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See detailReduced sputum expression of interferon-stimulated genes in severe COPD.
Hilzendeger, Clarissa ULg; da Silva, Jane; HENKET, Monique ULg et al

in International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2016), 11

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of COPD are frequent and commonly triggered by respiratory tract infections. The purpose of our study was to investigate innate immunity in stable COPD patients. METHODS: Induced ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of COPD are frequent and commonly triggered by respiratory tract infections. The purpose of our study was to investigate innate immunity in stable COPD patients. METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from 51 stable consecutive COPD patients recruited from the COPD Clinic of CHU Liege and 35 healthy subjects. Expression of interferons beta (IFN-beta) and lambda1 (IL-29), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) MxA, OAS, and viperin were measured in total sputum cells by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The presence of Picornaviruses was assessed by RT-PCR, while potential pathogenic microorganisms (PPM) were identified by sputum bacteriology. RESULTS: Expression of IL-29 was found in 16 of 51 COPD patients (31%) and in nine of 35 healthy subjects (26%), while IFN-beta was detected in six of 51 COPD patients (12%) and in two of 35 healthy subjects (6%). ISGs were easily detectable in both groups. In the whole group of COPD patients, OAS expression was decreased (P<0.05), while that of viperin was increased (P<0.01) compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found with respect to MxA. COPD patients from group D of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) had reduced expression of all three ISGs (P<0.01 for MxA, P<0.05 for OAS, and P<0.01 for viperin) as compared to those of group B patients. Picornaviruses were detected in eight of 51 (16%) COPD patients vs four of 33 (12%) healthy subjects, while PPM were detected in seven of 39 (18%) COPD patients and associated with raised sputum neutrophil counts. IFN-beta expression was raised when either picornavirus or PPM were detected (P=0.06), but no difference was seen regarding IL-29 or ISGs. CONCLUSION: ISGs expression was reduced in severe COPD that may favor exacerbation and contribute to disease progress by altering response to infection. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation phénotypique, morphologique et fonctionnelle des éosinophiles résidents du poumon
Raulier, Stéfanie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Eosinophils have long been considered as destructive effector cells implicated in parasitic infections and allergic reactions such as asthma. This traditional restrictive view of eosinophils has now been ... [more ▼]

Eosinophils have long been considered as destructive effector cells implicated in parasitic infections and allergic reactions such as asthma. This traditional restrictive view of eosinophils has now been considerably extended. Indeed, beside their pro-inflammatory functions, eosinophils are also able to finely shape local innate and adaptative immune responses. Moreover, recent studies indicate that steady-state resident eosinophils are now thought to contribute to immune homeostasis at mucosal sites such as the gut. In the normal lung, resident eosinophils (rEOS) have been little-studied so far. Here, we report that in mice, steady-state pulmonary rEOS are parenchymal Siglec-Fint CD125int cells characterized by a ring-shaped nucleus. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling new stellar companions from the EXOZODI survey : follow up
Marion, Lindsay ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Ertel, Steve et al

Poster (2016, June 30)

In 2012, we have conducted a survey of nearby main sequence stars with VLTI/PIONIER to search for the presence of circumstellar dust. We focused on the use of the closure phases and the square ... [more ▼]

In 2012, we have conducted a survey of nearby main sequence stars with VLTI/PIONIER to search for the presence of circumstellar dust. We focused on the use of the closure phases and the square visibilities in a combined way to search for faint companions around the whole sample. In this process, we found four new stellar companions, for which we conducted follow-up observations in 2014. This follow up allows us to confirm the four detections, and to detect another new companion. Only the case of HD202730 remains ambiguous. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart co-phasing system for segmented mirror telescopes
Simar, Juan Felipe ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

Poster (2016, June 30)

One of the main challenges in space observations is to observe always fainter and more compact objects. This can be achieved by increasing the telescope diameters. So, increasing the primary mirror ... [more ▼]

