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See detailAn intermediary's geographical expansion choice under uncertainty
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg; Tharakan, Joseph ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

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See detailEtude du ligament suspenseur du boulet sain et pathologique chez le cheval : d'une approche biochimique à la cellule souche isolée en post-mortem
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Tendon and ligament lesions are the subject of much debate in both veterinary and human medicine. These lesions are multifactorial in origin, but the aetiology is still not fully understood. Generally ... [more ▼]

Tendon and ligament lesions are the subject of much debate in both veterinary and human medicine. These lesions are multifactorial in origin, but the aetiology is still not fully understood. Generally, healing occurs slowly with low quality repair tissue. Indeed, the repaired tissue exhibits a lower strength compared to healthy one and is prone to re-injury. In horses, these injuries can result in severe lameness, and have often a poor prognosis. Therefore, the presence of such lesions can be career-ending in sport horses, causing considerable economic losses. More precisely, suspensory ligament (SL) lesions are frequently encountered in horses. The SL is a heterogeneous structure which consists of dense collagenous connective and adipose tissues surrounding muscle bundles. To evaluate the alterations in collagen fibrils after SL injury, we opted for an ultrastructural approach by transmission electron microscope (TEM) coupled with a quantitative biochemical analysis. Ultrastructurally, the injured tissue appeared as a disorganized network of small diameter collagen fibrils (<80 nm) corresponding to type III and type V fibrils replacing the ones of large diameter (100–180 nm), predominant in normal tissue. The biochemical approach aiming at quantifying the relative proportion of various collagen types revealed that types III and V were significantly higher within the injured tissues. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the proportion of collagen I was recorded. This modified composition of the scar tissue confirms that the healing is far from perfect, even several months after an injury. Many therapeutic strategies have been proposed to improve the healing process. However, conventional therapeutic approaches that include surgery and/or conservative approaches have not given satisfactory results. As a consequence, researchers are redirecting their efforts towards cell-based therapeutic approaches, especially making use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Clinically, both autologous and allogeneic MSCs appear particularly promising in this regard. From this perspective, the MSCs isolated from the same tissue to regenerate should be more prone to improve ligament and tendon healing after injury. However, this approach is limited by the availability of these cells. In this context, we focused on the search for a new and more advantageous source of MSCs. Harvesting stem cell from cadaveric material presents an alternative strategy that could provide a source unexploited until now. Remarkably, our findings have shown that the tissues harvested from equine ligaments within 48-72 hours post-mortem constitute an available reservoir of stem cells. The isolated cells exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and were maintained for more than 20 passages with high cell viability and proliferation. These cells were subjected to freezing and thawing processes without change in their viability, growth ability, and differentiation potential. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of mesenchymal cell markers CD73, CD90 and CD105 and the absence of the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and HLA-DR major histocompatibility complex class II(MHC II). Their stemness was also confirmed by analysis of their expression for octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1). Moreover, their multipotent potential has been proven by the ability to differentiate towards osteoblast, adipocyte and chondrocyte. To conclude, this thesis contributes to a better understanding of the intimate mechanisms of SL repair at the histological and molecular levels. Moreover, the results achieved during this thesis raise the prospect that the tissues harvested from cadaveric ligaments could represent an easy and unlimited reservoir of stem cells. These cells could represent a promising material for tendon and ligament repair, opening up new perspectives in field of cell therapy and tissue engineering. [less ▲]

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See detailLe non bis in idem en droit de la concurrence : un monde de différence avec le pénal ?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

in Franssen, Vanessa; Thiel, Delphine (Eds.) EXISTE-T-IL ENCORE UN SEUL NON BIS IN IDEM AUJOURD'HUI ? (2017)

Ce chapitre analyse l'application du principe de non bis in idem dans le contexte du droit européen de la concurrence, la comparant aux applications du même principes dans de domaines connexes.

