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See detailÉtude des Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vecteurs d'agents pathogènes: état des lieux des espèces belges, de leurs micro-habitats larvaires et de leurs préférences trophiques
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of many recently described pathogens in Northern Europe, including the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses ... [more ▼]

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of many recently described pathogens in Northern Europe, including the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. These arboviral diseases have led to considerable economic loss in sheep and cattle livestock. However, many uncertainties remain regarding the distribution, biology, and ecology of these vectors. This research project had three main objectives. The first objective was to conduct an inventory of the different Culicoides species on different Belgian farms and on wetlands, using light traps. Many more Culicoides were caught in the vicinity of buildings than in meadows; this finding seemed to be influenced by the density of hosts near the trap and the opening of buildings. The Obsoletus complex was predominant inside buildings and in the meadows of farms; however, the meadows exhibited greater species diversity. The oligotrophic species C. impunctatus, a potential vector of several pathogens, was particularly abundant in peat bogs. The traps that were used herein enabled the identification of three species that have not previously been reported in Belgium, bringing the total number of Belgian species to 52. The second objective was to identify and characterize larval microhabitats of the main Belgian species of Culicoides, and to study the distribution of coprophilous species (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) in meadows. Ten Belgian cattle farms were monitored for two consecutive years, and sixteen substrates conducive to the larval development of these biting midges were identified. The most significant finding was that different types of silage residues (e.g., corn, grass, beet pulp, and their combinations) were favourable to the larvae of the two species that compose the Obsoletus complex. A larval microhabitat that is appropriate to these two species was also identified, for the first time, directly inside a barn: specifically, within the dried dung stuck to the barn walls and resulting from the partial removal of used litter. Therefore, Culicoides could complete their life cycle in the vicinity of the stables, which might explain the persistence of the virus from one year to the next despite harsh winters. Influences of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, lignin, insoluble fibre, magnesium, and calcium on the presence of larvae were also examined. The third objective was to study the feeding preferences of the species C. obsoletus. This species is prevalent on Belgian farms and has considerable medical and veterinary relevance. Behavioural analyses were performed under field and laboratory conditions, respectively through a flight tunnel containing potential hosts (human, calf, sheep and chicken) and a two-choice olfactometer containing volatile extracts of host skin. The field experiment revealed the preference of C. obsoletus females for large hosts, probably caused by greater emission of carbon dioxide. In contrast, these midges were more attracted to volatile organic compounds released from the skin surface of chicken and sheep during the laboratory experiment. This study contributed to improve the fundamental knowledge of Palaearctic species of the genus Culicoides, and highlighted promising avenues to control these biting midges. Knowledge of the breeding sites of Culicoides could thus allow substrates to be monitored and control or hygiene measures to be implemented, while preventing new sites from being created. A better understanding of the vector-host interactions may aid in developing new strategies to control adult midges, while improving understanding of the pathogen transmission cycle and the epidemiology of associated diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailVadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics
Fernandez de Vera, Natalia ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 29)

Poster presented at the European Geoscience Union General Assembly 2014. In this poster, the installation of the vadose zone experimental set up is presented along with first results

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See detailDynamique des forêts irrégulières et mélangées: de la modélisation aux recommandations sylvicoles
Ligot, Gauthier ULg

Conference (2014, April 29)

Close-to-nature management of forests has been increasingly advocated and practiced. However forest managers often face difficulties in maintaining the mixture of species with different shade tolerance ... [more ▼]

Close-to-nature management of forests has been increasingly advocated and practiced. However forest managers often face difficulties in maintaining the mixture of species with different shade tolerance. We studied this issue in uneven-aged acidophile medio-European beech forests. In these forests, while forest management has achieved regular timber production, it has rarely succeeded in promoting a diversified natural regeneration. In view of this, our objective is to refine our knowledge about the dynamic of uneven-aged mixed forests using a modelling approach. A set of consistent models were carried out to describe stand dynamic with, in particular, models of regeneration growth and light interception. The models were then implemented in a simulator in order to perform prospective analysis. In contrast to expectations, we found that saplings of beech, the shade-tolerant species, had the highest height growth rate at all light levels. Beech saplings reached an optimum growth at transmittance of 10%, whereas oak saplings needed more than 20%. These results indicate that oak saplings are systematically outcompeted by beech saplings across the light gradient. Thus, the control of canopy opening is not sufficient to promote the natural regeneration of oak beneath a stand also containing beech. Taking into account these latter results, we compared cutting strategies varying in type and intensity. Creating gaps of about 500 m² provided adequate light for small regeneration clumps. Cutting from below, species-specific cutting and uniform cutting were also appropriate but uniform cutting required higher harvest intensity. Cutting from above weakly increased understory light and promoted rather shade tolerant species. Finally we provided indications on different strategies that promote the regeneration of less-shade tolerant species, depending on the spatial aggregation of saplings, and the desired post-harvest stand structure and composition. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards deep changes for a more resilient farming system: Examining roles farmers, science and citizens can play in transition
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg

Conference (2014, April 29)