One of the main challenges in space observations is to observe always fainter and more compact objects. This can be achieved by increasing the telescope diameters. So, increasing the primary mirror diameters of the telescopes is the challenge solution but it is technically impossible to manufacture monolithic mirrors larger than 10m in diameter. The use of segmented mirrors thus becomes mandatory. This paper describes the results of a light co-phasing setup mounted in laboratory. This setup is able to correct a piston from 200μm to 15 nm based on coarse (200μm to 300nm) and fine (300nm to 15nm) measurement methods. Both measurements are then chained in a feedback system in order to completely co-phase and keep the segments aligned. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety of Everolimus Plus Exemestane In Patients With Hormone-Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Progressing on Prior Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors: Primary Results of a Phase 3b, Open-Label, Single-Arm, Expanded-Access Multicenter Trial (BALLET).
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Mariani, G.; Ciruelos, E. M. et al

in Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO (2016)

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This European phase 3b, expanded-access multicenter trial evaluated the safety of EVE plus EXE in a patient population similar to BOLERO-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged (3)18 years with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor-receptor-2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) recurring/progressing during/after prior non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) were enrolled. Primary objective was safety of EVE plus EXE based on frequency of adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary objective was to evaluate AEs of grade 3/4 severity. RESULTS: Median treatment duration was 5.1 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EVE and 5.3 months (95% CI, 4.8-5.6) for EXE. Overall, 2131 patients were included in the analysis; 81.8% of patients experienced EVE- or EXE-related or EVE/EXE-related AEs (investigator assessed); 27.2% were of grade 3/4 severity. The most frequently reported non-hematologic AEs were (overall %, % EVE-related) stomatitis (52.8%; 50.8%) and asthenia (22.8%; 14.6%). The most frequently reported hematologic AE were (overall %, % EVE-related) anemia (14.4%; 8.1%) and thrombocytopenia (5.9%; 4.6%). AE-related treatment discontinuations were higher in elderly ((3)70 years) versus non-elderly patients (23.8% vs. 13.0%). The incidence of EVE-related AEs in both elderly and non-elderly patients appeared to be lower in first-line ABC versus later lines. The incidence of AEs (including stomatitis/pneumonitis) was independent of BMI status (post-hoc analysis). Overall, 8.5% of patients experienced at least one EVE-related SAE. Of the 121 on-treatment deaths (5.7%), 66 (3.1%) deaths were due to disease progression and 46 (2.2%) due to AEs; 4 deaths were suspected to be EVE-related. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest ever reported safety dataset on a general patient population presenting ABC treated with EVE plus EXE and included a sizeable elderly subset. Although the patients were more heavily pretreated, the safety profile of EVE plus EXE in BALLET was consistent with BOLERO-2. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2012-000073-23. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring potentialities of RanbP2-type Zinc Fingers in RNA-binding proteins design
De Franco, Simona ULg; Vandenameele, Julie ULg; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 29)

Transcriptomes consist of several classes of RNAs, whose roles are central to innumerable biological processes as well as diseases. These observations justify the increasing interest in the engineering of ... [more ▼]

Transcriptomes consist of several classes of RNAs, whose roles are central to innumerable biological processes as well as diseases. These observations justify the increasing interest in the engineering of functionalized RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to specifically manipulate RNA function. In this context, the RanBP2-type Zinc Finger (ZF) domain emerged as a suitable scaffold for single-stranded RBPs design. The present study aimed to identify the sequence-specificity of several naturally occurring RanBP2-type ZFs by in vitro selection and use the natural variation in their substrate to create arrays of ZF domains displaying customized specificity. A parallel kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of ssRNA-ZFs interaction was performed by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and BioLayer Interferometry (BLI), respectively. Although our data showed that only little variations in the recognized sequence could be observed for the studied ZFs, they contribute to elucidate the molecular basis for the RanBP2-type ZF-ssRNA interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMaîtrise de la fermentation alcoolique sous stress éthanolique, thermique et osmotique de la souche Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSDN1 en vue de la préparation du vinaigre de fruits
Mounir, Majid ULg; Belgrire, Malika; Lahnaoui, Safaa et al

in Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Veterinaires (2016), 4(2), 86-95

