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See detailMulti-instrument overview of the 1-hour pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Roussos, Elias; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)
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See detailPrésentation du projet de thèse : Performance des entreprises et ressources territoriales multi-échelles en Belgique et Wallonie
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des ... [more ▼]

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des conseils et suggestions de doctorants ou d'enseignants-chercheurs. Le projet a été présenté avec les éléments suivants : contexte, questions de recherche, méthodologie, premiers résultats et éléments attendus. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (8 ULg)
See detailImages à entendre. Le vocabulaire sonore des fêtes de 1622 dans les anciens Pays Bas
De Marco, Rosa ULg; Heering, Caroline

Conference (2017, March 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
See detailObjectif Mars
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
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See detailAssessing microbial diversity changes associated with different tillage and crop residue managements: study case in a loamy soil
Degrune, Florine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The major challenge of modern agriculture is to produce enough food for the growing population, and at the same time, minimize environmental harm. To meet this challenge, Agroecology aims to replace non ... [more ▼]

The major challenge of modern agriculture is to produce enough food for the growing population, and at the same time, minimize environmental harm. To meet this challenge, Agroecology aims to replace non-renewable external inputs with ecological processes to diversify the ecosystem services and attenuate the dis-services of agriculture. In this light, the ability to manage the soil microbiota, that has great effects on soil quality, is receiving attention. Plowing, the most widely used tillage practice in intensive agriculture has proven its efficiency in maximizing crop productivity, but its long term detrimental effects on soil quality, such as soil erosion and organic matter loss, have called for alternative tillage practices. However, the success of the implementation of these practices in Europe is still debated. In the upper part of Wallonia (Belgium), the soil is highly fertile and 80% of land is occupied mostly by intensive cropping systems. To date in Walloon cropping systems, few studies have explored the soil microbiota in association with different soil managements. Here, we used a meta-barcoding approach to explore differences in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes, conventional (CT) and reduced tillage (RT), either with or without crop residue retention. The effects of these soil treatments were explored at different depths and during the growing season of two crops. Our work demonstrated clear differences in microbial diversity between tillage regimes, but no clear differences between residue management practices. The observed differences appeared to be associated with differences in physical (e.g. structure and moisture) and chemical (nutrients) soil properties. Notably, the nutrient concentrations and moisture were higher under CT than under RT. Overall, soil under CT had higher or similar microbial diversity than under RT. Analysis of β-diversity revealed differences in the taxonomic structure of microbial communities. Certain microbial groups were more abundant under CT than under RT and vice versa. For example, mycorrhizal fungi, economically and ecologically important in agroecosystems, were more abundant under RT. Finally, the magnitude of tillage effects on the microbial diversity varied strongly with the sampling depth, whereas it varied moderately with the growing season. This work highlighted CT was not necessarily unfavourable in maintaining microbial diversity when compared to RT. However, the study raises new questions regarding the impacts of microbial diversity changes on soil functioning. We encourage researchers to undertake further investigations into the functional role of microbiota in order to improve our understanding of agroecosystem functioning and its sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailPositioning in multi-GNSS mode
Deprez, Cécile ULg; Warnant, René ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Satellite positioning is facing new challenges with the appearance of mass-market receivers and smartphones. Mainly, the reliability of the car navigation systems, the accuracy of positioning in ... [more ▼]

Satellite positioning is facing new challenges with the appearance of mass-market receivers and smartphones. Mainly, the reliability of the car navigation systems, the accuracy of positioning in smartphone—based applications and the availability of positions in urban canyon or deep forests suffer from the hardware limitations of these low-cost receivers. Would the multi-GNSS positioning be the solution to handle those challenges? Indeed, the number of satellites available has dramatically increased, given the expansion of two new global satellite constellations (Galileo (EU) and BeiDou (C)), and might meet these positioning challenges, at least to some extent. [less ▲]

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See detailEnquête sur les pratiques de pâturage en Wallonie: Résultats et conclusions
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to ... [more ▼]

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Grassland preservation has several other advantages including a decrease in feeding costs (Dillon et al., 2005), a positive effect on cows’ health (e.g.a decrease in lameness) (Burow et al., 2011) and the provision of a positive image to consumers. Despite these arguments, grazing is decreasing in Europe and grasslands are disappearing. A better understanding of grazing practices and of farmers’ expectations could suggest ways of improving these practices and limiting grassland disappearance. As a result, Walloon dairy farmers were surveyed in December 2015 and the preliminary results are presented below. [less ▲]

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See detailAdministration of Third-Party Mesenchymal Stromal Cells at the Time of Kidney Transplantation: Interim Safety Analysis at One-Year Follow-Up
WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; ERPICUM, Pauline ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-based therapy has been proposed in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC in KTx. On postoperative day 3 ... [more ▼]

