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See detailBest in translation: Steiner e Eco come revenants
Curreri, Luciano ULg

Learning material (2015)

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See detailLa coopération Sud-Sud au sein des BRICS ; un nouveau paradigme d’aide au développement? Le cas du Brésil en Mozambique
Cusson, Gabrielle ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

L’émergence et l’affirmation de nouvelles puissances dites du « Sud », dont celles des BRICS, ont donné un nouveau souffle à la coopération Sud-Sud (CSS), et ce spécialement en Afrique. Ces émergents ... [more ▼]

L’émergence et l’affirmation de nouvelles puissances dites du « Sud », dont celles des BRICS, ont donné un nouveau souffle à la coopération Sud-Sud (CSS), et ce spécialement en Afrique. Ces émergents jouissent d’une marge de manœuvre politique et économique grandissante qui leur permet de multiplier les partenariats Sud-Sud, de contribuer financièrement à la coopération au développement et d’instaurer de nouvelles structures d’institutionnalisation de CSS. La stratégie de CSS des BRICS se veut différente du modèle traditionnel de coopération Nord-Sud (CNS) ; elle s’appuie sur des principes de solidarité, offre une aide sans condition, se base sur des relations horizontales permettant des bénéfices mutuels pour les partenaires. Cependant, la CSS engagée par les BRICS n’est pas exempte de retombées politiques, diplomatiques ou commerciales à leur égard. Dans ce contexte, il est valable de se questionner à savoir si une politique de coopération au développement déployée par une puissance émergente peut être désintéressée et s’il est possible d’établir des relations d’égal à égal alors qu’elle se développe dans un cadre de rapports entre un donateur et un récepteur ? Cette présentation tentera de déterminer si le modèle de CSS soutenu par les BRICS s’inscrit dans un nouveau paradigme pour repenser l’efficacité de l’aide au développement en Afrique ou s’il reproduit la structure d’aide traditionnelle du modèle de CNS. Pour ce faire, nous étudierons le cas de la pénétration brésilienne au Mozambique, soit son implication technique et financière au développement de l’exploitation de certaines cultures à des fins de production de biocarburants. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges of macrofauna stable isotope compositions in a very inconstant seagrass detritic habitat: actual diet modification or baseline shift?
Remy, François ULg; Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 20)

Decayed leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica, detached and then exported during storms, constitute an important compartment in terms of organic matter transfer from the seagrass bed to the other ... [more ▼]

Decayed leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica, detached and then exported during storms, constitute an important compartment in terms of organic matter transfer from the seagrass bed to the other habitats, particularly coastal habitats. These exported litter accumulations (ELA) support a diverse (more than 130 species) and abundant (up to 4900 id.m-2) vagile macrofauna (invertebrates > 500µm) assemblage which may play a key role in the degradation, enrichment and carbon transfer from P. oceanica dead material to coastal food chains. Indeed, preliminary results of vagile invertebrates gut content observations show that even if only a few of these species ingest a large proportion of P.oceanica dead leaves fragments, most of the others ingest a small but non-negligible part, suggesting a potential role of the whole community in the mechanical fragmentation of the dead leaves. ELA are very dynamic habitats with highly variable food availability, quality, and composition. Such an inconstant habitat may result in drastic modifications of the invertebrate community but also of its trophic structure and ecology. To test this hypothesis of influence of pulsed availability, quality and composition of food sources on the vagile macrofauna diet, we took seasonal samples in Calvi Bay (Corsica, 8°45’E; 42°35’N), at two sites between August 2011 and May 2012. Stable isotopes analysis (C&N) were conducted at an individual level on dominant macrofauna species and mixing and isotopic niche model packages in R were used. Bayesian inference “SIBER” package highlighted significant seasonal and spatial differences of diet at the community, specific and even intraspecific level. Data confirm the potential transfer of seagrass material to animal tissues but in various proportions depending of the species and the season. But one question remained: are these variations reflection a true diet change, or only a spatiotemporal baseline variation of the food sources isotopic composition? “SIAR” Bayesian mixing model showed that it depends on the species and that the two responses co-occur. We emphasized the need to work at the specific level but also with an adequate temporal resolution for sampling to encompass diet and baseline variability. [less ▲]