La présente étude a pour but d’isoler, d’identifier et de caractériser de nouvelles souches de levures d’intérêt industriel. Un total de 54 levures ont été isolées et identifiées à partir de produits ... [more ▼]

La présente étude a pour but d’isoler, d’identifier et de caractériser de nouvelles souches de levures d’intérêt industriel. Un total de 54 levures ont été isolées et identifiées à partir de produits agricoles brutes et de sous-produits de l’industrie agro-alimentaire. Parmi ces isolats, quatre souches ont été retenues, purifiées et testées pour leur performance de fermentation sur un jus de dattes de variété Bouslikhène. D’après le séquençage du gène 18S de l’ADN ribosomal, les deux souches YS-DN1 et YS-M isolées respectivement à partir des dattes et de la mélasse ont été identifiées appartenant à l’espèce Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Par ailleurs, les deux autres souches YS-OPM et YS-G isolées des olives et des raisins appartiennent respectivement aux espèces Kluyveromyces marxianus, avec 78% d’homologie et Candida utilis à 89% d’homologie. D’autre part, la souche YS-DN1, s’est identifiée comme la plus performante dans la production d’éthanol en comparaison à deux autres souches industrielles de référence. La levure YS-DN1 était l’unique souche capable de croitre à une température entre 35 et 40°C en présence d’un taux alcoolique élevé et une pression osmotique agressive. Finalement, la production de la biomasse cellulaire de la souche YS -DN1 a été améliorée par optimisation des facteurs température, Brix et pH fixés respectivement à 29.75°C, 15.7% et 4.15. Ces valeurs ont permis d’obtenir un maximum de cellules de l’ordre de 8.4x108 UFC/ml. Il a été conclu que cette souche pourrait bien s’adapter à des usages industriels pour la production du vinaigre de fruits à grande échelle. [less ▲]

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See detailEulerian Formulation of Elastic Rods
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2016), 472(2190),

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations ... [more ▼]

In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff canal surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parameterizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this approach not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the self-feeding feature of these elementary problems and the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segments. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des pays émergents dans la gouvernance économique mondiale
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Zacharie, Arnaud ULg

in Annuaire français de Relations internationales (2016), XVII(2016),

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an ... [more ▼]

Since the 2000s, the rising power of emerging countries – China, East Asian countries and the BRICS in particular – changed the balance of power within the system of global economic governance. In an increasingly multipolar world, external policies of the main emerging countries are aimed more at legitimizing their status of regional powers rather than at promoting a truly democratic multilateralism. By doing so, the global shift in wealth puts the multilateralism to the test. Although emerging countries have claimed more room in the international economic organizations, many of their demands have not been heard by the Western traditional powers, which prompted them to launch their own initiatives. This creates an increasing fragmentation of international financial and trade rules, which makes more complex the political conditions for effectively regulate the international system. Although emerging countries have contributed to challenge the legitimacy of the global economic governance architecture, they have so far failed to change its nature or to make it more consistent. [less ▲]

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See detailNational PESS report : Belgium
Cloes, Marc ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2016, June 29)

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See detailIntegrating roots into a whole plant network of flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; D'Aloia, Maria; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in ... [more ▼]

Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in order to identify flowering time genes that are expressed in the roots and genes that are differentially expressed in the roots during the induction of flowering. Data mining of public microarray experiments uncovered that about 200 genes whose mutations are reported to alter flowering time are expressed in the roots (i.e. were detected in more than 50% of the microarrays). However, only a few flowering integrator genes passed the analysis cutoff. Comparison of root transcriptome in short days and during synchronized induction of flowering by a single 22-h long day revealed that 595 genes were differentially expressed. Enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes in root tissues, gene ontology categories, and cis-regulatory elements converged towards sugar signaling. We concluded that roots are integrated in systemic signaling, whereby carbon supply coordinates growth at the whole plant level during the induction of flowering. This coordination could involve the root circadian clock and cytokinin biosynthesis as a feed forward loop towards the shoot. [less ▲]