This lecture considers the complexity of challenges of the agricultural transition from the perspective of farmers, who act at the intersection between the ecology, economy and policy. The lecture will ... [more ▼]

This lecture considers the complexity of challenges of the agricultural transition from the perspective of farmers, who act at the intersection between the ecology, economy and policy. The lecture will start by providing an overview on the resource requirements for our global production chains of life stock and meat, grain and legume farming and say some words on the human diet, and food and feed conversion efficiency of energy-intake through food. This lecture also places a fresh emphasis on the development of local knowledge and locally specific arming and nutrition practices that are adapted to local environments, as a necessary complement to agricultural science striving to make universal claims. This leads on to basic insights on needs for knowledge production in agriculture, and merits and limitations of action research and engaged research, raising questions on how farmers, scientists and citizens might better collaborate to inform choices in food production and consumption. For the future there are some indications on a new trend on new more decentralised governance of the food system including citizen’s involvement in French organic certification and Community based Auditing and citizens science in communities in Australia to work with farmers on reducing environmental impacts and address ensuing trade-offs for farmers as a community. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituents
Verstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Research International (2014), 62

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]

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See detailLe statut du chercheur comme acteur de l'institution, comme chercheur et comme travailleur
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2014)

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transaction
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

Conference (2014, April 29)

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See detailMultiscale modelling of angiogenesis during normal and impaired bone regeneration
Carlier, Aurélie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Bone regeneration is, like many other healing events, a complex, well-orchestrated process involving a myriad of different cell types and regulated by countless biochemical, physical and mechanical ... [more ▼]

Bone regeneration is, like many other healing events, a complex, well-orchestrated process involving a myriad of different cell types and regulated by countless biochemical, physical and mechanical factors. But unlike other adult biological tissues, the majority of bone fractures can heal without the production of scar tissue, eventually recovering the original bone shape, size and strength. Despite bone’s remarkable healing capacity and the continuing research efforts, the impaired healing of complex orthopaedic cases is still not fully understood. This PhD work hypothesises that computational modelling can make a substantial contribution to the bone regeneration field by proposing and testing the underlying mechanisms of action as well as by designing and optimising experimental strategies in silico. In the first part of this work, an existing bioregulatory model of fracture healing is extended with an intracellular module of Dll4-Notch1 signalling in order to capture the ingrowth of new blood vessels through sprouting angiogenesis. The predictions of the new MOSAIC model are compared to experimental results and an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed on the newly introduced parameters. The potential of the MOSAIC model to investigate the influence of the molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and consequently the bone formation process is illustrated. In the second part of this work, the MOSAIC model is further improved with a rigorous implementation of the influence of oxygen on the behaviour of skeletal cells. A comprehensive literature study is performed in order to ensure the correspondence of the oxygen ranges of the cell-specific oxygen-dependent processes with the state-of-the-art experimental knowledge. The oxygen model is corroborated with previously published experimental results. The robustness of the oxygen model with respect to the newly introduced oxygen thresholds is demonstrated by a sensitivity analysis. Some limitations and shortcomings of the oxygen model are identified together with suggestions for future work. In the last part of this work, the added value of the oxygen model is shown by applying it to three cases of impaired bone healing: the occurrence of nonunions in critical size defects, bone graft healing in a compromised environment and the impaired healing of bone fractures in NF1 patients. Not only is the oxygen model used to determine the underlying mechanisms of action, potential treatment strategies for the respective challenging orthopaedic conditions are also designed and optimised in silico. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the potential of an integrative in vivo-in silico approach to advance our current understanding of bone regeneration as well as to design effective treatments of complex bone fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasi-periodic flares in Jupiter's aurora : new results
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Badman, Sarah et al

Conference (2014, April 29)

Two recent Hubble Space Telescope observation campaigns have been dedicated to the Jovian Far-UV aurora (GO 12883 – PI: D. Grodent and GO 13035 – PI: S. Badman). Both of them made use of the Time-Tag mode ... [more ▼]

Two recent Hubble Space Telescope observation campaigns have been dedicated to the Jovian Far-UV aurora (GO 12883 – PI: D. Grodent and GO 13035 – PI: S. Badman). Both of them made use of the Time-Tag mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a high time resolution mode which allows to observe temporal variations on timescales of tens of seconds. In the present study, we focus on sudden and spectacular bursts of auroral emissions taking place in the active region located poleward of the main emissions and called “flares”. A previous study, based on only two image sequences acquired with rather unfavorable viewing angles, showed that these flares could reappear quasi-periodically on time scales of 2-3 minutes. Phenomena with similar timescales have been identified by in-situ spacecraft in relativistic electron and radio data as well as in reconnection signatures, for example. But the physical mechanism behind these ubiquitous signatures remains to be unveiled. Here we make use of the most recent and much larger data set to study in further details the occurrence rate, the period, the location, the extent and the motion of these quasi-periodic flares and to compare their behavior in both hemispheres. Quantifying these parameters allows us to narrow down the possibilities among likely explanations and provide a tentative scenario for these short timescale quasi-periodic features. [less ▲]

