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See detailPortraits domestiques et représentations d’intérieurs dans la photographie (de Walker Evans à Jeff Wall)
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2014, May 16)

Je vais essayer ici d’interroger le genre du portrait domestique – c’est-à-dire du portrait pris dans l’environnement du domicile (domus, la maison) ou lié, par extension, à tout ce qui concerne le ménage ... [more ▼]

Je vais essayer ici d’interroger le genre du portrait domestique – c’est-à-dire du portrait pris dans l’environnement du domicile (domus, la maison) ou lié, par extension, à tout ce qui concerne le ménage et la vie privée. On ne peut sans doute pas proprement parler d’un genre institué mais je tenterai - pour le dire vite - de poser ici la question du portrait photographique et de son lien aux intérieurs (lieux) et/ou aux activités (gestes) domestiques. Le portrait domestique exposerait au regard d’autrui l’individu dans son environnement premier. Il y aurait quelque chose comme une vulnérabilité de l’individu dans sa sphère privée (raison pour laquelle, bien souvent, il la protège des regards). À partir du moment où l’appareil photo investit ces espaces domestiques, on est automatiquement porté au seuil qui sépare les sphères intimes et publiques. * Pour plusieurs raisons évidentes. Celle-ci notamment : la maîtrise de la diffusion des images n’est jamais que partielle, aujourd’hui plus encore que jamais : qui nous dit que telle photographie prise innocemment dans le cadre privé ne sera pas un jour arrachée à l’album familial par un amateur de photographies trouvées (il y en a de plus en plus) ou diffusée sur les réseaux sociaux sans l’accord de ceux dont elle capture l’intimité ? La possibilité même d’une telle circulation transforme automatiquement les conditions générales de production de l’image et les dispositions (au double sens du terme) de ceux qui y sont représentés. Par nature donc, la photographie domestique fissure l’environnement préservé (c’est-à-dire : préservé du regard d’autrui) dont elle offre une image. Partant de cette idée banale, on pourrait identifier et décrire des registres très différents (je ne cherche pas ici à établir une typologie mais à illustrer la multiplicité des pratiques dans ce domaine) : il y aurait toute une gamme d’images se répartissant sur un spectre allant du plus automatique au plus travaillé : on peut penser par exemple à (1) la photographie domestique accidentelle – celle qui est prise par hasard et sans intention aucune ; (2) la photographie domestique brouillon – celle que l’on prend pour amorcer un film, tester un appareil, s’exercer à une pratique nouvelle en utilisant ce qu’on a directement sous la main (l’enfant qui reçoit son premier appareil photo et qui prend des clichés de ses parents qui préparent le souper) ; (3) la photographie domestique instantanée – celle qui cherche à dessein le portrait naturel, en situation, pour son caractère authentique et non fabriqué ; * (4) la photographie domestique posée – celle qui cherche à mettre en évidence les liens symboliques des individus à leur environnement ; * (5) la photographie domestique narrative – celle qui met en scène des personnages et les intègre à une fiction ; etc. Rattacher de manière définitive un cliché photographique à l’un de ces registres n’est pas une chose aisée – surtout pour le spectateur vierge de toute information concernant les intentions et les conditions de production de l’image. Par ailleurs, pour chacun de ces registres, on peut évidemment trouver toutes sortes de variantes mimétiques, parodiques, chiquées. [less ▲]

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See detailMealworms: Alternate Source of Lipids
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, May 16)

The aim of present study was to determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworms) and explore its potential as edible oil. Five batches of Tenebrio ... [more ▼]

The aim of present study was to determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworms) and explore its potential as edible oil. Five batches of Tenebrio molitor larvae were investigated for their lipid content and physiochemical properties. Three batches were reared in lab (3 different productions) and two were purchased from a local supplier. The lipids were extracted using a cold extraction technique employing 2:1 ratio chloroform/methanol as solvent. The fatty acid profile was determined using gas chromatography and triacylglycerol profile using HPLC. The thermal properties of the lipid extracts were also analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. All the samples contained high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The chemical composition and the thermal properties of the samples varied with the source. With this quantity and quality of lipid content, mealworms offer potential as an important source of edible lipids. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Macroeconomics of PAYG Pension Schemes in an Aging Society
Artige, Lionel ULg