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-based therapy has been proposed in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC in KTx. On postoperative day 3, third-party MSC (~2.0x106/kg) were administered to 7 non-immunized first-transplant recip- ients from deceased donors, under standard immunosuppression (Basiliximab, Tacrolimus, MMF and steroids). No HLA matching was required for MSC donors. Seven comparable KTx recipients were included as controls. Informed consent was obtained. No side-effect was noted at the time of MSC injection. Still, 1 patient with a history of ischemic heart disease had a NSTEMI ~3h after MSC infusion. Ten months after KTx, 1 MSC patient had type B aortic dissection and STEMI. Four MSC patients had at least 1 opportunistic infection, whereas 3 controls had polyoma-BK viremia. At day 14, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 47.1 ± 6.8 and 39.7 ± 5.9 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.05). At 1 year, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 46.5 ± 18.6 and 54.2 ± 16.3 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.42). Per-cause biopsies evidenced 1 bor- derline and 1 acute rejections in MSC group, whereas no AR was biopsy-proven in controls. Three patients developed anti-HLA antibodies against MSC (n=1) or shared kidney/MSC (n=2) mismatches.MSC infusion was safe in all patients except one. Incidence of opportunist infections was similar in both groups. No difference in eGFR was found at 1-year post KTx. Putative immunization against MSC was observed in 3 patients. [less ▲]

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See detailintravenous administration of mesenchymal stream cells modulates renal lipid metabolism in rats
ERPICUM, Pauline ULg; Rowart, Pascal ULg; POMA, Laurence ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodents. Still, the mechanisms of such a nephroprotection remain unclear. Here, rats were ... [more ▼]

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodents. Still, the mechanisms of such a nephroprotection remain unclear. Here, rats were intravenously infused with MSC (1.5x10^6 cells in 1 ml saline; MSCD-7 group, n=6) or equivalent volume of saline (SD-7 group, n=6) 7 days before kidney sampling. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used to compare transcriptomic renal profiles, using TopHat and Cufflinks open-source software tools. A total of 494 and 256 genes were found to be significantly (q-value <.05) down- and up-regulated in mscd-7 versus sd-7 groups, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis by “david” “webgestalt” softwares highlighted that the metabolic pathways mostly affected msc included adipogenesis, insulin signalling, fatty acid (fa) biosynthesis, il-6 b-cell receptor il-3 pathway nuclear receptors involved lipid me- tabolism. Real-time qpcr immunoblotting analyses confirmed pivotal enzymes of fa biosynthesis were significantly downregulated group, whereas expression ppar alpha, a transcription factor oxidation, was induced msc. Additional- ly, fat />CD36 – a key regulator of membrane uptake of FA – was increased in MSCD-7 kidneys, with a preferential localization in proximal tubules (PT). As a whole, our data suggest that MSC infusion causes critical modifications of lipid metabolism, including (i) down-regulation of FA biosynthesis; (ii) activation of PPAR alpha pathway, and (iii) prioritization of FA as sources of energy in PT cells, which may eventually prevent lipid peroxidation and attenuate renal I/R damage. [less ▲]

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See detailCancer in the organ donor
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Organ Donation and Cancer Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, University of Liege The risk of transmission of cancer with the transplanted organ has been known since the ... [more ▼]

Organ Donation and Cancer Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, University of Liege The risk of transmission of cancer with the transplanted organ has been known since the pioneering years of solid organ transplantation, and is enhanced by immunosuppression and particularly the calcineurin inhibitors. Therefore, classically, potential organ donors with past history of cancer are excluded from donation, with the exception of low-grade malignant tumours of the central nervous system, the skin and the cervix uteri. Despite that policy, every year, some cases of cancer transmission with organ transplantation were regularly reported in transplant medical journals. At the other hand, there is a clear graft shortage, with long organ transplant waiting lists and inacceptable mortality while waiting for a life saving graft. One mean to increase the number of available grafts could be to accept donation from donors with past history of cancer. Several uncertainties remain: what is the risk of cancer transmission with organ transplantation? This risk depends of course of many donor factors, as the staging and the nature of the donor malignant tumour, the oncological management, the delay between the remission and the organ procurement. This risk may also vary according to the type of organ transplanted, as livers and lungs are more prone to bear occult metastases, compared to the hearts for example. In fact, this risk is unknown, and was clearly overestimated by the old registries as the IPTR, and by the various case reports. All modern prospective registries, as from UNOS or from UK transplant, now report a very low rate of cancer transmission when the donor cancer was known and evaluated before organ donation. Undiagnosed or occult cancer transmission with transplantation is clearly another issue that should not be mistaken with the donors with past history of cancer. In most of the recent reported cases of cancer transmission with transplantation, the donor cancer was not diagnosed before and during organ donation. And this risk increases in modern organ transplantation, as we are now accepting older and older donors, particularly in transplantation of the liver, an organ particularly at risk of metastases. Therefore surgical donor exploration is an important step of organ procurement. Body CT could be a tool to diagnose some, but not all, of these tumours. To my view, the risk of cancer transmission with transplantation has to be balanced with the risk of dying on the waiting lists. Donors with active or recent aggressive cancers have to be excluded from donation. Some types of aggressive cancers, as lymphoma or melanoma, are at high risk. In donors with past history of cancer with some years of remission, organ donation should be considered for recipients at high risk of death without a rapid transplantation. Particularly, heart transplantation, an organ with a low risk of cancer transmission but with a severe organ shortage, could benefit from such a policy. [less ▲]