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See detailCode du développement territorial et politique foncière
Fontaine, Pierre; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2014, April 28)

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See detailMuti-scale methods with strain-softening: damage-enhanced MFH for composite materials and computational homogenization for cellular materials with micro-buckling
Wu, Ling ULg; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Doghri, Issam et al

Scientific conference (2014, April 28)

Materials used in the aerospace industry, as composite or foamed materials are multiscale in nature. To predict the macroscopic behaviour of structures made of such materials, the micro-scopic responses ... [more ▼]

Materials used in the aerospace industry, as composite or foamed materials are multiscale in nature. To predict the macroscopic behaviour of structures made of such materials, the micro-scopic responses should also be computed within a nested scheme. This is particularly true when non-linear behaviours are modelled, or when the failure and post failure analyses are sought. In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modelling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly developed incremental secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the Linear Comparison–Composite The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness upon strain softening is avoided. Second, an efficient multi–scale finite element framework capturing the buckling instabilities in cellular materials is developed. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization scheme loses accuracy with the apparition of the macroscopic localizations resulting from the micro–buckling, the second order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme is considered. This second–order computational framework is enhanced with the following novelties so that it can be used for cellular materials. At the microscopic scale, the periodic boundary condition is used because of its efficiency. As the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit a large void part on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the classical enforcement based on the matching nodes cannot be applied. A new method based on the polynomial interpolation2 without the requirement of the matching mesh condition on opposite boundaries of the representative volume element (RVE) is developed. Next, in order to solve the underlying macroscopic Mindlin strain gradient continuum of this second–order scheme by the displacement–based finite element framework, the treatment of high order terms is based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to weakly impose the C1-continuity. Finally, as the instability phenomena are considered at both scales of the cellular materials, the path following technique is adopted to solve both the macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Queeckers, Patrick et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]

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See detailTentatives de réflexion sémiotique et psychanalytique au sujet du voile islamique
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

La sémiotique et la psychanalyse sont peut-être de nature à enrichir le débat sur l'interdiction du voile islamique dans les lieux publics.

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See detailApplication of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling pumping tests and tracer tests in heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2014, April 28)

In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate ... [more ▼]

In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate this heterogeneity introducing empirical zonation of the calibrated parameters or using variogram-based geostatistical techniques that are often not able to describe realistic heterogeneity in complex geological environments where e.g. sedimentary structures, multi-facies deposits, structures with large connectivity or curvi-linear structures can be present. Multiple-point geostatistics aims to overcome the limitations of the variogram and can be applied in different research domains to simulate heterogeneity in complex environments. In this project, multiple-point geostatistics is applied to the interpretation of pumping tests and a tracer test in an actual case of a sandy heterogeneous aquifer. This study allows to deduce the main advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared to variogram-based techniques for interpretation of pumping tests and tracer tests. A pumping test and a tracer test were performed in the same sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The pumping test and the tracer test are analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM requirements of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation steps, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that for the pumping test as well as for the tracer test, incorporating heterogeneity results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns/concentrations. The improvement of the fit is however not as large as expected. In this paper, the reasons for these somewhat unsatisfactory results are explored and recommendations for future applications of multiple-point geostatistics on pumping tests and tracer tests are formulated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe last Neandertals and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Europe
Flas, Damien ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 28)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailContribution of a new active faults map and sedimentary cores to the characterization of seismogenic sources in an interdisciplinary approach (Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece)
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Beck, Christian et al

Conference (2014, April 28)

The Corinth rift is one of the fastest spreading rifts on Earth. 5 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 occurred during the last 40 years. The question of seismic hazard is consequently particularly ... [more ▼]

The Corinth rift is one of the fastest spreading rifts on Earth. 5 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 occurred during the last 40 years. The question of seismic hazard is consequently particularly relevant. Despite a long earthquake catalogue, estimations of earthquake hazard remain problematic because of the difficulty to associate each historical event to one of the many active faults mapped in the area. Consequently, combining seismology, history and paleoseismology in an interdisciplinary approach is here necessary and is the goal of the ANR-SISCOR project. In this framework, we investigated the offshore sediments in order to (1) better constraint the length of the active offshore faults, and (2) look for sedimentary signature of historical earthquakes. 600 km of high resolution seismic reflexion data have been acquired during two surveys and 12 short gravity cores have been retrieved. The latters are 0.5 to 1 m long, allowing us to analyze about 500 yrs of sedimentation. Two new faults potentially able to trigger M>5.5 earthquakes have been mapped in the northern part of the gulf based on seismic data. Sedimentary events (turbidites and mud flows) have been identified in some cores, essentially in the deep basin and in a 180m-deep sub-basin close to the northern coast. The comparison with the critically reviewed historical records shows that some of these events could have been triggered by historical earthquakes. The link between these potential earthquakes sedimentary signatures, historical events and active faults is discussed based on intensity maps and our new active fault map. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of attosecond electronic dynamics in molecules
Mignolet, Benoît ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

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