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See detailOmics insights into rumen ureolytic bacterial community and urea metabolism in dairy cows
Jin, Di ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Urea has been used in the diets of ruminants as a non-protein nitrogen source. Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia (NH3 ... [more ▼]

Urea has been used in the diets of ruminants as a non-protein nitrogen source. Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia (NH3), and the NH3 is used as nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis. In the rumen, hydrolysis of urea to NH3 occurs at a greater rate than NH3 can be utilized by rumen bacteria, and excess ammonia absorbed into blood may be harmful to the animals. Nowadays, little is known about the information of ureolytic microorganisms in the rumen, and the changes that occur in the rumen microbial and host metabolites induced by urea nitrogen have not been fully characterized. ‘Omics’ approaches, such as metagenomics and metabolomics have been applied to analyzing rumen microbial community and nutrients metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of this study is to investigate the rumen predominant ureolytic bacteria community and the mechanisms of urea utilization in ruminants using sequencing and metabolomics approaches. Firstly, an in vitro experiment trying to explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community was performed. Urea or acetohydroxamic acid were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems as the stimulator and inhibitor for ureolytic bacteria, respectively. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were analyzed by Miseq sequencing and used to reveal the ureolytic bacteria by comparing different treatments. We found that urea supplementation significantly increased the proportion of ureC genes. The rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Secondly, an in vivo experiment was taken to investigate differences in ureolytic bacterial composition between the rumen digesta and rumen wall based on ureC gene classification. Six dairy cows with rumen fistula were assigned to a two-period cross-over trial. One group was fed a total mixed ration without urea and the treatment group was fed rations plus 180 g urea per cow per day. Rumen bacterial samples from rumen content and rumen wall fractions were collected for ureC gene amplification and sequencing using Miseq. More than 55% of the ureC sequences did not affiliate with any known taxonomically assigned urease genes. The wall-adherent bacteria had a distinct ureolytic bacterial profile compared to the bacteria in the rumen content. The most abundant ureC genes were affiliated with Methylococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Paenibacillaceae, Helicobacteraceae and Methylophilaceae families. Relative abundance of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with Methylophilus and Marinobacter genera were significantly higher in the bacteria on the rumen wall than that in the rumen content. Thirdly, based on the in vivo experiment, rumen fluid and blood samples were collected and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of variance. Concentrations of valine, aspartate, glutamate, and uracil in the rumen, and urea and pyroglutamate in the plasma were increased after urea supplementation. Metabolic pathways include pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, beta-alanine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine metabolism in the rumen, and urea and glutathione metabolism in the plasma were significantly increased by urea nitrogen. In conclusion, this study identified significant populations of ureolytic bacterial community that have not been recognized or studied previously in the rumen and provides a basis for obtaining regulatory targets to moderate urea hydrolysis in the rumen. The findings also provided novel information to aid understanding of the metabolic pathways affected by urea nitrogen in dairy cows, and could potentially help to guide efforts directed at improving the efficiency of urea utilization in the rumen. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire évolutive du complexe Afzelia Smith (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae) dans les écosystèmes forestiers et savanicoles en Afrique tropicale
Donkpegan, Segbedji ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The genus Afzelia Smith (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) is known to have seven African tree species two of which are found in the Zambezian region, one is distributed in the Sudanian region and the four ... [more ▼]

