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See detailCapital symbolique
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Présentation et discussion du concept de « Capital symbolique » dans la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu.

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See detailIllusio
Durand, Pascal ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

Définition et discussion du concept d'« Illusio » dans la sociologie de Pierre Bourdieu.

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See detailNo performance reduction at the present northern edge of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. invasion range
Ortmans, William ULg

Conference (2014, May 05)

Plant populations at range edges may exhibit reduction of performances and fitness. In the case of biological invasions, such a reduction could be associated with a slowing down of the spread and explain ... [more ▼]

Plant populations at range edges may exhibit reduction of performances and fitness. In the case of biological invasions, such a reduction could be associated with a slowing down of the spread and explain the non-naturalization of a species outside its present invasion range. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an ideal model to investigate such processes, since it is invasive in France but not naturalized in northern countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we test if the performances of ragweed populations vary among different invasion zones. Three populations were selected in each of four invasion zones in Western Europe: 1) French invasion area; 2) northern and 3) southern invasion edges; and 4) outside the invasion area (Belgium and Netherlands). Field performances (growth, reproduction, stress resistance) were recorded on 25 plants per population. Furthermore, the competition by the native flora was assessed around each plant. Generalized Linear Models were used to compare performance among invasion zones and populations, with competition as covariate. Regressions were also performed to assess the influence of climatic data on population performances. No evidence of decreasing performances was found at the edges of the invasion area, neither outside of it, suggesting that the invasion front has the potential to keep going northwards. Competition by native flora had a significant impact on stress resistance, but did not decrease reproduction or growth. These results are discussed in the light of other ongoing experiments in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic screening in pituitary patients
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 04)

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See detailHeroin-assisted treatment showed better efficacy than methadone
ANSSEAU, Marc ULg; Demaret, Isabelle ULg

Poster (2014, May 04)

Background: A fraction of patients receiving methadone treatment pursues their use of street heroin. In Switzerland, a new treatment with prescribed diacetylmorphine (pharmaceutical heroin) was developed ... [more ▼]

Background: A fraction of patients receiving methadone treatment pursues their use of street heroin. In Switzerland, a new treatment with prescribed diacetylmorphine (pharmaceutical heroin) was developed to help these heroin addicts resistant to methadone treatment to decrease their street heroin use. In this heroin-assisted treatment (HAT), diacetylmorphine is prescribed to severe heroin user and diacetylmorphine is administered by patients under the supervision of nurses in a specific centre. Six randomised controlled trials compared HAT to methadone treatment: in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Canada and United- Kingdom. HAT showed better efficacy than methadone. Patients used less street heroin, their health improved and their criminal behaviour decreased. A new trial assessed in Belgium the feasibility and efficacy of this treatment compared to methadone treatment. Methods: The TADAM (Treatment Assisted by Diacetylmorphine) was an open label randomised controlled trial developed on the Swiss model of HAT developed in 1994. Main inclusion criteria were 5 years of heroin addiction, (almost) daily use of street heroin and a previous attempt of methadone treatment. As in the Dutch experiment, patients could choose to inhale or to inject diacetylmorphine in the new HAT centre. HAT was stopped after 12 months and the best available treatment was offered to the patient. The research team assessed subjects every three months with standardised questionnaires (EuropASI, MAP-HSS, SCL-90-R) and questions on involvement in a criminal milieu. We completed our reported data with toxicological analysis and criminal proceedings. Results: 74 subjects were randomised in the trial: 36 in the experimental group and 38 in the control group. According to the primary efficacy criterion, the experimental group counted at least 30% more responders than the control group after 3 months (p<0.05), 6 months (p<0.05) and 9 months (p<0.01). At the 12 month assessment, the number of responders was still higher in the experimental group but the difference (11%) was no more significant (p=0.35). At the 12 month assessment, the condition of patients in the experimental group worsened compared to the 9 month assessment. This effect was not seen in the control group were patients could continue their methadone treatment after the 12 months. Conclusion: As in other countries, HAT is an effective treatment for severe heroin addicts resistant to methadone treatment. However, a predetermined duration of 12 month counteracts the efficacy of this treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailLes insectes, des aliments?
Blecker, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, May 02)

