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See detailNumerical Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Thoracic Impacts
Nsiampa Ndompetelo, ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Anti-personnel Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) are weapons that are designed to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil, suspect or hazardous behaviour with a low probability of severe ... [more ▼]

Anti-personnel Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) are weapons that are designed to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil, suspect or hazardous behaviour with a low probability of severe or fatal injury. They are used both by military and law enforcement in situations of low-intensity conflicts like riot control, access denial, peacekeeping missions i.e. situations where the use of lethal force is not appropriate nor desired. The most used of these weapons are the Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal Weapons (KENLW). The underlying principle of KENLW is to launch a projectile with a mass varying between 5 g and 140 g at initial velocity up to 160 m/s, which by a mechanical action on the target, will cause enough physical pain to incapacitate or repel the target. But their use is not without risk as in practice, the impacts of Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal (KENL) projectiles on the human thorax resulted in injuries, some of the them were severe even fatal. Therefore there is a need to develop methods of assessment. These assessment methods are essential in order to help deciders in charge of non- lethal weapon procurement with technical information so they can choose the best product (weapon or projectile) available on the market; to give relevant information to the manufacturers in either developing new weapons or projectiles that are more effective, or improving the existing ones, and finally to the end-users (military or police forces) of these weapons, information on operational distance of engagement. In practice, it has been observed that the thorax is the body region where the impacts of KNL projectiles led to more significant injuries than other parts of the body apart from the head which is never targeted at. Therefore in the present thesis, only assessment of thoracic impacts is investigated. Besides tests on PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subjects), animals or human surrogates, one powerful tool that is used nowadays to assess the thoracic impacts is the finite element method (FEM). It has many advantages like the capability of accounting for complex geometries or complex material modelling and its cost-effectiveness. It also gives insight into physical variables (stresses, strains,...) inside the material which are inaccessible by other means. It helps for a better understanding of the injury mechanism. Moreover, it helps to reduce cadavers or animal testings. In the present thesis, only FEM is considered as tool for injury risk assessment. On the one hand, a thorax finite element (FE) model, the SHTIM (Surrogate Human Thorax Impact Model) has been developed for the injury risk assessment. Number of assumptions has been made relative to the thorax geometry and the material characteristics are based on literature. The model has been validated thanks to the results of experiments carried out by professor C. Bir. A viscous injury criterion was defined as the parameter relevant for the occurrence of the thorax skeletal injury. This criterion is used in the present thesis for the prediction of the thoracic injury outcome. On the other hand, FE models of six projectiles have been developed where most of material characteristics were taken from the literature. For the 40 mm sponge grenades, a new method of characterizing the deformable nose has been developed. The projectile FE models were validated by comparing numerical results to experimental results obtained from real firing tests of the projectile against a rigid wall structure. These firing tests have been performed within the Department ABAL. Good correspondence was found. Once the thorax FE model and the projectile FE models validated, numerical simulations of the impact between the thorax and the projectile were performed. Using the viscous injury criterion, risk assessment of the thorax impacts was carried out. For each projectile, a critical velocity was determined which thanks to the retardation can be linked to a minimum firing distance, the safe distance. This is the distance below which an impact will result in a higher risk of skeletal thoracic injury. This information is very important for the end-users (military, police). Moreover comparison of the performance of different KENL projectiles was carried out. Few years ago, the Department ABAL acquired a thorax mechanical surrogate, the 3RBID (3 Rib Ballistic Impact Dummy) for the prediction of thoracic injury. It was an opportunity to compare both surrogates and to see if the SHTIM results are consistent with the 3RBID results. Good correspondence has been found especially for projectiles with larger diameter like the 40 mm sponge grenades. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of excimer laser micromachining in a biomedical sensor microfabrication process
Gailly, Patrick ULg; Hastanin, Juriy ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