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See detail"Les Diables rouges sont-ils instrumentalisés en politique ?"
Verjans, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2016)

"Les hommes politiques flamands - dont tous les partis se réfèrent à la nation flamande- sont en porte-à-faux avec le "fait belge". On perçoit que la N-VA a donné comme consigne à ses militants de ... [more ▼]

"Les hommes politiques flamands - dont tous les partis se réfèrent à la nation flamande- sont en porte-à-faux avec le "fait belge". On perçoit que la N-VA a donné comme consigne à ses militants de s’abstenir. Ils ne vont pas s’enthousiasmer un drapeau tricolore à la main. Il y a une évidente contradiction entre leur vision flamande avant tout et la diversité et le bilinguisme qu’affichent les Diables." [less ▲]

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See detailFast and not furious: an inquiry into the current low-risk/high-gain configuration of public participation
Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 29)

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” ... [more ▼]

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” with STI have been enacted in a broad array of participatory experiments across Europe. These experiments were usually informed by rhetoric of citizen empowerment and distributed governance, against the limitations of technocratic approaches and traditional innovation processes, in order to “enrich”, “deepen”, “broaden” the knowledge base of our democracies. As “embarked researchers”, STS scholars played a crucial role in facilitating and legitimizing the organization of participatory events engaging a variety of publics. This paper will rely on the knowledge and expertise we gathered when organizing multiple participatory events over the last decade, while still trying maintain a critical distance with regard to our own engagement and the types of participation we contributed to enact. More specifically, we propose to draw on the lessons learnt from two recent projects, the organization of a citizens’ summit (Europe Wide Views on Sustainable Consumption) and a prospective study to gauge the potential of involving users in a Living Lab in the health sector in Wallonia. These two projects produced different publics (“citizens-consumers” or “users”), were informed by different political rationales (“sustainability” or “inclusive innovation”), took place in diverse settings (a European FP7 project or a project funded by the Walloon Region) and connected to several narratives of public empowerment through participation (“being heard in policymaking” or “accelerating and improving health”). Our contribution maps and compares the different instrumental and strategic framings of the engagement of publics in those two projects, emphasizing the roles attributed to fabricated publics but also the construction of categories such as the “state” and the “economy”. It unpacks some critical issues related to the methods and techniques used in the concrete implementation of participatory exercises such as, for example, the relation between the assigned tasks, the allowed forms of dialogue between the participants, the room for engagement with the issue(s) at stake and the broader understanding of processes these inputs were supposed to contribute to. Our analysis highlights a tension between the justificatory rationales for public engagement and its specific enactments. In these fast and optimized exercises, participants and their inputs become resources that need to be methodologically maximized and from which “value” may be extracted for instrumental use, i.e. innovation or policy-making. In this configuration in which, we argue, most participation experiments are stuck, the increasing involvement of publics in either policy-making or innovation will only be likely to produce low risk and high gain for powerful actors, who manage to take the best advantage of unpaid and uncritical labour from participants. Due attention (including self-reflexive critique) will be paid to alternative framings and critical insights, which were methodologically eliminated or ‘tamed’ to avoid threatening the design of the overall participatory exercise. By externalizing critique to favour unconditional compliance with imposed notions of the “greater good”, we scrutinize the risk for participation to become a mere space of experimentation for the sake of innovation and economic growth. Furthermore, we argue that critical scholarly work should help to move beyond this particular division of labour and responsibilities between the spheres of science, society and the state in order to avoid re-enacting traditional conceptions of the policy-making process and innovation pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une transition durable des quartiers urbains. Formulation d'un modèle d'innovation applicable à la politique des quartiers.
Ruelle, Christine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

