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See detailCibo e Islam.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Séminaire organisé dans le cadre d'un cours de formation pour professionnels. Thématique: le rapport à la nourriture dans la religion islamique (interdictions, indications, rituels etc.).

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See detailWhat is the professional profile of patients in phoniatrics?
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Petitfils, Cloé; LEJEUNE, LIONEL ULg et al

Conference (2015, April 10)

Objective. Research has paid increased attention to occupational voice disorders. This study describes the occupational status of patients examined in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Liège ... [more ▼]

Objective. Research has paid increased attention to occupational voice disorders. This study describes the occupational status of patients examined in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Liège University Hospital (Belgium) from 2009 to 2013. Study design. Retrospective study. Methods. The sex, age, diagnosis and occupational status were identified for 1,079 patients who were examined for a voice problem (754 women and 325 men; ages 4 to 93). The diagnosis was established using videolaryngostroboscopy. For patients who were employed, we identified (1) the numerically most frequent professionals, and (2) the professionals most at risk of consulting for their voice, based on the distribution of these professions among all workers living in French-speaking Belgium. Results. 11% of patients were unemployed, 15% were students, 20% were retired, and 54% were workers. In decreasing order of frequency, the most commonly seen professionals were teachers, office workers, artists (singers, actors, and musicians), storekeepers and marketing representatives, managers, domestic workers, and laborers. Regarding their distribution in the working population, the workers at greatest risk of consulting were artists, music teachers, counselors, sports coaches, psychologists, switchboard operators, journalists, and teachers. Nodules are the most common pathologies, encountered in 16.8% of the workers and 42.8% of the students who consulted the Department of Otorhinolaryngology for dysphonia. Conclusion. Prevention is needed both for the professions that seek medical help in the largest numbers (teachers) and for those that are at highest risk of consulting (artistic professions). In addition, teachers must be informed of the need to seek help as soon as voice problems appear. Level of evidence: 2b [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics
Goddek, Simon; Delaide, Boris ULg; Mankasingh, Utra et al

in Sustainability (2015), 7

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See detailLecteurs truqués : sur la fabrique médiatique du lectorat au XIXe siècle
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 10)

Les voix du lecteur en journal semblent autant fabriquées que relayées. Faux profils, rubriques convenues, individualisation artificielle d’une catégorie de destinataires, confusion entre les récepteurs ... [more ▼]

Les voix du lecteur en journal semblent autant fabriquées que relayées. Faux profils, rubriques convenues, individualisation artificielle d’une catégorie de destinataires, confusion entre les récepteurs et l’équipe de rédaction : ce sont là des cas fréquents. C’est à ces non-coïncidences entre l’expression d’un discours présenté comme généré de l'extérieur du journal, par sa réception, et la ressaisie de ce discours dans le dispositif et la poétique du périodique de presse que sont consacrées les observations mises en évidence dans cette communication. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthode ethnographique et science sociocriminologique. Le cas des groupements de jeunes.
Collin, Jonathan ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

ARGUMENT : Comment allier objet d'intérêt criminologique et méthodes de recherche ? Comment construire une méthode pertinente pour rendre compte, par exemple, de la réalité des groupes de jeunes, en ce ... [more ▼]

ARGUMENT : Comment allier objet d'intérêt criminologique et méthodes de recherche ? Comment construire une méthode pertinente pour rendre compte, par exemple, de la réalité des groupes de jeunes, en ce compris ce que certains praticiens et chercheurs nomment "les bandes" ? La réponse se trouve peut-être dans la méthode ethnographique, dont nous savons qu'elle fut utilisée par les sociologues dits de l'Ecole de Chicago et qu'elle est encore la base méthodologique des recherches en anthropologie et de certaines études sociologiques. Pourrait-on alors parler "d'ethnocriminologie", dans le sens où l'on étudierait un phénomène d'intérêt criminologique à travers la méthode ethnographique ? Plus largement, quelle place la criminologie fait-elle à l'anthropologie et à l'ethnographie ? [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty
Gautier, Axel ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 09)

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See detailLa génétique de l'acromégalie
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 09)

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See detailAging Mechanisms in Amorphous GeTe
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Zhang, Wei; Luckas, Jennifer et al

Conference (2015, April 08)

We investigate the structure of amorphous GeTe using Density Functional Theory based Molecular Dynamics, using either the standard Generalized Gradient Approximation, or the more elaborate Van der Waals ... [more ▼]