In the frame of the Interreg IV project “MICROBIOMED”, the Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL) participated to the development of an original concept of plasmonic-related instrumentation platform dedicated to ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the Interreg IV project “MICROBIOMED”, the Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL) participated to the development of an original concept of plasmonic-related instrumentation platform dedicated to diagnostic biosensing tests out of the laboratory. The developed instrumental platform includes both disposable one-use microfluidic affinity biochip and compact optical readout device for biochip monitoring involving mobile Internet devices for data processing and communication. The biochip includes both microfluidic and optical coupling structures formed into a single plastic slab (see Fig. 1). The microfluidic path of the biochip operates in passive capillary pumping mode. The optical detection part involves Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon. An essential advantage of the developed biochip is that its implementation involves conventional hot embossing and thin film deposition process, perfectly suited for mass production of low-cost microfluidic biochip for biochemical applications. In this presentation we focus on the fabrication of the fluidic channels and capillary structures with a commercial excimer laser mask projection system working at 193 nm. Micro-pillars of 25μm width for the capillary pump as in Fig. 1 have been ablated in the PMMA master slab used for the replication chain of the biochip prototype. By simply changing the pattern on the motorized mask, micro-pillars from 10µm to 50 µm diameter have been also machined successfully in PMMA and even glass. The mask is made of a structured metallic thin layer deposited on a quartz substrate and prepared at CSL by direct writing laser technique. The excimer laser mask projection technique allows ablating several tens of µpillars per second in the field of view of the laser beam. The entire micro-pillars area of the biochip master is then performed by a simple step and repeat laser process. The topography and dimensions of the µstructures have been measured by SEM and interferometric optical profilometry. The dynamic hydrophilic behavior of a liquid drop on the micro-pillars structure has been monitored with the camera of a contact angle instrument. [less ▲]

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See detailLes caractéristiques principales du fédéralisme belge et sa mise en oeuvre dans la pratique
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Conférence donnée à la demande de S.E. l'Ambassadeur de Suisse en Belgique, à l'occasion de la visite en Belgique d'une délégation du Conseil des Etats (Parlement fédéral suisse), conduite par le ... [more ▼]

Conférence donnée à la demande de S.E. l'Ambassadeur de Suisse en Belgique, à l'occasion de la visite en Belgique d'une délégation du Conseil des Etats (Parlement fédéral suisse), conduite par le président du Conseil des Etats ; Bruxelles, 28 juin 2016 - manifestation non accessible au public. [less ▲]

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See detailLes jeux vidéo à l'université. Recherches sur un objet culturel
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailCitizen science in the nuclear field: An exploration of its potential in governing nuclear incidents, accidents, and post-disaster situations
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Van Hoyweghen, Ine et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g ... [more ▼]