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See detailMeasured soil erosion and catchment sediment yield data from Africa: an overview
Vanmaercke, Matthias ULg; Poesen, Jean; Broeckx, Jente

Conference (2017)

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See detailRobust asymptotic tests for the equality of multivariate coefficients of variation
Aerts, Stéphanie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in TEST (2017), 26(1), 163-187

In order to easily compare several populations on the basis of more than one feature, multivariate coefficients of variation (MCV) may be used as they allow to summarize relative dispersion in a single ... [more ▼]

In order to easily compare several populations on the basis of more than one feature, multivariate coefficients of variation (MCV) may be used as they allow to summarize relative dispersion in a single index. However, up to date, no test of equality of one or more MCV's has been developed in the literature. In this paper, several classical and robust Wald type tests are proposed and studied. The asymptotic distributions of the test statistics are derived under elliptical symmetry, and the asymptotic efficiency of the robust versions is compared to the classical tests. Robustness of the proposed procedures is examined through partial influence functions of the test statistic, as well as by means of power and level influence functions. A simulation study compares the performance of the classical and robust tests under uncontaminated and contaminated schemes, and the difference with the usual covariance homogeneity test is highlighted. As a by-product, these tests may also be considered in the univariate context where they yield procedures that are both robust and easy-to-use. They provide an interesting alternative to the numerous parametric tests of comparison of univariate coefficients of variation existing in the literature, which are, in most cases, unreliable in presence of outliers. The methods are illustrated on a real data set. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 11 - Validation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Methods
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg

in Poole, Colin (Ed.) Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - Handbook in Separation Science (2017)

Method validation is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. The present chapter defines the validation criteria described in regulatory documents. Despite ... [more ▼]

Method validation is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. The present chapter defines the validation criteria described in regulatory documents. Despite the abundance of guidelines, the conclusion about method validity remains confused. In this context, the state-of-the-art validation methodology named total error approach is briefly explained as the methodology that should be followed for all method validations. Finally, a review of literature presents quantitative development and validation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods considering a wide range of applications and analytical fields. [less ▲]

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See detailPlaton héritier de Protagoras. Un dialogue sur les fondements de la démocratie
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

Book published by Vrin (2017)

Protagoras est un sophiste, les sophistes sont les ennemis de Platon… De ce syllogisme, la conclusion semble évidente. Elle appelle cependant quelques nuances. Plus qu’un ennemi, Protagoras apparaît en ... [more ▼]

Protagoras est un sophiste, les sophistes sont les ennemis de Platon… De ce syllogisme, la conclusion semble évidente. Elle appelle cependant quelques nuances. Plus qu’un ennemi, Protagoras apparaît en effet chez Platon comme une figure exemplaire, un interlocuteur valable qui, à travers son affirmation selon laquelle l’homme est la mesure de toutes choses, incarne la démocratie, ses conditions et ses conséquences. Ce livre traite le thème général, et classique, de l’opposition entre sophistique et philosophie, mais en le limitant à une seule question dont il déploie les différentes facettes : l’idée de mesure. Il reconstitue une pensée « protagoréenne » qui replace Platon dans son contexte intellectuel et montre comment, à travers la figure de Protagoras, c’est le débat avec la démocratie qui se joue, non seulement en tant que régime politique, mais aussi en tant que modèle théorique aux implications multiples (épistémologiques, morales, pédagogiques, techniques). Sur quel critère fonder la mesure ? Comment concevoir l’expertise et le savoir ? Quel rôle attribuer au langage dans l’éducation ? Que faire de l’identité du sujet dans le processus de mémoire ? Comment penser l’unité de la Cité ? Autant de questions soulevées dans le dialogue avec le modèle protagoréen. Comprendre ce que Platon doit à Protagoras, c’est ainsi chercher par quels éléments cette pensée l’a mis au défi et par réaction à quoi il a élaboré sa propre théorie de la mesure, de l’expertise, de l’éducation et de l’unité politique. [less ▲]

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See detailArtefact présente Tante Leny. L'underground hollandaise importée en France
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Brève analyse du rôle de passeur culturel joué par Artefact dans leurs traductions de la bande dessinée underground hollandaise, via le collectif Tante Leny presenteert!.