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See detailEnzymatic process for the fractionation of baker’s yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 163

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See detailTropospheric jet stream as a source of traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by GPS
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

Poster (2014, May 02)

The integrity and the reliability of real-time precise positioning applications with Global Positioning System (GPS) are affected by the ionospheric variability with time and space. As a consequence ... [more ▼]

The integrity and the reliability of real-time precise positioning applications with Global Positioning System (GPS) are affected by the ionospheric variability with time and space. As a consequence, scientific community aims at describing, explaining and forecasting the occurrence and the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed by GPS. The use of the geometric-free combination of GPS dual frequency signals allows to retrieve the Total Electron Content (TEC) along the satellite-to-receiver path, which is the basic trans-ionospheric observable. Based on L1/L2 GPS phase measurements collected at a given station, the TEC high-frequency variability is isolated. A climatological study performed over 10 years in Western Europe shows that TEC irregularities are mostly observed daytime during quiet geomagnetic background in autumn and winter and correspond to classical Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs). The latter are generally understood as the ionospheric signature of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs), either generated in situ (solar terminator) or in the lower atmosphere and propagating upward. Because of its associated strong wind shears, the tropospheric jetstream, occurring mainly during autumn and winter months, constitutes an ideal candidate for AGW generation. This paper analyzes the spatial correlation between the presence of both MSTIDs and strong jetstream over Western Europe. This correlation is positive when the ionospheric pierce point of the satellite is located above regions of interest where wind shears are very large. In practice, we have selected regions for which wind speed is larger than 50 m/s. In addition, the propagation of AGWs up to the ionospheric layer is taken into account by assuming horizontal and vertical velocities of 200 and 50 m/s respectively. It comes that the region of interest of the correlation study is computed using an isotropic slant propagation of the AGW, which is supposed to be generated at a tropospheric level.Based on 30s GPS data collected over several stations in Belgium and on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind velocity maps, the correlation study covers a period ranging from January 2002 to December 2011. Preliminary results based on a limited number of cases show that large amplitude MSTIDs are generally observed during periods of strong wind speeds at an altitude corresponding to a pressure level of 250hPa (about 10 km). [less ▲]

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See detailMises en scène de soi dans les médias sociaux - autour des "selfies"
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 02)

(Extrait de l'introduction) On s’intéressera ici au selfie – que je définirai une première fois (en accord avec ce qui est désormais un lieu commun) comme « autoportrait photographique visant la promotion ... [more ▼]