The genus Afzelia Smith (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) is known to have seven African tree species two of which are found in the Zambezian region, one is distributed in the Sudanian region and the four other are endemic to the Guineo-Congolian region. These taxa, of high commercial value, are difficult to identify. They are therefore marketed under the same "doussié" name. These difficulties of distinction can prove detrimental to the sustainable management of populations. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to characterize the evolutionary history of the Afzelia genus. More specifically, this study aims to: (i) evaluate the level of morphological divergences within the Afzelia genus and describe the phylogenetic relationships in order to quantify the reproductive isolation between taxa by highlighting the role of past climate change and / or ecological gradients in the speciation of the genus; (ii) proceed to an analysis of the spatial genetic diversity and structure of Afzelia spp.; (iii) identify and describe ecological, biotic and abiotic factors that may influence population-level gene flows of an Afzelia species (A. bipindensis). A morpho-genetic analysis of Afzelia species was carried out and confirmed the strong botanical resemblance between the taxa. The savannah species are diploid and have half the size of the genome of forest species that are tetraploid. The phylogenies of genes (nuclear and chloroplastic) differ from one another and do not allow the separation of tetraploid taxa from one another. Such differences can be generated as a result of episodes of ancestral hybridization between species. These hybridizations would probably be old and would have occurred between lineages of the forest species and A quanzensis (a species of the Zambezian savannahs) lineages. Polyploidy would have occurred between 7 and 9.4 million years in the evolutionary history of the genus. In addition, Bayesian assignment and reproductive isolation analyzes suggested interspecific crosses, but only in forest species distributed sympatrically. At a more limited spatial scale, we observed two well differentiated genetic groups in sympatry in A. bipindensis. These show a morphological differentiation and a phenological shift of flowering which can contribute to their reproductive isolation. This study highlighted some important points: the discovery of a polyploid complex within the Afzelia genus, the confirmation of the delimitation of the diploid savannah species and the need to revise the delimitation of forest tetraploid species. [less ▲]

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See detailIon Mobility-Mass Spectrometry: Going beyond the numbers
Haler, Jean ULiege; Far, Johann ULiege; Béchet, Eric ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, July 03)

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See detailOn the Use of Principal Component Analysis for Parameter Identification and Damage Detection in Structures
Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege

Conference (2017, July 03)

In this lecture, an approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) is considered for three purposes, namely damage detection, structural health monitoring and identification of nonlinear parameters ... [more ▼]

In this lecture, an approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) is considered for three purposes, namely damage detection, structural health monitoring and identification of nonlinear parameters in structural dynamics. The key idea of PCA is to reduce a large number of measured data to a much smaller number of uncorrelated variables while retaining as much as possible of the variation in the original data. The first problem to which PCA is applied here is the damage detection problem. When applied to vibration measurements, it can be shown that the basis of eigenvectors (called the proper orthogonal modes) span the same subspace as the mode-shape vectors of the monitored structure. Thus the damage detection problem may be solved using the concept of subspace angle between a reference subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the initial (undamaged) structure and the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the current (possibly damaged) structure. The second problem concerns structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures when environmental effects (e.g. the influence of the variation of the ambient temperature) have to be removed from the structural changes. In this case, PCA may be applied on identified modal features (e.g. the natural frequencies) to separate the changes due to environmental variations from the changes due to damage sources. The third problem is related to the estimation of nonlinear parameters using model updating techniques. In this case, the most interesting property of PCA is that it minimizes the average squared distance between the original signal and its reduced linear representation. When applied to nonlinear problems, PCA gives the optimal approximating linear manifold in the configuration space represented by the data. The linear nature of the method is appealing because the theory of linear operators is still available. However, it should be borne in mind that it also exhibits its major limitation when the data lie on a nonlinear manifold. [less ▲]

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See detailHow much should you jump? Reproducibility evaluation of a 3-dimensional fatigability countermovement jump test
Paulus, Julien ULiege; Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Tubez, François ULiege et al

Conference (2017, July 02)

Introduction With the stop jump, the counter movement jump (CMJ) is probably the most used jump in sport. In the literature, a number of studies use the counter movement jump to explore (neuro-)muscular ... [more ▼]