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See detail'Mourning and Metafiction in Peter Carey's Chemistry of Tears'
Delrez, Marc ULg

in Collier, G, Davis, G; Ledent, B (Eds.) The Cross-Cultural Legacy: Critical and Creative Writings in Memory of Hena Maes-Jelinek (2017)

Peter Carey’s recent novel shares the concern with ‘unoriginality’ which has become a hallmark of his later fiction. It can actually be argued that, through this new variation on a known theme, he ... [more ▼]

Peter Carey’s recent novel shares the concern with ‘unoriginality’ which has become a hallmark of his later fiction. It can actually be argued that, through this new variation on a known theme, he purports to move beyond the clichéd postmodern paradox that authenticities – whether psychological or aesthetic – are always essentially made up, in order to consider the matter from another angle, pondering the perilous moment when an overtly fabricated object somehow mysteriously springs to life. If, as the title suggests, even our most personal emotions can be rationalized in terms of chemical reactions, why then could we not pursue a reverse path of investigation and envisage material reality as the source providing the components for the creation of spirit? This is the subjective context in which the protagonist Catherine, who works as a horologist (clockwork expert) in a London museum, must reconstruct a nineteenth-century mechanical swan suspected by some to be harbouring the soul of its original maker. Interestingly Catherine, herself a die-hard rationalist, finds herself shaken by a devastating bereavement which makes her unusually open to any form of consolation – including the self-indulgence of nostalgia, but also of cocaine and alcohol – which is why she will whole-heartedly embrace the welcome distraction offered by her work of mechanical reconstruction. As part of her attempt to understand the structure of the automaton, she feels that she must immerse herself in the diaries left behind by the commissioner of the work, an Englishman named Henry Brandling animated by his faith that the elaborate toy may release enough energy in his consumptive son, Percy, to save him from his otherwise lethal condition. Thus Carey creates an opening into the rationalist fabric of his protagonist’s present, allowing her to entertain anachronistic fantasies about the life-saving (let alone life-giving) properties of true art. Inasmuch as Catherine’s perusal of the diaries eventually facilitates a circuitous confrontation of her own grief, so that her excursions into the past serve to shore up her fragile sense of a future, the text appears to vindicate its own fantastic claims about the demiurgic, or at least redemptive, powers of art. Perhaps predictably, some reviewers balked in the face of this species of self-promotion, repeating the oft-expressed view that Carey’s fiction, in view of its deliberate straining of the laws of credibility, finally fails to emerge from an enmeshment in its own favoured themes of forgery and imitative inadequacy. The ultimate question asked by the work is then whether it must be seen to be equal to its own promise of transcendence. The present paper, by way of its own descent into the past (and particularly through a comparison with My Life as a Fake which rehearses similar themes), will try to provide an answer, notably by circumscribing the intention of a text in which metafiction assumes a metaphysical dimension possibly unique in Carey’s corpus. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning of Real-time Power Systems Reliability Management Response
Duchesne, Laurine ULg; Karangelos, Efthymios ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in PowerTech Manchester 2017 Proceedings (2017)

In this paper we study how supervised machine learning could be applied to build simplified models of real-time (RT) reliability management response to the realization of uncertainties. The final ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study how supervised machine learning could be applied to build simplified models of real-time (RT) reliability management response to the realization of uncertainties. The final objective is to import these models into look-ahead operation planning under uncertainties. Our response models predict in particular the real-time reliability management costs and the resulting reliability level of the system. We tested our methodology on the IEEE-RTS96 benchmark. Among the supervised learning algorithms tested, extremely randomized trees, kernel ridge regression and neural networks appear to be the best methods for this application. Furthermore, by using feature “importances” computed by tree-based ensemble methods, we were able to extract the most relevant variables to predict the response of real-time reliability management, and thus obtain a better understanding of the system properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural and functional correlates of glutamate concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex.
Arrubla Martinez, Jorge Andres ULg; Farrher, Ezequiel; Strippelmann, Johanna et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (2017)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers ... [more ▼]

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers in which glutamate levels were measured in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. The advantages of simultaneous electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-MRI) were exploited and the subjects were measured in the same session and under the same physiological conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG were measured in order to investigate the functional and microstructural correlates of glutamate. The concentration of glutamate (institute units) was calculated and those values were tested for correlation with the metrics of resting state fMRI, DTI, and EEG electrical sources. Our results showed that the concentration of glutamate in the PCC had a significant negative correlation with the tissue mean diffusivity in the same area. The analysis of resting state networks did not show any relationship between the concentration of glutamate and the intrinsic activity of the resting state networks. The concentration of glutamate showed a positive correlation with the electrical generators of alpha-1 frequency and a negative correlation with the generators of alpha-2 and beta-1 electrical generators. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailTumor host-interface in metastatic dissemination and adaptation to treatment
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg

Scientific conference (2017)

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See detailThe role of parental anxiety sensitivity and learning experiences in children's anxiety sensitivity.
Stassart, Céline ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2017)

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the impact of the mother’s and father’s anxiety sensitivity (AS) andlearning experiences on children’s AS, and the influence of two moderators: the children’sfemininity orientation and the children’s emotional intelligence (EI). The samplecomprised 200 non-clinical children, aged 9–13 years, and their parents (mothers andfathers). Results revealed that the effect of parental AS on children’s AS is moderated bythe children’s EI for maternal AS and by their femininity traits for paternal AS. Learningexperiences following somatic sensations influenced the children’s level of AS. Morespecifically, special attention by parents following a child’s somatic sensations (reinforce-ment and transmission of information) was associated with high AS in children. Parentalreactions of fear following a parent’s somatic sensations (modelling) seem to predicthigher scores for AS when the link is moderated by the child’s femininity orientation. Theimplications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does forest cover impact water flows and ecosystem services? Insights from real-life catchments in Wallonia (Belgium)
Brogna, Delphine; Vincke, Caroline; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Ecological Indicators (2017), 72

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof ... [more ▼]

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof this paper is to assess the impact of forest cover on water related ES in Wallonia (Belgium) in termsof quantity and timing. We developed an approach based on easily accessible data, monitored in severalcountries and using straightforward statistical methods. This led us to study ES at “real-life” catchmentsscale: 22 catchments – from 30 to 250 km2– with mixed land covers were studied. We approached thewater supply and flood protection services through 5 indicators extracted from 10 hydrological years(2005–2014) discharge data series. These were computed annually and seasonally (vegetation periodfrom March to September and “non-vegetation” period the rest of the year). The water supply wasassessed through the specific volume Vs, the baseflow index BFI and the specific discharge exceeded95% of the time Q95s whereas the flood protection service was approached through the specific dis-charge exceeded 5% of the time Q05s and the flashiness index FI. Our study gives two main insights. First,statistical analyses show that forest cover negatively impact water supply when studying annual and“non-vegetation” period flows in general (Vs) but positively when studying low flows (Q95s). Regardingflood protection a slightly negative impact of forest cover on high flows (Q05s) was highlighted in the“non-vegetation” period. Results also show a negative impact of forests annually and in the vegetationperiod on the flashy behaviour of the catchment thus a positive impact on the flood protection ES. The“year” effect is overall highly significant testifying the importance of climatic factors. Rainfall is oftensignificant and can be considered as a main driver of these ES. Secondly, analyzing the quality of themodels produced and the results overall we assume that other variables characterizing the catchmentssuch as topography or soil types do play a significant role in the delivery of these ES. This questions theuse of land cover proxies in assessing and mapping of hydrological ES at a complex landscape scale. Wethus recommend further research to keep improving land cover proxies if they are used. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal disorders of consciousness.
Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg

in Velmans, Max; Schneider, Susan (Eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness (2017)

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See detailEcotoxicoproteomic assessment of the functional alterations caused by chronic metallic exposures in gammarids
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg; Urien, Nastassia et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017)

Very few ecotoxicological studies have been performed on long-term exposure under controlled conditions, hence limiting the assessment of the impact of chronic and diffuse chemical pressures on the health ... [more ▼]