(Extrait de l'introduction) On s’intéressera ici au selfie – que je définirai une première fois (en accord avec ce qui est désormais un lieu commun) comme « autoportrait photographique visant la promotion de soi – éventuellement narcissique – sur les médias sociaux ». Définition relativement fragile puisqu’il n’est pas évident en réalité que le selfie puisse se voir attribuer le statut d’autoportrait (j’interrogerai en tout cas la continuité présumée qui rattacherait le selfie à la tradition de l’autoportrait artistique pictural/photographique). Cette proposition s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une recherche plus large sur la photographie commune. Je dis commune pour éviter d’autres termes trop manifestement connotés/biaisés mais l’objet visé relève de ce que certains ont pu appeler photographie amateur ou populaire, photographie familiale ou privée, voire même photographie domestique (Bourdieu). Commune devrait ici s’entendre non seulement au sens de « ce qui ne fait pas exception » (en tout cas pas de manière évidente) mais aussi comme « ce dont nous partageons tous l’usage » - c’est-à-dire ce à quoi nous avons aujourd’hui accès (sans trop de difficulté et de manière presque naturelle) en termes de pratiques visuelles. Deux problèmes m’intéressent en particulier (et que le cas spécifique du selfie permet d’éprouver à nouveaux frais) : (1) Le premier problème est celui de la démocratisation des dispositifs de la visualité (déjà relevée par les historiens de l’art, par les premiers théoriciens de l’ère de la reproductibilité technique puis reprise aujourd’hui par les spécialistes des nouveaux médias) et la démocratisation conséquente de l’accès à la visibilité (pour reprendre les termes choisis par T.L. pour cette journée – en référence aux travaux de N. Heinich). Problème que j’ai abordé jusqu’ici principalement à partir des écrits du philosophe J. Rancière pour qui esthétique/politique se nouent à cet endroit précis d’un nouveau « partage du sensible » c’est-à-dire d’une redistribution de l’accès à la parole et à la visibilité – réalisée par le biais des formes d’expression artistique. Dans son ouvrage Le partage du sensible. Esthétique et politique (2000), Rancière propose une réévaluation des facteurs favorisant une telle redistribution (je pense notamment au texte intitulé « Des arts mécaniques et de la promotion esthétique et scientifique des anonymes »). Son propos consiste à renverser l’argument habituellement utilisé par la tradition de la Théorie critique (à savoir : le développement des arts mécaniques – photographie et cinéma – aurait amené la possibilité d’une visibilité nouvelle pour les individus anonymes). Rancière considère pour sa part que la révolution technique vient après la révolution esthétique – plutôt qu’elle ne l’explique. Cette révolution esthétique – et l’émergence d’un nouveau régime de visibilité – se joue principalement dans la littérature du XIXème siècle : des écrivains comme Balzac, Hugo ou Flaubert ont permis que des sujets « quelconques », « vulgaires », « prosaïques » soient progressivement considérés comme des sujets artistiques (et dignes de valeur). Rem. On pourrait aussi trouver des anticipations dans la peinture de genre, nature morte, peinture d’intérieurs, vanités, etc. (mais ce n’est pas l’option retenue par Rancière). Par la suite, si l’on a pu considérer (non sans mal, d’ailleurs) que la photographie pouvait prétendre intégrer la sphère des activités proprement artistiques, c’est en tant qu’elle s’inscrivait dans le sillage de ces efforts littéraires réclamant « l’assomption [ou la gloire] du quelconque » (50). Quoiqu’il en soit de la priorité du technique ou de l’esthétique pour cet accès plus large à la visibilité qui déterminerait notre culture contemporaine, il semble nécessaire de continuer à interroger de manière critique la généralisation apparente du droit à l’image et la démocratisation des dispositifs visuels. Pour le dire plus franchement : je pense qu’on aurait tort de considérer comme définitivement acquise cette démocratisation sans montrer – de manière dialectique – les dispositifs par lesquels elle peut parfois se renverser en renforcement des hiérarchies entre ceux qui méritent d’être vus et ceux qui resteront toujours anonymes. On peut penser par exemple aux références de plus en plus nombreuses faites par les photographes contemporains en vogue à la photographie commune (ex. les intérieurs domestiques de Jeff Wall – qui sont très travaillés et ne s’apparentent évidemment pas aux clichés que n’importe quel quidam pourrait réaliser à partir de son espace quotidien, même s’ils s’inscrivent apparemment dans ce registre). S’agissant du selfie, un cas particulier réclame de l’intérêt : celui des selfies réalisés (parfois avec une grande profusion) par des stars – c’est-à-dire des gens dont le capital de visibilité (Heinich) est déjà très important et qui détournent les effets d’une pratique commune (« populaire ») pour augmenter encore la « valeur élective » qui touche leur image (mais qui ne touche pas automatiquement et avec la même facilité le selfie produit par Monsieur-tout-le-monde). (2) Le deuxième problème lié à l’étude de la photographie commune concerne plus directement les qualités esthétiques susceptibles d’être affectées ou refusées à ses productions. Par qualités esthétiques, j’entends non pas/seulement la beauté éventuelle de ces images mais de manière très générale tous les éléments qui contribuent à leur potentielle valorisation artistique : effort de construction et de mise en scène, cadrage inédit, mise en évidence de détails, et tous les dispositifs organisant le réel en vue de produire des effets précis. En mobilisant un tel objet (la photographie commune), il s’agit encore une fois – obsession bien contemporaine – d’interroger la frontière entre art et non-art. D’où l’importance de la définition du selfie et de son rattachement possible (mais problématique) à l’histoire du portrait artistique. En attribuant au selfie une fonction autre que celle de la représentation de l’individu (cf. le débat initié par A. Gunthert sur la plate-forme Cultures visuelles : le selfie doit être avant tout considéré comme un acte conversationnel), ne cherche-t-on pas au fond à lui refuser tout intérêt (toute dignité) artistique ? Ces images doivent-elles être réduites à des actes de promotion ou de valorisation sur la scène sociale ? Ne peut-on y déceler de l’inventivité formelle etc. (et surtout : de l’inventivité formelle « organisée » - c’est-à-dire précisément codifiée – plutôt que « désordonnée ») ? [less ▲]