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g. educational goals) and emanates within democratic and participatory cultures (e.g. the open science movement), it potentially broadens scientific research and facilitates public participation in science policy. Whereas the role of CS is well documented in fields such as amateur astronomy, biohacking, video gaming, etc., there is a dearth of research about the role of CS in the nuclear field. Yet, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, CS has demonstrably contributed to filling knowledge and information gaps, as citizens in the affected areas monitor radioactivity in the environment and communicate about environmental risks (e.g. Citizens’ Radioactivity Monitoring Project). In this process, citizen scientists have voiced ardent criticism of government and industry, as these institutes are seen to deliberately inhibit open knowledge sharing. Taking these insights as an entry point, this paper probes the potential of CS in the governance of nuclear incidents/accidents, emergency situations, and in post-disaster recovery. Drawing on past and present CS initiatives connected to nuclear incidents and accidents in Japan, the USA, Canada, and the UK, it conceptualizes the social spaces in which CS emerges; ascertains which knowledge, information and decision-making challenges CS addresses; and determines which collective lessons can be drawn to ensure more legitimate and socially robust nuclear governance. Particular attention is given to the role governments, industries, and established scientists can, and should, assume as potential facilitators, patrons, or challengers of a more collective, open approach to disaster preparedness and response. The latter category comprises social scientists, who in Japan have been criticized for “disengaging” with CS practice, thereby limiting opportunities for contextual learning about disasters and even hampering post-trauma disaster recovery. The paper engages with the following conference themes: The future role of publics in processes of government/governance; Empowering publics in new innovation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCell death signaling in cancer cells treated by Photodynamic Therapy
Fettweis, Grégory ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) are an extremely aggressive and infiltrating type of brain cancer. Despite heavy therapies and extensive fundamental and applied research, the median survival of patients ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) are an extremely aggressive and infiltrating type of brain cancer. Despite heavy therapies and extensive fundamental and applied research, the median survival of patients remains about 15 months after diagnosis for over a decade. Therefore, there is an emergency to find new approaches and therapeutic targets for treating this cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) recently demonstrated a high potential in the treatment of GBM. Moreover, GBMs induced cell death by PDT is dependent of an atypical RIP3-dependent programmed necrosis. In parallel, GBMs activate a pro-survival autophagic pathway in order to recycle PDT-damaged structures and organelles. In our PhD thesis, we investigated the regulation of this autophagic process and found that TSC2 protein had an important role in autophagy activation by PDT. Indeed, PDT treatment quickly activates the kinase MK2, which phosphorylates TSC2 on serine 1254. We then showed that phosphorylation of this serine was crucial for autophagy activation, which makes TSC2 a crucial pro-survival factor in GBMs treated with PDT. Finally, we demonstrated that protein 14-3-3 ζ (YWHAZ) interacts with TSC2 and protects TSC2 serine 1254 phosphorylation from phosphatase actions after PDT. In the same time we conducted a proteomic analysis on RIP3 immunoprecipitate. The major implication of this analysis is the demonstration that RIP3 interacts with TSC2 and YWHAZ. Finally, we showed that RIP3 interacts better with the non-phosphorylated form of TSC2 than with the phosphorylated form, suggesting a RIP3 interference in the TSC2-dependent autophagy activation process. These data were submitted for publication in "Scientific Reports". In the second part of this thesis, we also investigated the influence of RIP3 expression on osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell death. U2OS expressing or not RIP3 were treated with PDT and cell death mechanisms have been investigated. We first demonstrated that in both cell lines, apoptosis was the major cell death mechanism. Secondly, we noticed an over-activation of various caspases in cells expressing RIP3 despite a stronger resistance to PDT. This could be explained by a lower activation of autophagy in cells not expressing RIP3. Thirdly, we showed that in RIP3 expressing cells, residual necrosis was RIP1-dependent. We therefore suggest that RIP3 is able to influence the cell death process. These data were published in "Laser in surgery and medicine." [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(13), 4817-4827

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers ... [more ▼]

iving/controlled polymerization methods have enabled the synthesis of numerous (co)polymers with defined compositions and architectures. However, the precision design of poly(vinylamine)-based copolymers remains challenging despite their extensive use in various fields of applications and the clear benefits to finely tune their properties. Here, we report on a two-step strategy for the synthesis of tailor-made poly(vinylamine) derivatives through the organometallic- mediated radical (co)polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl- acetamide and/or N-methylvinylacetamide followed by acid hydrolysis of the acetamide groups. A series of well-defined homopolymers as well as statistical and block copolymers with pendant primary and/or secondary amines having controlled molar masses, compositions, and low dispersities were produced accordingly. The reactivity ratios of the comonomers as well as the composition drift along the chain were determined in order to have a precise idea of the polymer structures. These advances represent a significant step toward an efficient platform for synthesis of this important class of amino group-containing (co)polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailHolocene paleoclimate reconstructions from belgian continental archives
Allan, Mohammed ULg; VERHEYDEN, sophie; CRUCIFIX, Michel et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high ... [more ▼]

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high interest due to their dating possibilities and their possibility to preserve multi-proxy records of environmental and climatic dynamics. Combining studies on speleothems and peatbogs from the same area will provide an age-constrained reconstruction of climatic variability at annual resolution for key intervals of the Holocene. The reconstructed precipitation and temperature curves in NW European settings, as proposed in HOPES, are essential to better constrain the Northern Hemisphere climatic record and to test climate models. Our strategy is derived from a comparative study of two continental archives speleothems and peatbogs. Time series of elemental and stable isotope geochemistry will be established for the 2 archives. For peatbog, the reconstructions of temperature (derived from stable C and O isotope), precipitation (derived from humification) and dust flux (from elementary geochemical signature) would track climate changes with subdecadal resolution. As an innovative part, Laser Ablation analyse of elemental geochemistry on impregnated peat section will allow to reach an annual resolution in the dust flux. For speleothems, records of temperature (derived from oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of calcite) and effective rainfall (derived from geochemical ratios) would reach a seasonal resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailA Selective and Highly Sensitive MIR Photoacuostic Sensor for Trace Gas Monitoring
Lassen, M; Lamar, L; Balslev-Harder, D et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