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See detailL’influence normative de la Chine en Amérique latine, un défi stratégique pour l’Union européenne ?
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Dabène, Olivier

Conference (2015, May 20)

La Chine est aujourd’hui devenue un partenaire commercial incontournable, un important pourvoyeur d’investissements directs étrangers et un grand fournisseur de prêts financiers pour un nombre croissant ... [more ▼]

La Chine est aujourd’hui devenue un partenaire commercial incontournable, un important pourvoyeur d’investissements directs étrangers et un grand fournisseur de prêts financiers pour un nombre croissant de pays d’Amérique latine. L’accroissement de ses échanges économiques et commerciaux avec ce sous-continent va de pair avec l’imposition des normes économiques et politiques dont sa politique commerciale internationale est porteuse. Cet article pose dès lors la question du défi que représente cette influence normative chinoise pour la stratégie déployée par l’Union européenne envers l’Amérique latine. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent results derived from regular ground-based FTIR observations at the Jungfraujoch and other NDACC stations
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Franco, Bruno ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 20)

We present an overview of the recent results derived from the observational program for the long-term monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere from the Jungfraujoch station, including comparison with data ... [more ▼]

We present an overview of the recent results derived from the observational program for the long-term monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere from the Jungfraujoch station, including comparison with data from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument and other NDACC stations. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical analysis and alternative treatment of Type Ia Supernovae data
Hauret, Clémentine ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

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See detailLes circuits-courts en alimentation comme réponse au défi climatique
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

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See detailPredicting the non-linear shear behaviour of deep beams based on a two-parameter kinematic model
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Concrete - Innovation and Design, fib Symposium Proceedings, Copenhagen 18 to 20 May 2015 (2015, May 20)

Deep beams are often used as transfer girders in high rise buildings to support heavy loads from discontinuous columns or shear walls. Several buildings with such transfer girders were affected by the ... [more ▼]

Deep beams are often used as transfer girders in high rise buildings to support heavy loads from discontinuous columns or shear walls. Several buildings with such transfer girders were affected by the February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, which produced very large vertical accelerations and overloaded the transfer girders. One of the buildings had to be stabilized urgently in the hours after the earthquake while others sustained significant damage. The structures which remained standing were those capable of redistributing the forces from the damaged transfer girders to less damaged structural members. The extent of such force redistribution, and therefore the ability of the structure to survive extreme events, depends in part on the displacement capacity and post-peak behaviour of the transfer girders. For this reason, the evaluation of structures with deep transfer girders under extreme loading requires accurate models for predicting the complete non-linear response of the girders. As deep beams usually fail in a brittle manner due to shear, predicting their non-linear behaviour represents a challenging problem even when sophisticated non-linear finite element models are used. This paper will discuss a simpler alternative approach based on a kinematic model for deep beams. The kinematic model describes the deformation patterns of the beam with the help of two degrees of freedom: the average strain along the flexural reinforcement from support to support, and the transverse displacement in the critical zones in the vicinity of the applied loads (critical loading zones). The model assumes that much of the deformations concentrate along a critical diagonal crack which widens and slips as the deflections of the member increase. The equations of the kinematic model are combined with equilibrium equations and constitutive relationships for the load-resisting mechanisms across the critical crack. These mechanisms include diagonal compression in the critical loading zones, aggregate interlock, tension in the stirrups crossing the crack, and dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement. The complete set of equations is solved iteratively in order to compute the pre- and post- peak response of deep beams. This approach is validated with the help of tests of deep beams. The model will be used to draw conclusions on the effect of the properties of deep beams on their non-linear behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods coated with mesoporous silica shell as drug delivery system for remote near infrared light-activated release and potential phototherapy
Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2015), 11(19), 2323-2332

In this study, we report the synthesis of a nanoscaled drug delivery system, which is composed of a gold nanorod-like core and a mesoporous silica shell (GNR@MSNP) and partially uploaded with phase ... [more ▼]