Introduction With the stop jump, the counter movement jump (CMJ) is probably the most used jump in sport. In the literature, a number of studies use the counter movement jump to explore (neuro-)muscular fatigability [1-4]. However, due to the continuous [1-3] (or semi-continuous [4]) character of the test, the CMJ become drop jumps from the second one. Nevertheless, the drop jump isn't the most frequent jump type in sport. These evaluations, with (semi-)continuous jumps, don't reflect the sport reality and therefore a more effective (neuro-)muscular jumping fatigability evaluation must be validated. Methods Nineteen volleyball players (23,5 ± 3,3 years, 187,6 ± 6,6 cm, 77,5 ± 8,5 kg), with no history of (major) lower limb injury, submitted to two jumping fatigability tests, with seven days between each session, under the direction of a single researcher. The jumping fatigability tests consists of the repetition of 50 maximal CMJ at the rate of 33bpm. Between each CMJ, the subject were asked to make a full triple-extension and to wait the next auditory and visual signal of the metronome to start the hip-knee-ankle flexion. With these instructions, each jump remains a CMJ. Subjects were asked to leap as high as possible from the first to the last CMJ. The jumping height was recorder for each jump with three dimensional camera. The reproducibility was assessed by Standard Error of Measurement (SEM), Minimal Difference needed to be considered real (MD), Coefficient of Variation (CV), Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) with 95% confidence interval, Effect Size Cohen (ES Cohen) with 90% confidence interval, paired Student's t-test, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 2,1) with 95% confidence interval and Magnitude-Based Inferences (MBI). Results The results summary is available in the Table 1. In this table, only few parameters are presented and only for the partial sums of the first 10, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 jumps. Our analyses were based on the partial sums per interval of one jump and all statistical tests listed in "Methods" section have been considered. The partial sum with twenty-five CMJ have an excellent reproducibility (MBI with 0/99/1; ICC with 0.961 [0.902/0.985]; ES Cohen with -0.03 [-0.17/0.10]; PCC with 0.966 [0.911/0,987] and p-value < 0.0001). Moreover, it induce a great height decrease (-23%) and its duration (45.5 s) is similar to the recommendation for the knee fatigability isokinetic protocol [5]. MBI (+/trivial/-) Height decrease ICC (2,1) Test duration 10 0/100/0 -12,7% 0.967 18 s 20 0/99/1 -19,0% 0.964 36 s 25 0/99/1 -23,0% 0.961 46 s 30 0/98/1 -25,6% 0.955 55 s 40 0/98/1 -32,1% 0.950 73 s 50 0/98/2 -38,4% 0.943 91 s Table 1: reproducibility statistics results depending on the number of jumps considered (magnitude-based inferences (MBI) with percentage chances of better/trivial/worst retest vs test results; height jump decrease (last jump / better jump); ICC (2,1); test duration). Discussion Because of the (semi-)continuous character of a majority of fatigability jumping test [1-4], our test is the first, at our knowledge, to explore the reproducibility of a strict CMJ jumping fatigability task. Considering the statistical (relative and absolute) reproducibility results, twenty-five maximal CMJ seems to be the best compromise between reliability of the data and physiological interpretability of test's results. Indeed, its (relative and absolute) reproducibility is excellent and it induces a greater height decrease than shorter test while remaining similar in total duration than other fatigability tests which explore the anaerobic lactic system. References 1. Bosco et al, Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 51(3):357-364, 1983. 2. Cormack et al., Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 3(2):131-44, 2008. 3. Dal Pupo et al., J Sci Med Sport, 17(6):650-5, 2014. 4. Meckel et al., J Strength Cond Res, 29(8):2122-7, 2015. 5. Bosquet et al., Int J Sports Med, 31(2):82-8, 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous Determination of Free Amino Acid Content in Different Teas using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled with Single Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
Huang, Yang ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Crommen, Jacques ULiege et al

Poster (2017, July 02)

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a complex mixture containing a wide range of biological activities and has been used as widely consumed beverages and natural medicine for over thousand years [1-2]. In this ... [more ▼]

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a complex mixture containing a wide range of biological activities and has been used as widely consumed beverages and natural medicine for over thousand years [1-2]. In this study, a novel method for high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) has been developed to simultaneously determine the contents of 11 free amino acids in different types of teas (pu-erh tea, green tea, black tea and oolong tea). The separation conditions for the selected amino acids were carefully optimized such as the column type, temperature and backpressure, the type of additive. The best compromise for tested analytes in terms of chromatographic performance was obtained when water (5%) and trifluoroacetate acid (0.4%) were added to the supercritical carbon dioxide/methanol mobile phase. Finally, the developed SFC-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of the 11 amino acids present in the teas and fully validated as well. The results indicated a good linearity (r ≥0.995), precision (RSD≤ 2.99%), stability (RSD≤ 2.88%) and accuracy (91.95%~107.99%). The limits of detection ranged from 1.42 to 14.69 ng/mL, respectively, while the limits of quantification were between 4.53 and 47.0 ng/mL. The content of the amino acids in six different tea samples were also determined and presented some difference basing on the fermentation processes. The proposed SFC-MS method showed a great potential in further investigations to differentiate tea varieties [less ▲]

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See detailMUSE-inspired view of the quasar Q2059-360, its Lyman α blob, and its neighborhood
North, P. L.; Marino, R. A.; Gorgoni, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit ... [more ▼]