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See detailEOF analysis of long-term reconstructed AVHRR Pathfinder SST in the South China Sea
Huynh, Thi Hong Ngu ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 02)

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. For recent decades, the AVHRR Pathfinder SST, measured ... [more ▼]

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. For recent decades, the AVHRR Pathfinder SST, measured by infrared sensors, has been widely used because of its high resolution and long time-series. The disadvantage of the AVHRR Pathfinder SST is high percentage of missing data due to cloud coverage. This becomes more serious in the South China Sea (SCS) because it is located in the tropical region, frequently covered by clouds. In this study, we used the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) method to reconstruct daily night-time 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder SST spanning from 1989 to 2009 for the whole SCS. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of the SCS SST, an EOF analysis of the reconstructed field is performed in association with surface wind. The first SST mode, accounting for 69% of the variance, presents the cooling (warming) of the basin due to the solar inclination through seasons, water exchange, topography, and monsoon-induced cyclonic circulation. The second SST mode, explaining 24.8% of the variance, shows the advection of cold and warm water from two opposite directions along the southwest-northeast diagonal of the basin. The second SST mode is affected by the atmospheric anticyclone (cyclone) located over the Philippine Sea. Comparing both SST modes with Nino3.0 index, it shows that the interannual variability of the SCS SST is influenced by the moderate and strong ENSO events with a lag of 5-6 months. Moreover, the analysis of the high-resolution reconstructed dataset reveals some oceanic features that could not be captured in previous EOF analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method
Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014), 558

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er3 + and Eu3 + was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu3 + and Er3 + f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Multiple SEA Method to Synthesize Pt/Carbon Xerogel Electrocatalysts for PEMFC Applications
Zubiaur, Anthony ULg; Chatenet, Marian; Maillard, Frédéric et al

in Fuel Cells - From Fundamentals to Systems (2014), 14(3), 343-349

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See detailEffect of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in porous silica on the biphenyl biodegradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1
Wannoussa, Wissal ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 01)

Biphenyl is stable and highly hydrophobic, thus having a low availability for degrading microorganisms, which need an aqueous environment for their growth. As a consequence, bioremediation processes are ... [more ▼]

Biphenyl is stable and highly hydrophobic, thus having a low availability for degrading microorganisms, which need an aqueous environment for their growth. As a consequence, bioremediation processes are very limited. However, a few studies showed that using a low metal concentration accelerates the biodegradation of pollutants (Yeom and Yoo1997). Nanoparticles are considered as a new generation of compounds to improve environmental remediation and biological processes (Beckers et al. 2013; Zhang 2003). This paper investigated the enhancement effect of nanometre-sized metallic Cu, Ag, Pd or Co, on the biphenyl biodegradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1. Have been synthesized by a sol–gel process (Lambert et al. 2004). These nanoparticles (NP) of about 2–3 nm were encapsulated in porous silica (SiO2) and were added at low concentration (10-4M) in the M284 minimal medium with 500 ppm biphenyl as source of carbon and energy. The cultures containing Pd or Co produced 30% more biphenyl degraded with a higher Rhodococcus growth than those without NP (positive control) or with silica particles only. On the contrary, the presence of 10-4 M Cu or Ag nanoparticles showed an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and biphenyl degradation compared to the positive. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet facilite-t-il un apprentissage de plus en plus auto-déterminé ? Illustrations et réflexions.
Poumay, Marianne ULg

Conference (2014, May 01)

Après avoir introduit le thème du contrôle par l’étudiant de son propre apprentissage, la conférence illustrera des situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (bien sûr faisant usage d’Internet) qui ... [more ▼]