In this study, we report the synthesis of a nanoscaled drug delivery system, which is composed of a gold nanorod-like core and a mesoporous silica shell (GNR@MSNP) and partially uploaded with phase-changing molecules (1-tetradecanol, TD, Tm 39 degrees C) as gatekeepers, as well as its ability to regulate the release of doxorubicin (DOX). Indeed, a nearly zero premature release is evidenced at physiological temperature (37 degrees C), whereas the DOX release is efficiently achieved at higher temperature not only upon external heating, but also via internal heating generated by the GNR core under near infrared irradiation. When tagged with folate moieties, GNR@MSNPs target specifically to KB cells, which are known to overexpress the folate receptors. Such a precise control over drug release, combining with the photothermal effect of GNR cores, provides promising opportunity for localized synergistic photothermal ablation and chemotherapy. Moreover, the performance in killing the targeted cancer cells is more efficient compared with the single phototherapeutic modality of GNR@MSNPs. This versatile combination of local heating, phototherapeutics, chemotherapeutics and gating components opens up the possibilities for designing multifunctional drug delivery systems. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulations numériques sur des solides plongés, dans un contexte X-FEM
Duboeuf, Frédéric ULg; Béchet, Eric ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

Ce travail traite des différents enjeux pour conserver toutes les capacités des calculs par éléments finis, en s’affranchissant des maillages conformes à la géométrie. La représentation de la géométrie ... [more ▼]

Ce travail traite des différents enjeux pour conserver toutes les capacités des calculs par éléments finis, en s’affranchissant des maillages conformes à la géométrie. La représentation de la géométrie, la construction d’un espace fonctionnel adapté et l’imposition des conditions aux limites sont abordées dans le contexte de la méthode des éléments finis étendus, tout particulièrement en présence de solides plongés dans un espace de dimension supérieure. L’approche proposée permet de traiter tout type de plongement, c.-à-d. des problèmes 1, 2, et/ou 3D plongés dans des maillages 2 ou 3D. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural properties of densified GexSe1-x glasses
Yildirim, Can ULg; Micoulaut, Matthieu; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

The evolution in structural properties of liquid and densified glassy GexSe1-x is investigated by use of First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) combined with X-ray absorption (XAS) experiments for the ... [more ▼]

The evolution in structural properties of liquid and densified glassy GexSe1-x is investigated by use of First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) combined with X-ray absorption (XAS) experiments for the glassy state. Four different compositions (x=10%, 16%, 18% and 33%) representing the flexible and stressed rigid sides of the reversibility window are the focus of the study. The target systems were studied at pressures up to ~ 11 GPa under both annealed and cold compression conditions. We examine the structure factors, pair distribution functions, bond angle distributions, coordination numbers and neighbor distributions. The results show that the real and reciprocal space properties are in very good agreement with the experimental findings. The structural evolution during densification reveals the edge sharing tetrahedra is maintained upon compression whereas Ge-Ge homopolar bonds tend to increase in number. Ge-Se-Ge bond angular distributions show a transformation from tetrahedral octahedral geometry. We discuss the effect of thermal history on structural properties during densification. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Glinoer, Anthony

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2015), 46

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See detailCombined estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of estetrol on breast cancer may provide a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms
Gérard, Céline ULg; Mestdagt, Mélanie; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2015)

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a ... [more ▼]

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a promising compound for clinical use in MHT. However, its impact on breast cancer is controversial and poorly defined. In this preclinical study, we show that E4 acts as a weak estrogen by stimulating the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer only at concentrations exceeding menopausal therapeutic needs. E4 presents also an antitumor activity by decreasing the strong proliferative effect of estradiol (E2). While estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the predominant receptor mediating its effects, the dual weak-estrogenic/anti-estrogenic feature of E4 results from differential signaling pathways activation. Both nuclear and rapid extra-nuclear signaling pathway are necessary for a complete estrogenic effect of E4. However, the antitumor action of E4 is not due to a capacity to antagonize E2-induced nuclear activity. Altogether, our results highlight that E4 has a limited impact on breast cancer and may offer a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of essential oil activity on Curvularia sp. a rice leaf spot pathogen in Madagascar
Mamiharisoa Razanakoto, Léa ULg; Parisi, Olivier ULg; Massart, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 19)

Rice leaf spot have been observed on many fields during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. Curvularia sp. was the most frequently isolated pathogen from the most severe diseased ... [more ▼]