The radio-quiet quasar Q2059-360 at redshift z = 3.08 is known to be close to a small Lyman α blob (LAB) and to be absorbed by a proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system. Here, we present the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectroscopy follow-up of this quasi-stellar object (QSO). Our primary goal is to characterize this LAB in detail by mapping it both spatially and spectrally using the Lyα line, and by looking for high-ionization lines to constrain the emission mechanism. Combining the high sensitivity of the MUSE integral field spectrograph mounted on the Yepun telescope at ESO-VLT with the natural coronagraph provided by the PDLA, we map the LAB down to the QSO position, after robust subtraction of QSO light in the spectral domain. In addition to confirming earlier results for the small bright component of the LAB, we unveil a faint filamentary emission protruding to the south over about 80 pkpc (physical kpc); this results in a total size of about 120 pkpc. We derive the velocity field of the LAB (assuming no transfer effects) and map the Lyα line width. Upper limits are set to the flux of the N v λ1238 - 1242, C iv λ1548 - 1551, He ii λ1640, and C iii] λ1548 - 1551 lines. We have discovered two probable Lyα emitters at the same redshift as the LAB and at projected distances of 265 kpc and 207 kpc from the QSO; their Lyα luminosities might well be enhanced by the QSO radiation. We also find an emission line galaxy at z = 0.33 near the line of sight to the QSO. This LAB shares the same general characteristics as the 17 others surrounding radio-quiet QSOs presented previously. However, there are indications that it may be centered on the PDLA galaxy rather than on the QSO. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 60.A-9331(A). [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overview
Suyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] with <3.5 per cent uncertainty from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE 1104-1805). We have been acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modelling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy to obtain the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses for mass modelling. In cosmological models with one-parameter extension to flat Λ cold dark matter, we expect to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] to <3.5 per cent in most models, spatial curvature Ω[SUB]k[/SUB] to 0.004, w to 0.14 and the effective number of neutrino species to 0.2 (1σ uncertainties) when combined with current cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. These are, respectively, a factor of ˜15, ˜2 and ˜1.5 tighter than CMB alone. Our data set will further enable us to study the stellar initial mass function of the lens galaxies, and the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This program will provide a foundation for extracting cosmological distances from the hundreds of time-delay lenses that are expected to be discovered in current and future surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of mucus in cell-based models used to screen mucosal drug delivery
Lechanteur, Anna ULiege; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

in Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2017)

The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug ... [more ▼]

The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption. Biomimetic models of mucosae in which mucus production has been considered may not be able to fully reproduce the amount and architecture of mucus, resulting in biased characterization of permeability/absorption. In these cases, artificial mucus may be used to supplement cell-based models but still proper identification and quantification are required. In this review, considerations regarding the relevance of mucus in the development of cell-based epithelial and mucosal models mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract, the cervico-vaginal tract and the respiratory tract, and the impact of mucus on the permeability mechanisms are addressed. From simple epithelial monolayers to more complexes 3D structures, the impact of the presence of mucus for the extrapolation to the in vivo scenario is critically analyzed. Finally, an overview is provided on several techniques and methods to characterize the mucus layer over cell-based barriers, in order to intimately reproduce human mucosal layer and thereby, improve in vitro/in vivo correlation. [less ▲]

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See detailTrade unions and political culture(s) in the mining area of Kolwezi
Geenen, Kristien ULiege

Conference (2017, July 01)

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See detailProbing the atmosphere of a sub-Jovian planet orbiting a cool dwarf
Sedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Delrez, Laetitia et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468

We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The ... [more ▼]

We derive the 0.01 $\mu$m binned transmission spectrum, between 0.74 and 1.0 $\mu$m, of WASP-80b from low resolution spectra obtained with the FORS2 instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The combination of the fact that WASP-80 is an active star, together with instrumental and telluric factors, introduces correlated noise in the observed transit light curves, which we treat quantitatively using Gaussian Processes. Comparison of our results together with those from previous studies, to theoretically calculated models reveals an equilibrium temperature in agreement with the previously measured value of 825K, and a sub-solar metallicity, as well as an atmosphere depleted of molecular species with absorption bands in the IR ($\gg 5\sigma$). Our transmission spectrum alone shows evidence for additional absorption from the potassium core and wing, whereby its presence is detected from analysis of narrow 0.003 $\mu$m bin light curves ($\gg 5\sigma$). Further observations with visible and near-UV filters will be required to expand this spectrum and provide more in-depth knowledge of the atmosphere. These detections are only made possible through an instrument-dependent baseline model and a careful analysis of systematics in the data. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in cannabis use in emerging adulthood: The influence of peer network, impulsivity, anxiety and depression
Glowacz, Fabienne ULiege; Schmits, Emilie ULiege