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See detail(Dé)classements culturels : le canon littéraire revu par le récit d’anticipation
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Scientific conference (2017, March 16)

Le roman d’anticipation développe une certaine vision de la place de la littérature au sein des sociétés futures qu’il imagine. Plusieurs récits sont explicites au sujet des auteurs et des genres ... [more ▼]

Le roman d’anticipation développe une certaine vision de la place de la littérature au sein des sociétés futures qu’il imagine. Plusieurs récits sont explicites au sujet des auteurs et des genres littéraires qu’ils situent dans une histoire prospective à même de distinguer ceux en faveur ou en émergence de ceux sur le déclin ou déjà disparus. Ces considérations sur l’échelle des valeurs littéraires sont abordées tantôt à travers des panthéonisations subversives ou alternatives, tantôt dans des descriptions réunissant des écrivains de premier plan et des minores pour mieux interroger le jeu complexe entre reconnaissance et pérennité, qualité et succès. À travers ces procédés, c’est une réflexion sur les frontières entre littérature légitime et productions populaires qui est proposée : quels sont les effets de l’envahissement du domaine des lettres par les logiques publicitaires, la sérialisation des thèmes et des procédés sur le modèle mécanique du feuilleton, la montée en puissance des genres industriels à l’ère médiatique ? On mettra en évidence les moyens et les enjeux des recompositions du canon littéraire par le roman d’anticipation à partir de trois œuvres qui ont en commun de proposer des figurations explicites et détaillées d’un certain avenir de la culture lettrée : Jules Verne, Paris au XXe siècle (1863, publié en 1994), Albert Robida, Le Vingtième Siècle (1883) et André Maurois, Voyage au pays des Articoles (1927). [less ▲]

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See detailStatistics of localized phase slips in tunable width planar point contacts
Baumans, Xavier ULg; Zharinov, Vyacheslav; Raymenants, Eline et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

The main dissipation mechanism in superconducting nanowires arises from phase slips. Thus far, most of the studies focus on long nanowires where coexisting events appear randomly along the nanowire. In ... [more ▼]

The main dissipation mechanism in superconducting nanowires arises from phase slips. Thus far, most of the studies focus on long nanowires where coexisting events appear randomly along the nanowire. In the present work we investigate highly confined phase slips at the contact point of two superconducting leads. Profiting from the high current crowding at this spot, we are able to shrink in-situ the nanoconstriction. This procedure allows us to investigate, in the very same sample, thermally activated phase slips and the probability density function of the switching current I sw needed to trigger an avalanche of events. Furthermore, for an applied current larger than I sw , we unveil the existence of two distinct thermal regimes. One corresponding to efficient heat removal where the constriction and bath temperatures remain close to each other, and another one in which the constriction temperature can be substantially larger than the bath temperature leading to the formation of a hot spot. Considering that the switching current distribution depends on the exact thermal properties of the sample, the identification of different thermal regimes is of utmost importance for properly interpreting the dissipation mechanisms in narrow point contacts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (24 ULg)
See detailApproche psychocriminologique du processus de radicalisation chez les adolescents
Garcet, Serge ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Le processus de radicalisation à l’adolescence est le reflet d’un déterminisme réciproque entre les influences des pairs et un questionnement identitaire. La communication vise à expliquer comment cette ... [more ▼]

Le processus de radicalisation à l’adolescence est le reflet d’un déterminisme réciproque entre les influences des pairs et un questionnement identitaire. La communication vise à expliquer comment cette interaction influence la représentation du monde et le sens que lui donne l’adolescent. La compréhension de ces mécanismes cognitifs est sans doute une des clés pour comprendre ce phénomène et tenter de lui apporter une réponse. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (9 ULg)
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See detailDevelopment of a prototype of errors prediction in a geodetic network
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Presentation made by Gilles-Antoine Nys, University of Liège at the Geospatial Awards.

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
See detailReconnaissance en psychiatrie légale
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2017, March 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 ULg)