Conference (2014, May 16)

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See detailLe LTP : Un jeu pour le diagnostic, l'intervention et la recherche
Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Lejeune, Génévieve

Conference (2014, May 16)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailDiscours managériaux, règles et pratiques discursives : trois dimensions de l’action organisée. Analyse de deux services de médiation scolaire en Belgique
Dethier, Baptiste ULg; Dubois, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, May 16)

À l’aune des acquis de la sociologie de l’action organisée (Friedberg, 1993), cette contribution s’attachera à décrire le fonctionnement de deux services de médiation scolaire en Belgique. Au-delà des « ... [more ▼]

À l’aune des acquis de la sociologie de l’action organisée (Friedberg, 1993), cette contribution s’attachera à décrire le fonctionnement de deux services de médiation scolaire en Belgique. Au-delà des « structures formelles » et « parallèles » (Crozier et Friedberg, 1977), une troisième dimension permet de rendre compte des processus organisationnels propres à ces deux services : les « discours » (Brunsson, 1989). Ceux-ci résultent du travail de communication, de légitimation et de mobilisation à travers lequel les responsables politico-administratifs et les acteurs de terrains définissent et traduisent les valeurs, les missions et la philosophie des services en question. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical simulation of nonlinear mechanical problems using Metafor
Boman, Romain ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 16)

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See detailCORD DONOR Safety
BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg; Lefebvre, Caroline ULg; FASTH, Anders

Conference (2014, May 16)

As for any cell donation, donor safety parameters must be included in the design of cord blood (CB) collection procedures. Until recently, CB donation has been regarded as a relatively safe procedure, and ... [more ▼]

As for any cell donation, donor safety parameters must be included in the design of cord blood (CB) collection procedures. Until recently, CB donation has been regarded as a relatively safe procedure, and practices have evolved from the early stages of CB banking to make reasonable provisions to protect mothers and infant donors from harm linked to CB donation: informed consent, exclusion of complicated pregnancies and deliveries, as well as of pre-term births, non-interference with obstetrical practices, use of trained staff for CB collection, standardized aseptic collection practices, donation limited to single births. Besides, professional standards foresee careful record keeping of clinical side effects that may occur in the course of CB collection. Since 2011 time to cord clamping has become a concern in the light of publications on iron depletion and post natal outcome, including neurological development, and linked to early or late cord clamping at birth. As data show benefits of late clamping in low birth weight infants in terms of anemia and iron stores, it now admitted by professional organizations to delay cord clamping for 1 minute after birth, especially for pre-term births. However, in full term births after uncomplicated pregnancy, that are the target population for CB donation, there is no clear indication to confirm or refute benefits of late clamping. In some countries, sometimes emotional awareness has increased about optimal timing of cord clamping, leading to some resistance to CB donation and to questioning of the harmless reputation of CB donation. CB banking professionals however have not changed their recommendations, leaving up to obstetrical teams the decision to collect or not, after risk benefit assessment. However, CB bankers remain with the duty of providing transparent and up to date information to mothers, as well as of setting up accurate policies regarding informed consent. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailJob characteristics and work engagement: multiple-group analyses of flexibility practices
Travaglianti, Fabrice ULg; De Zanet, Fabrice ULg; Vandenberghe, Christian et al

Poster (2014, May 16)

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See detailCapabilities of last generation QQQ in the field of dioxins and related compounds
L'Homme, Benjamin ULg; Calaprice, C; Zambonin, C et al

Scientific conference (2014, May 16)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSite-specific sediment characteristics impact on metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the Polychaete Nereis virens
Pini, Jennifer; Richir, Jonathan ULg; Watson, Gordon

Poster (2014, May 15)

The king ragworm (Nereis virens) is a cosmopolitan species of soft sediment inter-tidal communities and is known to be impacted by various pollutants. More precisely, in many coastal locations, N. virens ... [more ▼]