Very few ecotoxicological studies have been performed on long-term exposure under controlled conditions, hence limiting the assessment of the impact of chronic and diffuse chemical pressures on the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, an ecotoxicoproteomic approach was used to assess the integrated response and possible acclimation mechanisms in Gammarus fossarum following chronic exposures to Cd, Cu or Pb, at environmentally realistic concentrations (i.e. 0.25, 1.5 and 5 µg/L respectively). After 10-week exposure, changes in protein expression were investigated in caeca of control and exposed males. Gel-free proteomic analyses allowed for the identification of 35 proteins involved in various biological functions, for which 23 were significantly deregulated by metal exposures. The protein deregulation profiles were specific to each metal, providing evidence for metal-specific action sites and responses of gammarids. Among the tested metals, Cu was the most toxic in terms of mortality, probably linked with persistent oxidative stress. Moulting and osmoregulation were the major biological functions affected by Cu in the long-term. In Pb-exposed gammarids, significant deregulations of proteins involved in immune response and cytoskeleton were observed. Reproduction appears to be strongly affected in gammarids chronically exposed to Cd or Pb. Besides, modified expressions of several proteins involved in energy transfer and metabolism highlighted important energetic reshuffling to cope with chronic metal exposures. These results support the fact that metallic pressures induce a functional and energetic cost for individuals of G. fossarum with potential repercussions on population dynamics. Furthermore, this ecotoxicoproteomic study offers promising lines of enquiry in the development of new biomarkers that could make evidence of long-term impacts of metals on the health of organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailMono- and bimetallic manganese-carbonyl complexes and clusters bearing imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligands
Beltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel ULg

in Dalton Transactions (2017), 46

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ... [more ▼]

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ligands are the adducts of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and carbon disulfide. The mononuclear Mn(i) derivatives were coupled with Na[Mn(CO)5] to afford bimetallic [Mn2(CO)6(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] clusters. Yet, the most convenient strategy to access these dinuclear Mn(0) products implied a direct carbonyl substitution from the [Mn2(CO)10] dimer. The molecular structures of three monometallic and four bimetallic compounds were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the monometallic complexes, the NHC[middle dot]CS2 ligands exhibited a bidentate [small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute] coordination mode with an S-C-S bite angle of about 116[degree]. In the dinuclear clusters, the CS2- unit acted as a chelate toward one manganese center and as a pseudoallylic ligand toward the other one. The S-C-S bite angle was reduced to ca. 104[degree]. Thus, the zwitterions displayed a remarkable flexibility, which also permitted a staggered arrangement of the carbonyl groups in the bimetallic systems. Examination of the [small nu, Greek, macron]CO absorption bands on IR spectroscopy helped identify the presence of fac-Mn(CO)3 or Mn2(CO)6 motifs, while the 13C NMR chemical shift of the CS2- moiety was a reliable indicator for monitoring its hapticity. Whereas the dinuclear clusters were air- and moisture-stable crystalline solids, mononuclear halido derivatives displayed only a limited stability under aerobic conditions. Both types of compounds underwent rather unselective, extensive fragmentations in the gas phase, in sharp contrast with the analogous rhenium derivatives that led to clean sequential decarbonylation processes upon collision-induced dissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain: in vivo diffusion tensor imaging and ex vivo super-resolution track density imaging
Hamaide, J.; De Groof, G.; Van Steenkiste, G. et al

in NeuroImage (2017)

Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural ... [more ▼]

Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to implement an in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) protocol sensitive enough to detect structural sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain. Voxel-wise comparison of male and female DTI parameter maps shows clear differences in several components of the song control system (i.e. Area X surroundings, the high vocal center (HVC) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN)), which corroborate previous findings and are in line with the clear behavioral difference as only males sing. Furthermore, to obtain additional insights into the 3-dimensional organization of the zebra finch brain and clarify findings obtained by the in vivo study, ex vivo DTI data of the male and female brain were acquired as well, using a recently established super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) imaging strategy. Interestingly, the SRR-DTI approach led to a marked reduction in acquisition time without interfering with the (spatial and angular) resolution and SNR which enabled to acquire a data set characterized by a 78μm isotropic resolution including 90 diffusion gradient directions within 44h of scanning time. Based on the reconstructed SRR-DTI maps, whole brain probabilistic Track Density Imaging (TDI) was performed for the purpose of super resolved track density imaging, further pushing the resolution up to 40μm isotropic. The DTI and TDI maps realized atlas-quality anatomical maps that enable a clear delineation of most components of the song control and auditory systems. In conclusion, this study paves the way for longitudinal in vivo and high-resolution ex vivo experiments aimed at disentangling [less ▲]

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