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See detailTransparent superhydrophobic coatings from amphiphilic-fluorinated block copolymers synthesized by aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Dirani, Ali; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(24), 3998-4003

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of ... [more ▼]

Preparation of transparent and superhydrophobic coatings by co-deposition of an aqueous solution of an amphiphilic fluorinated block copolymer (FBC) with silica particles was developped. Spin- coating of this aqueous solution onto glass followed by an appropriate thermal treatment promotes the self-assembly of the hybrid material with the formation of superhydrophobic, robust and transparent coatings. [less ▲]

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See detailL'acétonémie : un bien ou un mal nécessaire pour la vache laitière ?
Beckers, Yves ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMapping and investigating phase anomalies in GPS data onboard Low Earth Orbiters
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Bruinsma, Sean; Loyer, Sylvain et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on ... [more ▼]

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on precise geodesy. Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is of major concern in the frame of altimetry or gravity recovery missions like GOCE or GRACE. Using the GPS receiver onboard, orbits at cm-level accuracy are generally achieved in both kinematic and reduced-dynamic approaches using dual frequency code and phase measurements. GPS data processing generally uses the Ionospheric-Free (IF) combination to get rid of the ionospheric delay, which is varying with the season, latitude, local time and solar activity. However, large discrepancies in the orbit determination are still observed over polar and equatorial regions, which turn into artefacts and errors in the derived scientific products (gravity field, sea surface height…). More precisely, large RMS values are strongly correlated to phase anomalies occurring on GPS receivers: cycle slips, data unavailability or enhanced measurement noise, especially on L2 signal. Phase anomalies are generally observed when the satellite orbit crosses regions where ionospheric scintillations occur, which are defined as rapid fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GNSS signals. The occurrence of scintillations exhibits large day-to-day variations and depends mainly on geomagnetic latitude, season and local time. At low latitudes, maximum occurrence of scintillations is observed 15-20° on either side of the geomagnetic equator. Scintillations also occur at auroral and polar latitudes, where their intensity increases with increasing geomagnetic activity. This paper aims at detecting, mapping and understanding the phase anomalies experienced by LEO satellites and analyzing their correlation with geomagnetic activity, latitude, season and local time. Several LEO satellites at different altitudes are analyzed (e.g. SWARM, GRACE or JASON), which allows a multi-layer analysis of the underlying ionospheric phenomenon, including scintillation. The latter are generally measured with several indices, like the amplitude index S4 or the phase index SigmaPhi (σφ), which are usually derived from 100Hz measurements performed by dedicated scintillation monitors. In this study, we compute a similar index (called pseudo-σφ) using GPS phase data at 1Hz coming from POD GNSS antenna. A detailed study of the occurrence rate and the severity of pseudo-σφ, together with cycle slips and other spurious phase data, will be performed for different LEO satellites. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of precursor powders for preparation of YBa2Cu3O7 coatings by electrophoretic deposition on silver substrates
Caubergh, Stéphane ULg

Master's dissertation (2016)

Over the last years, our research group has been investigating the electrophoretic deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 (Y-123) on silver substrates with the aim to improve the magnetic shielding properties. For ... [more ▼]