The king ragworm (Nereis virens) is a cosmopolitan species of soft sediment inter-tidal communities and is known to be impacted by various pollutants. More precisely, in many coastal locations, N. virens is exposed to a range of metals including copper and zinc which are known to be highly toxic. However, the relationships between metal bioavailable concentrations in the sediment, the pore water and the tissues of N. virens have not yet been investigated in this is ecologically and commercially important species. Hence, to investigate these relationships, sediment, pore water and associated worms samples were collected from seven sites along the English Channel coast of the UK, chosen for their different pollution histories. The BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess the bioavailable metal concentrations in the sediment, in conjunction to standard extraction techniques to determine the tissue and the pore water concentrations. All samples were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). Results from correlation analyses showed that site specificities and metal pollution histories along with sediment characteristics (organic content and particle size) were important factors regarding the bioavailability of copper and zinc to worms. Indeed, sediment organic content and grain size were positively correlated to metal bioavailable concentrations in the sediment. Strong correlations were found between copper bioavailability in the sediment and in the pore water and between zinc concentrations in the pore water and in N. virens. These results showed that zinc from the pore water was more readily bioavailable to N. virens than copper. However, our data suggested that N. virens accumulated metals regardless of the pollution history/level of the sites. In addition, our data showed that metal concentrations in N. virens were lower than those found in other closely related polychaetes such as N. diversicolor. This suggests that N. virens, unlike other polychaetes, is well adapted to highly contaminated sites by the possible use of specific metal regulation mechanisms, which would require further analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCadmium and mercury sediment pollution along the British coastline of the Channel: A first spatio-temporal integrated approach
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Pini, Jennifer; Watson, Gordon

Poster (2014, May 15)

Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) are 2 widespread trace metals occurring in both terrestrial and marine environments. They play no physiological role and are often toxic even at low concentrations and were ... [more ▼]

Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) are 2 widespread trace metals occurring in both terrestrial and marine environments. They play no physiological role and are often toxic even at low concentrations and were therefore identified as priority hazardous substances under the European Water Framework Directive and included in the European List I of Dangerous Substances. Marine sediments are considered as the ultimate sink of non-degradable metals, where they can accumulate in considerable quantities. The UK coastline has been polluted with metals for decades or even centuries and, although many studies have monitored sediment metal loads in specific locations, there has been no recent systematic monitoring approach along the whole of the south coast. In addition, few reliable data exist on decadal temporal trends for most sediment pollutants. Focusing on Cd and Hg, we have investigated their spatial and temporal distribution in sediment samples collected from 42 sites along the English coast of the Channel from 1990 to 2010. From a temporal point of view, data analyses showed that mean Cd levels in sediments significantly decreased by 59 % during that period of time, from 0.78 to 0.32 mg kgDW-1 of sediments. This reflects a decrease globally to below the 0.70 mg kgDW-1 Cd Threshold Effect Level (TEL). Adverse effects caused by Cd on the biota should, therefore, be rare. Spatially, Cd displayed an east-to-west increase of its levels, with several western sites with Cd still above the TEL. Regarding Hg, sediment levels did not significantly change from 1990 to 2010, remaining approximately twice as high as the corresponding 0.13 mg kgDW-1 Hg TEL. Hg also displayed an east-to-west increase of its levels, whilst 55 % of monitored sites had a mean sediment Hg concentration in average 3.5 times higher than the TEL. Despite regulations, non-degradable metals such as Cd and Hg that have accumulated in sediments over considerable periods of time may consequently still pose threats to aquatic organisms, highlighting the need for continued extensive spatially and temporally integrated monitoring approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral splitting planar solar concentrator : Design and Experimental testing Preliminary results
Blain, Pascal ULg; Michel, Céline ULg; Clermont, Lionel ULg et al

in Proceedings of SPIE (2014, May 15), 9140

We present a new concept in solar concentrator: spectral splitting. It implies reflective, refractive and diffractive elements that allow two spectrally differentiated beams to reach different and/or ... [more ▼]

We present a new concept in solar concentrator: spectral splitting. It implies reflective, refractive and diffractive elements that allow two spectrally differentiated beams to reach different and/or unmatched lattice solar cells. Those cells efficiencies are then enhanced. The aimed geometrical concentration factor is 5× and the theoretical optical efficiency of that concentrator concept reaches 82%. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTest of humic substances on in vitro roots initiation using isolated leaves of woody species
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 15)

Arise from the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from the synthetic activities of microorganisms in the soil, humic substances (HS) are natural heterogeneous aromatic ... [more ▼]