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2017), 67(4), 171-179

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and ... [more ▼]

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug with the highest prevalence reported among 15- to 24-year-olds. This specific period of emerging adulthood constitutes a critical age for substance use and for future consumption. Cannabis use patterns change during college or university and the post-college transition; users are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes (especially if they start or maintain a pattern of frequent use). Objectives The overall aim of this study was to highlight psychological and relational factors that might be associated with changes (including cessation and fluctuation) in cannabis use during this specific period, separately for males and females. Methods The subjects were 682 first-year college students (69.94% of female), aged between 18 and 25 years (M = 18.59 years, SD = 1.56). Four groups were formed according to cannabis consumption: “non-users” (54.64%), “desisting users” (14.04%), “fluctuating users” (16.23%), and “persistent users” (15.07%). A self-report questionnaire was administered to evaluate prevalence, frequency and trajectory of use, number of peer cannabis users, alcohol use, impulsivity, anxiety (trait and social) and depression. Results Females appear more sensitive to the romantic partner's consumption than males. For both sexes, having more friends who use cannabis appears to be a determinant. Depression and anxiety were not related to changes in cannabis use. Impulsivity is a significant factor for the maintenance of cannabis use in emerging adulthood, with higher lack of premeditation for males and higher sensation seeking for females among fluctuating and persistent users. Conclusions Results are discussed in terms of maintenance of use and the spiral of consumption, including clinical implications for prevention and interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442
Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Agis-Gonzalez, Beatriz ULiege; Sluse, Dominique ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 604

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization ... [more ▼]

If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization typical of type 2 quasars would be expected. We measured the polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442 in which the broad emission lines have disappeared between 2003 and 2015. We found a polarization degree compatible with null polarization. This measurement suggests that the observed change of look is not due to a change of obscuration hiding the continuum source and the broad line region, and that the quasar is seen close to the system axis. Our results thus support the idea that the vanishing of the broad emission lines in J1011+5442 is due to an intrinsic dimming of the ionizing continuum source that is most likely caused by a rapid decrease in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. [less ▲]

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See detailEthique d'un médecin de famille
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege

Book published by Care Editions (2017)

Préface Un médecin généraliste à l'endroit. Marc Jamoulle n'aime pas la médecine à l'envers, celle des étiquettes, de la maladie définie parce qu'elle répond aux trouvailles des pharmas, celle qui ... [more ▼]

Préface Un médecin généraliste à l'endroit. Marc Jamoulle n'aime pas la médecine à l'envers, celle des étiquettes, de la maladie définie parce qu'elle répond aux trouvailles des pharmas, celle qui distribue plus de produits que de soins, celle qui réduit l'humain en chiffres, ni celle des corps morcelés, des pièces détachées du garage hospitalier. La médecine à l'endroit accepte l'humain tel qu'il est et s'adapte au problème. Elle ne nie pas le vécu et ne juge pas. Faite de tendresse pour la personne, pour l'individu particulier et de compassion, elle n'est ni le gardien de la morale sociale, ni la courroie de transmission des grands principes. Marc Jamoulle n'est pas sur l'estrade des Académiciens, il reste près du poêle au fond de la classe et devient un "virtuose du complexe et du coq à l'âne". Il se fâche lorsque les outils qu'on lui offre ne sont pas adaptés à la réalité. L'informatisation de l'humain lui pose problème puisqu'on ne peut pas faire de la "télémétrie de la souffrance". Et que valent les données recueillies si personne ne les lit? Il rêve du carnet d'écolier, un objet transitionnel comme trace de l'agir et du respect d'une équipe. Les rêves de Marc Jamoulle peuvent aboutir à des chartes élaborées avec ses collègues, comme la charte pour une éthique de l'information. Toujours Marc construit son cheminement sur la réalité de son quotidien professionnel: il nous raconte des histoires de patients, décrit ses journées, ses pensées, ses préoccupations et celles de ses confrères et progressivement il crée ses concepts ancrés dans la vie: les Q-Codes, la prévention quaternaire. Sa vision est critique, consciente des dérives possibles induites par les pouvoirs, ce que l'on voit tout au long de sa carrière, de la déclaration de Cos à celle de Rio. Il a certainement des colères constructives et le livre s'ouvre et se termine par elles: la condamnation de la méthadone par les autorités privant les patients d'un traitement qui s'avérait protecteur de la personne, et plus récemment la différence des législations sur l'aide en fin de vie, obligeant certains patients à passer d'un pays à l'autre, à un moment de leur vie qui mériterait plus de respect. Le livre de Marc Jamoulle est un patch-work, un aller et retour entre l'expérience quotidienne et les prises de position politique, une pensée sauvage toujours en alerte du risque de récupération: l'industrie n'a-t-elle pas réussi à s'emparer de l'EBM? En effet les meilleures idées peuvent être finalement pasteurisées comme le dit la déclaration de Rio et Marc tient à conserver le goût et les saveurs de la vie. Daniel Widmer Médecin généraliste, Vice-président de l'Union Européenne de Médecine Omnipraticienne UEMO. [less ▲]

