ou infinies, de symboles appartenant à un ensemble fini. Un carré est la juxtaposition de deux répétitions d'un même mot. On dira qu'un mot comme `taratata' contient un carré. Il est aisé de vérifier que, si on dispose uniquement de deux symboles, alors tout mot de longueur au moins 4 contient un carré. Cette observation amène de nombreuses questions simples à formuler : Avec trois symboles, peut-on construire un mot arbitrairement long ne contenant pas de carré ? Si on se limite à deux symboles, peut-on construire un mot arbitrairement long sans cube, i.e., évitant la juxtaposition de trois répétitions d'un même mot ? En fonction de la taille de l'alphabet, quels motifs doivent nécessairement apparaître et quels sont ceux qui sont évitables ? Que se passe-t-il si on autorise certaines permutations ? [less ▲]

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See detailPostface [à François Jacqmin, Le Livre de la neige]
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in Jacqmin, François (Ed.) Le Livre de la neige (2016)

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See detailPostface [à Jacques Izoard, J'apprenais à écrire, à être]
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

in Izoard, Jacques (Ed.) J'apprenais à écrire, à être (2016)

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See detailAbout the Uniform Hölder Continuity of Generalized Riemann Function
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Simons, Laurent ULg

in Mediterranean Journal of Mathematics (2016), 13(1), 101-117

In this paper, we study the uniform H\"{o}lder continuity of the generalized Riemann function~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ (with $\alpha>1$ and $\beta>0$) defined by \[ R_{\alpha,\beta}(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the uniform H\"{o}lder continuity of the generalized Riemann function~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ (with $\alpha>1$ and $\beta>0$) defined by \[ R_{\alpha,\beta}(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\sin(\pi n^\beta x)}{n^\alpha},\quad x\in\mathbb{R}, \] using its continuous wavelet transform. In particular, we show that the exponent we find is optimal. We also analyse the behaviour of~$R_{\alpha,\beta}$ as $\beta$ tends to infinity. [less ▲]

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See detailreview of Frédéric Duval, Les mots de l'édition de textes
Morato, Nicola ULg

in French Studies (2016), 70(2),

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See detailConstraints on the structure of 16 Cygni A and 16 Cygni B using inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULg; Reese, Daniel; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016)

Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution ... [more ▼]

Abstract Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution, galactic history and exoplanetary systems. In two previous papers, we showed how seismic inversion techniques could offer strong constraints on such processes by pointing out weaknesses in theoretical models. We now apply our technique to the solar analogues 16CygA and 16CygB, being amongst the best targets in the Kepler field to test the diagnostic potential of seismic inversions. The combination of various seismic indicators helps to provide more constrained and accurate fundamendal parameters for these stars. We use the latest seismic, spectroscopic and interferometric observational constraints in the litterature for this system to determine reference models independently for both stars. We carry out seismic inversions of the acoustic radius, the mean density and a core conditions indicator. We note that a degeneracy exists for the reference models. Namely, changing the diffusion coefficient or the chemical composition within the observational values leads to 5% changes in mass, 3% changes in radius and up to 8% changes in age. We use acoustic radius and mean density inversions to improve our reference models then carry out inversions for a core conditions indicator. Thanks to its sensitivity to microscopic diffusion and chemical composition mismatches, we are able to reduce the mass dispersion to 2%, namely [0.96, 1.0] M_sun, the radius dispersion to 1%, namely [1.188, 1.200] R_sun and the age dispersion to 3%, namely [7.0, 7.4] Gy, for 16CygA. For 16CygB, we can check the consistency of the models but not reduce independently the age dispersion. Nonetheless, assuming consistency with the age of 16CygA helps to further constrain its mass and radius. [less ▲]

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See detailA Simple Tiered Methodology for the Determination of Ambient Air Quality Guidelines
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Brouhon, Jean-Marc; Fourmeaux, Annick et al

in Clean : Soil, Air, Water (2016), 44

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See detailPathologie du muscle - Complications - Traitements
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailẾtude de l’émergence des organisations pastorales et de leur rôle dans les processus de gestion partagée de la vallée de la Tarka dans les départements de Bermo et Dakoro (Centre sud du Niger)
Ibrahim, Habibou ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Cette thèse vise à analyser les organisations pastorales et leurs rôles dans la gestion des conflits fonciers. En Afrique subsaharienne et particulièrement au Niger, le foncier est au centre des enjeux de ... [more ▼]

Cette thèse vise à analyser les organisations pastorales et leurs rôles dans la gestion des conflits fonciers. En Afrique subsaharienne et particulièrement au Niger, le foncier est au centre des enjeux de l’agro-pastoralisme. La sécurisation des droits d’accès aux ressources et des systèmes de tenure foncière sont essentiels pour la gestion et la résolution des conflits fonciers (Herrea et al., 2007). La région de Maradi constitue la zone de contact entre le Nord pastoral et le Sud agricole. Dans cette partie centrale où la pression foncière, aggravée par la croissance démographique, se pose avec acuité, le spectre des conflits fonciers est malheureusement devenu un phénomène chronique, une donnée permanente (GADO., 2000). La pluralité des normes et plusieurs sources de droit contribuent à complexifier le règlement des litiges fonciers entre acteurs dans les départements de Dakoro et Guidan Roumdji (Moutari., 2001). Or la dynamique globale des systèmes d’élevage est déterminée par la complémentarité des espaces agro-pastoraux. Cette complémentarité est remise en cause par ces pressions foncières et suscite des changements organisationnels dans les communautés du centre Sud du Niger (Yamba., 2004 ; 2000). C’est le rôle des associations pastorales à Dakoro et Bermo qui est l’objet de cette recherche. En effet les organisations paysannes en Afrique Subsaharienne et au Niger en particulier jouent un rôle important dans la définition des politiques agricoles et deviennent des conditions indiscutables de la réussite des actions à promouvoir à l’échelle locale (Courade et Deveze., 2006 ; Mercoiret, 2006 ; Mercoiret et al. 2004). La méthodologie de travail relève de l’approche ethnographique. Les outils et instruments d’enquête sont les questionnaires et les entretiens ouverts avec les acteurs locaux sur les dynamiques territoriales, les modes d’action des associations pastorales et les conflits fonciers. Les résultats viennent aussi des travaux et des documents des projets, des ONG et des rapports des services techniques de l’Etat. Pour un souci de fiabilité des données, nous avons tenu à réaliser des séances de restitution des données et de triangulations pour confronter les informations de diverses sources. Au total 104 personnes sont enquêtées dont 30 % auprès des associations. Ces investigations ont concerné aussi les secrétaires des commissions foncières, les préfets, les agents des projets et des ONG et le président du tribunal de Dakoro ainsi que les leaders pastoraux, les transhumants, les agriculteurs et associations pastorales. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte rendu de Christophe CHANDEZON, Julien DU BOUCHET (éds.), Artémidore de Daldis et l’interprétation des rêves. Quatorze études
Berg, Tatiana ULg

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (2016), 85

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