Arise from the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from the synthetic activities of microorganisms in the soil, humic substances (HS) are natural heterogeneous aromatic and organic compounds. These substances are chemically complex with no clearly defined chemical structure, although generalized models have been proposed and they can be divided into fractions of humic acids, fulvic acids and humins depending on their solubility in water as a function of the pH. The stimulation of plant growth and development by HS are the activities that have attracted the attention of many scientists. They influence plant productivity directly by the stimulation of biochemical and metabolic processes or indirectly through the modification of soil characteristics and microflora activities. All together, these properties mainly affect root architecture. By inducing root hairs proliferation, differentiating root cells and enhancing lateral root emergence, an increase of the total root biomass is observed. Experiments targeting the rooting stages in absence of interferences were conducted in vitro using HS extracted from landfill leachate and a stable commercial formulation (“Humifirst” from TRADECORP company: 12% humic acid and fulvic acid 3%) issued from leonardite. Shoots and leaves explants of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) vitro-plants were treated with 10 ppm leachate HS and 100 ppm Humifirst HS for 5 days during the rooting induction/initiation phase. The treated explants were then transferred into elongation medium containing only nitrate calcium for 4 weeks. The results show that application of HS during the root induction/initiation phase did not significantly influence root growth of both species in comparison with control explants. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of climate change and adaptation strategies in the drylands of West Africa : A review
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Vigil, Sara ULg

Poster (2014, May 15)

The perception of climate change has become an exiting new field of research explored in recent years. This is a response from the international scientific community to the conclusions of the 4th report ... [more ▼]

The perception of climate change has become an exiting new field of research explored in recent years. This is a response from the international scientific community to the conclusions of the 4th report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which had underlined serious deficiencies in this field, particularly in West Africa where population is largely dependent of rain-fed agriculture. Yet, a global survey of the literature since 2000 shows that most references on this topic were published over the last five years. [...] [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des effets de la formation et de la supervision de services d'aide aux familles qui accompagnent des personnes atteintes d¿une maladie de type Alzheimer
Marquet, Manon ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Charlot, Valentine ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 15)

Introduction : Il est nécessaire de développer des interventions visant à aider les professionnels qui accompagnent des personnes âgées (atteintes ou non de démence). Les programmes existants sont ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Il est nécessaire de développer des interventions visant à aider les professionnels qui accompagnent des personnes âgées (atteintes ou non de démence). Les programmes existants sont néanmoins essentiellement destinés aux aidants en milieu institutionnel. Objectif : Évaluer, au niveau de différents paramètres (âgisme, connaissances sur la maladie d’Alzheimer, sentiment de compétence, satisfaction professionnelle, burnout, stratégies de coping), l’efficacité d’une intervention destinée à des aidants professionnels à domicile. Méthodologie : 17 aides familiales ont bénéficié d’une formation et de supervisions visant à améliorer leurs connaissances sur les démences et à les aider à mettre en place des stratégies de résolution de problèmes face aux difficultés rencontrées dans leur pratique, et ceci, afin de favoriser une vision moins stigmatisante de la maladie d’Alzheimer. Différents auto-questionnaires ont été complétés par les participantes avant et après l’intervention. Résultats : Les analyses statistiques indiquent que l’intervention permet de diminuer l’âgisme des aidantes, d’améliorer leurs connaissances sur la maladie d’Alzheimer, leur sentiment de compétence et leur satisfaction vis-à-vis de leurs tâches professionnelles. Conclusion : L’intervention est efficace puisqu’elle atteint ses objectifs initiaux. Ces résultats encouragent non seulement la formation des aidants professionnels à domicile mais aussi l’évaluation de l’efficacité des interventions proposées, à la fois auprès des aidants professionnels, informels et des personnes accompagnées. En effet, sur base de la littérature [Avorn & Langer, 1982 ; Coudin & Alexopoulos, 2010], nous faisons l’hypothèse que l’amélioration des connaissances et la diminution de l’âgisme réduisent le risque d’induire des comportements de dépendance chez les personnes accompagnées. Ce constat est important compte tenu du rôle des aides familiales, à savoir aider les personnes âgées (atteintes ou non de démence) qui présentent des difficultés dans la réalisation des activités (instrumentales) de la vie quotidienne afin qu’elles restent le plus longtemps possible à leur domicile. [less ▲]

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