La thèse démontre que la transition durable se produit de manière très inégale dans les quartiers urbains. Elle explore alors la question de l'action publique et de la manière dont les pouvoirs publics ... [more ▼]

La thèse démontre que la transition durable se produit de manière très inégale dans les quartiers urbains. Elle explore alors la question de l'action publique et de la manière dont les pouvoirs publics pourraient soutenir cette transition durable dans les quartiers. En particulier, le potentiel de la "politique des quartiers" est analysé et des amélioration sont proposées. La recherche-action est ensuite mobilisée pour pour enrichir cette politique de nouveaux instruments d'action, plus adaptés pour engager les habitants dans la dynamique de transition durable de leur quartier. [less ▲]

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See detailMycoplasmose bovine
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Djebala, Salem ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMerging carbon dioxide utilisation, bioresources and CO2-based process for sustainable low carbon footprints polyurethanes
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 29)

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic ... [more ▼]

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic driver for developing future low carbon footprints materials and technologies. With a global production estimated to 18 million tons for 2016, polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with applications in automotive, in building and construction, in coating, in the medical field, as flexible and rigid foams for thermal and/or acoustic insulation. Industrially, PU is produced by step-growth polymerization between di- or polyisocyanates and di- or polyols. However, isocyanates are extremely toxic compounds and made from even more toxic and explosive phosgene. Prolonged exposure to isocyanates vapour results in serious health damages such as skin irritation, asthma or DNA mutation whereas phosgene causes death. Because of the toxicity issues of these compounds associated to drastic changes in the REACH regulations limiting/banning the use of isocyanates, there is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. Valorising CO2 as C1 feedstock for producing precursors entering in the synthesis of polyurethanes by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) is a promising route to solve this challenge the polyurethane sector is facing. Through its global objective focussing on the synthesis of isocyanate-free low carbon footprint foamed materials for thermal insulation this research highlights benefits of merging bio-resources with carbon dioxide transformation and “physical” utilization. The success of the project relies on 3 key steps involving: i) The synthesis of bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates using new highly efficient organocatalysts: Due to the low reactivity of CO2 versus epoxides, addition of catalysts in the reaction medium is necessary. If lot of catalysts have been developed, their use generally suffers from some drawbacks. Indeed, most of the metal-based catalysts are highly sensitive to hydrolysis and oxidation or/and poorly selective and additionally, some of them are toxic whereas less/non-toxic and eco-friendly organocatalysts such as ionic liquids and halide salts are generally only efficient at very high temperature and pressure, so favouring the decomposition of catalyst. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new highly-efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst that showed unexpected catalytic activity for the fast (within a few minutes) and selective addition of CO2 onto model epoxides and epoxidized vegetable oils under solvent-free and mild experimental conditions. The use of this powerful dual organocatalyst was further extended to the first organocatalytic coupling of CO2 with less reactive oxetanes to produce hydroxyl telechelic oligocarbonate entering the synthesis of CO2-sourced conventional PUs. ii) The synthesis of sustainable non-isocyanate polyurethanes: Sustainable NIPUs were produced by step-growth polymerization between the so-produced bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates and biosourced amino-telechelic comonomers derived from linseed fatty acids according to a process compatible with existing industrial infrastructures (extrusion). iii) The foaming of NIPUs: Sustainable foams with thermal insulation were produced by the supercritical CO2 assisted foaming technology. Due to its solubility in polymers, CO2 can replace conventional flammable VOCs and ozone depletion chemical or physical blowing agents such as diazo compounds, hydrocarbons (pentane, isopentane…) or inert gases (nitrogen…) to produce (ultra)lightweight microcellular foams. By finely choosing the CO2 impregnation and the foaming conditions, foams with a thermal conductivity as low as 0.052 Wm-1K-1 were produced. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of sustainable thermally insulating NIPU foams. Such low carbon footprints materials will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions [less ▲]

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