Over the last years, our research group has been investigating the electrophoretic deposition of YBa2Cu3O7 (Y-123) on silver substrates with the aim to improve the magnetic shielding properties. For synthesis purposes, a key characteristic of Y-123 is its peritectic decomposition into solid Y-211 and a Y-035 liquid phase. In this work, we aimed to synthesize the two precursor powders and proceed to electrophoretic deposition on silver substrates. The final Y-123 superconductor should be formed via peritectic recombination. The starting point of this master thesis was to adapt a synthetic procedure of the Y-123 phase to the stoichiometries of Y-211 and Y-035. In this procedure, Y-123 was obtained by self-combustion of sol-gel precursors followed by a final treatment. In this master thesis, the procedure was successfully adapted to the stoichiometry of Y-211. Stable aqueous solutions containing the metal-citrate complexes could be prepared. Dried residues containing these metal-citrate complexes were obtained via the spray-drying technique with a 95.4% yield. After combustion and complete optimization of the heat treatment, it was found that 880 °C for 6h with a heating rate of 300 °C/h was sufficient to form the desired Y-211 phase. A 250-gram batch of pure Y2BaCuO5 with a median particle size of 1.4 micron could be synthesized via a scaled-up production with a global yield of 86.9 %. Concerning the synthesis of the liquid phase Y-035, the preparation of the aqueous solutions of metal-citrate complexes was more challenging and did not permit to obtain dried residues via the spray-drying method. Since spray-drying of the EDTA-based solution did not succeed, the spray-drying route was abandoned in favor of the original sol-gel route. Homogeneous gels could be prepared and the stability issue encountered with metal-citrate complexes was solved. Moreover, the amount of organic additives used in the preparation of these gels could be reduced by 23%. Finally, a 125-gram batch of Y-035 could be synthesized in a scaled-up process but high purity could not be reached due to the high content of carbon residues still present after two heat treatments. Stable butanol-based suspensions could be prepared with each powder. Here, addition of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as the dispersing agent permitted to reach optimal conditions of stability in terms of zeta potential. Electrophoretic deposition for 60 s at 50 V allowed to deposit 5.5 g/cm² of Y-211 on Ag substrates. These conditions are optimal to avoid the formation of macro-cracks during the heat treatment. Intermediate heat treatment had to be conducted between each deposition in order to avoid the coating to peel-off. Finally, peritectic recombination was tested on a mixture of Y-211 and Y-035 powders. By XRD, SEM and EDX analysis, we could prove the presence of Y-123 accompanied by Y-211 inclusions, CuO, BaCuO2 and Ag. [less ▲]

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See detailAudition au Sénat sur une proposition de loi spéciale visant à modifier la loi spéciale sur la Cour constitutionnelle (proposition Doc. parl. 6-273/1)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Report (2016)

Audition publique en Commission des affaires institutionnelles du Sénat, 3 juin 2016

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See detailConception of a near-IR spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 27)

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s performances. Then, the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses such as resolution checking. Eventually, the star positioning system onto the central fiber core is explained. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical education and leisure: What’s the link?
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, June 27)

All around the world, practitioners and researchers point out that people are becoming less and less physically active and adopt more and more sedentary behaviours. Such changes in the Human lifestyle ... [more ▼]

All around the world, practitioners and researchers point out that people are becoming less and less physically active and adopt more and more sedentary behaviours. Such changes in the Human lifestyle could have dramatic consequences as pointed out by the ‘Designed to move’ movement (Morris, 2013). To fight against that irresistible evolution, the need of a multisectorial approach is illustrated by the complexity of the socio-ecological model (Sallis et al., 2006). It underlines the large array of variables that play in the physical activity that someone is able to integrate into his/her life. Nevertheless, school has been identified as one major pillar of the promotion of an active lifestyle (van Sluijs et al., 2007). According to the knowledge and specific competences that they acquire during their studies, physical education (PE) teachers are considered as the potential cornerstones of such action (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). While it was traditionally focused on the development of the youth’s physical, motor, and social competences of the students, since two decades, PE is increasingly more associated to the preparation of physically educated citizens. It means that what the students learn during their PE lessons should be useful outside the school and for a lifelong term. This concept is become a determining pedagogical principle: the physical literacy (Whitehead, 2013). In parallel, PE teachers are now requested to play a role on the health of their students despite if few evidence confirm that they can be successful in influencing the future behaviours of the children/adolescents to who they teach (Green, 2014). New pedagogical approaches are proposed nowadays in order to increase the effectiveness of the PE teachers’ intervention. This is linked to another pedagogical principle: accountability. Leisure activities enter progressively in the PE curriculum. Students benefit of more experiences that they could operate in their community. This requires more partnerships between school and leisure actors in order to implement original projects. Students must learn to become autonomous and smart decision makers able to identify the way to integrate PA in their leisure. [less ▲]

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