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See detailBaudelaire: traductor auctoritas
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULiege

in Literatura: Historia, Teoría, Crítica (2017), 19(2), 19-51

In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by ... [more ▼]

In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-autoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity [less ▲]

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See detailTesting the discrimination hypothesis for female self employment migrants in the UK
Constantinidis, Christina ULiege; Fletcher, Denise; Joxhe, Majlinda

in IAFFE (Ed.) Books of Abstracts (2017, July 01)

We propose a comparative analysis of migrants in both sectors (employment and self-employment) exploring the gender earning discrimination hypothesis. Using individual micro data from the British ... [more ▼]

We propose a comparative analysis of migrants in both sectors (employment and self-employment) exploring the gender earning discrimination hypothesis. Using individual micro data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008), we estimate wage equations for employed and self-employed migrants and find that, contrary to our expectations, the average earnings gap in self-employment is almost double compared to the employment sector. This finding reveals that self-employment leads migrant women to an even more precarious and vulnerable position in terms of financial means and economic power. In addition, we explore the determinants of these gaps using the econometric procedure of the decomposition (the Blinder-Oaxaca) model. We find that the variables that explain the gender gap in the employment sector are mostly observable individual characteristics like education or migration duration, confirming the human capital theory, whereas in the self-employment sector, this gap is more due to unobservable individual characteristics. Through our work, we show that including the gender perspective into migration analysis has implications for policy makers enabling them to evaluate these processes from a more social (rather than individualistic) dimension. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko gas activity throughout the Rosetta mission
Opitom, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Fitzsimmons, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 469

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active ... [more ▼]

Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active gas species and imaging of the overall dust coma. We present more than 2 yr of observations performed with the FORS2 low-resolution spectrograph at the VLT, TRAPPIST and ACAM at the WHT. We focus on the evolution of the CN production as a tracer of the comet activity. We find that it is asymmetric with respect to perihelion and different from that of the dust. The CN emission is detected for the first time at 1.34 au pre-perihelion and production rates then increase steeply to peak about 2 weeks after perihelion at (1.00 ± 0.10) × 10[SUP]25[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP], while the post-perihelion decrease is more shallow. The evolution of the comet activity is strongly influenced by seasonal effects with enhanced CN production when the Southern hemisphere is illuminated. [less ▲]

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See detailM Dwarf Exoplanet Surface Density Distribution: A Log-Normal Fit from 0.07-400 AU
Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Reggiani, Maddalena ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters (2017), 1707

We fit a log-normal function to the M dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07-400 AU. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo ... [more ▼]

We fit a log-normal function to the M dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07-400 AU. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to explore the likelihoods of various parameter values consistent with point estimates of the data given our assumed functional form. This fit is consistent with radial velocity, microlensing, and direct imaging observations, is well-motivated from theoretical and phenomenological viewpoints, and makes predictions of future surveys. We present probability distributions for each parameter as well as a Maximum Likelihood Estimate solution. We suggest this function makes more physical sense than other widely used functions, and explore the implications of our results on the design of future exoplanet surveys. [less ▲]

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