We investigate the structure of amorphous GeTe using Density Functional Theory based Molecular Dynamics, using either the standard Generalized Gradient Approximation, or the more elaborate Van der Waals approximation. New insight is provided on the stability of homopolar GeGe bonds and tetrahedral Ge bonding, in relation with the resistance drift phenomenon, that is investigated experimentally using photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments. Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. Since the structural relaxations concerned with the drift take place on long time scales, the task of understanding them to limit their consequences is not a simple one. We successfully achieved this goal by developing new approaches to overcome a series of hurdles. A first problem is that directly generating an amorphous structure by quenching a liquid using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Molecular Dynamics leads to one sample with a small number of atom (typically a few hundreds), and, hence of small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, corresponding to different bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys, selected to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. A second aspect is that GST alloys are known to display complex bonding mechanisms, for which the simple chemist’s “octet-rule” does not apply, leading a long series of controversies, concerning in particular the local structure around Ge atoms. We overcome this problem by using state of the art non local DFT-MD, including the so-called van der Waals corrections. This leads to more clearly defined environments that are thoroughly analyzed. We can then identify their fingerprints in the available structural experimental data and assess the stability of these local environments to obtain information of the driving forces leading to the structural relaxation. The calculated electronic properties nicely match the most recent photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments that are presented here. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal (by getting rid of homopolar bonds), and an evolution of its electronic properties that drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous, as compared to the crystal. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window
van Geffen, J H G M; Boersma, K F; Van Roozendael, M et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura ... [more ▼]

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO and NASA SP NO2 vertical column data as well as the OMI NO2 data of some other institutes. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, suggest that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises and, for the first time, fully documents the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge of their absorption cross section in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2–O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clearwater areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2–O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied by a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals from other instruments to within a range that can be explained by photochemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by small differences in fitting window and approach. The revisions indicate that current OMI NO2 slant columns suffered mostly from an additive positive offset, which is removed by the improved wavelength calibration and representation of the OMI slit function. It is therefore anticipated that the improved NO2 slant columns are most important to retrievals of spatially homogeneous stratospheric NO2 rather than to heterogeneous tropospheric NO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation, Evolution in 152 Dysphonic Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Finck, Camille ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2015, April 08)

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score ... [more ▼]

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score after voice treatment. Nevertheless, few studies used ESGP to evaluate voice efficiency treatment. Objectives: The purpose is to examine the ESGP twice, at the first (T1) and the last consultation (T2) . We observe the ESGP values according to voice pathology. We also examine the relationships between ESGP, SPL(Sound pressure level) and DSI (Discorder severity index) . Method: The study includes 130 patients (M:31/W:99), which suffer from 4 different pathologies as immobility (N: 54), oedema (N:23), nodules (N:24) and polyp (N:29). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. We compare our values to those of Zraick et al (2012) which studied ESGP on a healthy group. Results: At T2, for the all patients, at minimum and conversational intensity the ESGP scores decrease singificantly, even if those scores were higher than for the healthy group. We observe a negative correlation between ESGP and SPL at low and conversational intensity. At T1, the higher is the ESGP score, the lower is the SPL score. At T2, the higher is the ESGP score, the higher is the SPL score. At T1, a negative correlation is observed between ESGP and DSI for 2 groups of patients (immobility and polyp) only at minimum intensity. The higher is the ESGP, the lower is SPL. At T2, only for the group immobility, the negative correlation persists. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering the ESGP as a parameter of efficiency. High ESGP is mainly connected with patients who suffer from pathology. The patient who suffer from immobility seems to present a specific profile which could help the clinician to better understand their vocal behavior. Recommendation: This study highlights the pertinence of considering the ESGP as a parameter of vocal treatment efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailStone tool hafting and use in the European Upper Palaeolithic: first results from Hohle Fels
Taipale, Noora ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Poster (2015, April 07)

European Upper Palaeolithic lithic assemblages have been so far defined largely on a typological or technological basis, whereas extensive studies that would utilise the full potential of functional ... [more ▼]

European Upper Palaeolithic lithic assemblages have been so far defined largely on a typological or technological basis, whereas extensive studies that would utilise the full potential of functional analysis have been few. In this poster, I will present the outline and first results of an ongoing PhD project dedicated to the variability in stone tool use and hafting in the Upper Palaeolithic of Central and Western Europe. Recent methodological developments have made possible the distinction between hafted and hand-held tools and the identification of different hafting modes in archaeological assemblages. The aim of my research is to understand the main developments and regional patterns in tool hafting and use in the Gravettian and Magdalenian, and evaluate their impact on lithic assemblage variability. The cave site Hohle Fels serves here as a case study, and the first results of the analysis of the site’s Gravettian material will be used to illustrate the potential of this kind of approach in the study of past human behaviour, cognition and culture. [less ▲]