Rice leaf spot have been observed on many fields during survey of rice diseases in three regions in Madagascar. Curvularia sp. was the most frequently isolated pathogen from the most severe diseased samples. This pathogen has been reported worldwide to cause important losses. Then in this work, we study the possibility to develop an alternative method to control Curvularia sp. Plants or plant extracts have been traditionally used to control human and plant diseases. Nowadays, the problem of residues of phytopharmaceutical products, reinforce the need for research on the development of natural plant extracts to control plant diseases. Madagascar has many endemic plants of interest. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils from Malagasy aromatic plants were evaluated. The main steps of this study are (i) the in-vitro screening of 39 Malagasy essential oils to control this pathogen, (ii) the evaluation of the phytotoxicity (on rice plants) of the efficient essential oils and (iii) the in vivo test of the activity of these non phytotoxic essential oils on Curvularia sp. on rice seedlings. The activity of essentials oils on Curvularia sp. has been tested in vitro during a microscale ELISA plate bioassay using optical density for a rapid evaluation of the biofungicidal activity of the extracts. Essential oils that showed interesting antifungal effect on this pathogen were tested for their phytotoxicity on rice plants. Briefly, one to two drop(s) of essential oils were applied on 3 leaves leaves of three weeks rice seedling. Six essential oils over the 39 tested showed an interesting antifungal activity with a percentage of growth inhibition greater than 70%. Three essential oils tested were phytotoxic as they induced necrotic spots on rice leaves after 48 h. Among three essential oils left, one of them showed an important effect when applied on rice seedling inoculated with a conidial suspension of Curvularia sp. These results confirmed that some essential oils present an antifungal activity. And even some of them are phytotoxic on rice plants, some essential oils show interesting potential to be an alternative method against rice diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening for interesting elicitors to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Siah, Ali; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 19)

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving ... [more ▼]

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving towards more sustainable practices, out of respect for human health and the environment. Elicitors are considered as promising biological control tools and draw major interest in IPM strategies. These plant-immunity triggering compounds, also called “stimulators of plant natural defenses”, induce a general and systemic resistance in the plant to various diseases. Although numerous elicitors have already been identified and some of them reached the market since the late 1970s, further investigations are still required to better understand the mode of action of these molecules in the plant and ensure a consistent efficiency under various field conditions. Few elicitors have yet been successfully tested and formulated to protect crop plants such as wheat, which is cultivated over large areas in Europe. This study focuses on the screening of ten potential elicitor products of various origins and structures to protect winter wheat against the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Greenhouse trials were carried out to measure the ability of the different products to reduce disease foliar symptoms (necrosis, chlorosis and pycnidia). In addition, the phytotoxicity and biocide activities of these products were evaluated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The corresponding results will be presented and discussed with the perspective to choose the best elicitor candidates and to undertake investigations on the signaling pathway and the influence of environmental parameters on the elicitation capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe genetic causes of pituitary gigantism
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 19)

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See detailFrom the Hubble Space Telescope to Juno, unraveling the secrets of Jupiter's UV aurorae
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg

Conference (2015, May 19)

The successive generations of instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have revealed an increasing amount of details concerning the aurorae of Jupiter. Among the most striking results is the ... [more ▼]

The successive generations of instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have revealed an increasing amount of details concerning the aurorae of Jupiter. Among the most striking results is the finding that these aurorae are actually made of a multitude of components arising from a variety of processes, ranging from the local interaction of the Jovian moons with the magnetospheric plasma to solar-wind induced compression of the whole magnetosphere. In this presentation, I will review a few recent results obtained from Hubble Space Telescope observations. First, I will show how the morphology and the dynamics of the Ganymede footprint, i.e. the aurora on Jupiter created by the electromagnetic interaction between Ganymede and Jupiter, allowed us to infer the processes at play. Then, I will present results on the vertical profile of the auroral emissions and what they tell us about the acceleration of the electrons causing the auroral emissions. Furthermore, I will describe some of the short-timescale dynamics of the polar-most emissions, including their quasi-periodic nature. Finally, I will conclude with a short description of the expected outcome of the Juno mission, which will provide its first scientific results in fall 2016. [less ▲]

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