Après avoir introduit le thème du contrôle par l’étudiant de son propre apprentissage, la conférence illustrera des situations d’apprentissage et d’évaluation (bien sûr faisant usage d’Internet) qui poussent l’étudiant à faire des choix et qui, en corollaire, aboutissent à faire valider par les enseignants le résultat de trajectoires riches et différenciées. Rassembler des preuves de son développement de compétences, planifier son inscription dans une série de MOOCs ou son travail en ligne suite à un test diagnostique sont autant d’actions qui responsabilisent l’étudiant quant à sa propre formation. Mais l’apprentissage autodéterminé est-il à la portée de tous les étudiants ? [less ▲]

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See detailApproche systémique de l’intégration des TIC dans l’éducation : enjeux, actions et perspectives à l’horizon 2020
Denis, Brigitte ULg

Conference (2014, May 01)

En Belgique francophone, diverses initiatives ont vu le jour durant ces quinze dernières années dans le but de développer un usage réfléchi des TIC en éducation. Parmi celles-ci épinglons les « Plans TIC ... [more ▼]

En Belgique francophone, diverses initiatives ont vu le jour durant ces quinze dernières années dans le but de développer un usage réfléchi des TIC en éducation. Parmi celles-ci épinglons les « Plans TIC", la mise au point d’un curriculum de formation relatif aux usages et aux apports des médias et des TIC en enseignement destiné aux futurs enseignants, la mise en réseau d’enseignants du supérieur, la constitution de communautés d’apprenants supportées par les TIC. Plans d’équipement des écoles, projets-pilotes, formation initiale et continuée des enseignants en matière de TICE, réseaux de partage… convergent vers un même objectif : développer, expérimenter et diffuser des activités d’apprentissage à hautes plus-values. Des scénarios pédagogiques exploitant différents types d’outils/services technologiques et supports (ordinateurs, tablettes, tableaux interactifs…) et leurs plus-values sont mis au point afin de développer les savoirs, savoir-faire et savoir-être des apprenants, non seulement en rapport aux apprentissages scolaires, mais aussi dans l’optique d’un transfert dans la vie quotidienne, citoyenne et professionnelle. Certaines de ces initiatives seront présentées en les situant dans une approche systémique. Nous mettrons l’accent sur ce qui les unit, les facteurs facilitateurs et les obstacles rencontrés lors de leur implémentation sur le terrain et proposerons quelques recommandations. [less ▲]

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See detailPromotion of physical activity in schools
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2014, May 01)

This presentation will answer to the following questions: (1) Does the school play a role in PA promotion? (2) What are the dimensions of PA at school? (3) How to determine the potential role of the ... [more ▼]

This presentation will answer to the following questions: (1) Does the school play a role in PA promotion? (2) What are the dimensions of PA at school? (3) How to determine the potential role of the school in PA promotion? (4) What kind of projects to implement? (5) What do we have to remember? It will be based on an overview of the literature and will provide practical implications for researchers and practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Transcription Factor EGR1 Localizes to the Nucleolus and Is Linked to Suppression of Ribosomal Precursor Synthesis
Ponti, Donatella; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Puca, Rosa et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(5),

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the ... [more ▼]

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the proliferation of stimulated cells or suppresses the tumorigenic growth of transformed cells. Upon interaction with ARF, EGR1 is sumoylated and acquires the ability to bind to specific targets such as PTEN and in turn to regulate cell growth. ARF is mainly localized to the periphery of nucleolus where is able to negatively regulate ribosome biogenesis. Since EGR1 colocalizes with ARF under IGF-1 stimulation we asked the question of whether EGR1 also relocate to the nucleolus to interact with ARF. Here we show that EGR1 colocalizes with nucleolar markers such as fibrillarin and B23 in the presence of ARF. Western analysis of nucleolar extracts from HeLa cells was used to confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus mainly as the 100 kDa sumoylated form. We also show that the level of the ribosomal RNA precursor 47S is inversely correlated to the level of EGR1 transcripts. The EGR1 iseffective to regulate the synthesis of the 47S rRNA precursor. Then we demonstrated that EGR1 binds to the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) leading us to hypothesize that the regulating activity of EGR1 is mediated by its interaction within the transcriptional complex of RNA polymerase I. These results confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus and point to a role for EGR1 in the control of nucleolar metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailForest radiative transfer models: which approach for which application?
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (2014), 44(5), 385-397

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (14 ULg)