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See detailGCxGC-TOFMS and supervised multivariate approaches to study human cadaveric decomposition olfactive signatures
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stadler, Sonja et al

in Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry (2015), 407(16), 4767-4778

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the ... [more ▼]

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the associated volatile organic compounds (VOC) can help to improve the training of victim recovery (VR) canines, which are used to search for trapped victims in natural disasters or to locate corpses during criminal investigations. The complexity of matrices and the dynamic nature of this process require the use of comprehensive analytical methods for investigation. Moreover, the variability of the environment and between individuals creates additional difficulties in terms of normalization. The resolution of the complex mixture of VOCs emitted by a decaying corpse can be improved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC× GC), compared to classical singledimensional gas chromatography (1DGC). This study combines the analytical advantages of GC×GC coupled to timeof- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with the data handling robustness of supervised multivariate statistics to investigate the VOC profile of human remains during early stages of decomposition. Various supervised multivariate approaches are compared to interpret the large data set. Moreover, early decomposition stages of pig carcasses (typically used as human surrogates in field studies) are also monitored to obtain a direct comparison of the two VOC profiles and estimate the robustness of this human decomposition analog model. In this research, we demonstrate that pig and human decomposition processes can be described by the same trends for the major compounds produced during the early stages of soft tissue decomposition. [less ▲]

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See detailState of the art on drivers of deforestation in the Congo basin tropical forest
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Dessard, Hélène et al

Conference (2015, April 07)

The Congo basin forest experiment a low pressure on biodiversity in comparison to other rainforests around the world. But according to the predictions, climate change and direct human drivers could have ... [more ▼]

The Congo basin forest experiment a low pressure on biodiversity in comparison to other rainforests around the world. But according to the predictions, climate change and direct human drivers could have an important effect on the deforestation rate. In that context, CoForTips project want to foster a better management of the Congo Basin forests through a better understanding of the dynamics, regime shifts and tipping points of biodiversity and a better definition of the conditions of resilience of social and ecological systems. In order to assess the current knowledge about drivers of deforestation in the world tropical forests, we analyzed the existent literature to list the direct and indirect drivers of deforestation in the forested tropical zones and to focus on deforestation in the Congo Basin forest and specifically in Cameroon and Gabon. We listed direct drivers of deforestation like expansion of agriculture which can be either family farming or agribusiness; timber extraction for softwood industry and fuel wood; development of infrastructure leading to the opening up of forested land and populations, and mining industries. The underlying causes found in the literature concern economic factors like gross domestic product, national income based on environmental resources exploitation and consumer demand expressing on local and global markets. Technological factors that allow much larger removal. Cultural issues like representation of the forest in the collective imagination as an important source of economic income. Institutional factors like policy measures advocating pro-deforestation measures and demographic causes taking into account for local population rise due to a high fertility rate and linked to population migration. Those direct and underlying causes of deforestation where then detailed for Cameroon and Gabon. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental constraints drive the partitioning of the soundscape in fishes
Ruppé, Laetitia; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015)

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share ... [more ▼]

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of ethane from ground-based FTIR solar spectra using improved spectroscopy: recent burden increase above Jungfraujoch
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2015), 160(C), 36-49

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station ... [more ▼]

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580m a.s.l.). The improved spectroscopic parameters include C2H6 pseudo-lines in the 2720-3100 cm-1 range and updated line parameters for methyl chloride and ozone. These improved spectroscopic parameters allow for substantial reduction of the fitting residuals as well as enhanced information content. They also contribute to limiting oscillations responsible for ungeophysical negative mixing ratio profiles. This strategy has been successfully applied to the Jungfraujoch solar spectra available from 1994 onwards. The resulting time series is compared with C2H6 total columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Despite very consistent seasonal cycles between both data sets, a negative systematic bias relative to the FTIR observations suggests that C2H6 emissions are underestimated in the current inventories implemented in GEOS-Chem. Finally, C2H6 trends are derived from the FTIR time series, revealing a statistically-significant sharp increase of the C2H6 burden in the remote atmosphere above Jungfraujoch since 2009. Evaluating cause of this change in the C2H6 burden, which may be related to the recent massive growth of shale gas exploitation in North America, is of primary importance for atmospheric composition and air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. [less ▲]

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See detailScrivere il compromesso intorno al 1965
Curreri, Luciano ULg

Article for general public (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 142 (1 ULg)