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See detailLes enseignants à l'image. Représentations iconographiques et audiovisuelles du mouvement enseignant (1995-1996)
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

Les réformes institutionnelles de 1988-1989 ont transféré aux Communautés les compétences en matière d’enseignement. Pour la Communauté française, cette responsabilisation a très vite rimé avec la ... [more ▼]

Les réformes institutionnelles de 1988-1989 ont transféré aux Communautés les compétences en matière d’enseignement. Pour la Communauté française, cette responsabilisation a très vite rimé avec la nécessité de réaliser d’importantes économies et donc d’importantes réformes structurelles. Une première vague de protestation secoue Bruxelles et la Wallonie en 1990 mais, cinq ans plus tard, un nouveau plan d’économies préparé par la socialiste Laurette Onkelinx, Ministre-Présidente de la Communauté française, en charge notamment de l’Education, donne naissance à un long et douloureux mouvement de protestation. Celui-ci semble matérialiser la rupture entre une base enseignante proche, selon les réseaux, du PS ou du PSC, et un Exécutif au sein duquel ces deux partis fonctionnent en coalition. Réduction des dépenses, suppression de trois mille postes, fusions d’écoles, tous les ingrédients sont réunis pour que la situation soit explosive. Elle va l’être d’autant plus – et cela marquera d’ailleurs durablement les esprits – que certaines manifestations de mécontentement vont s’exprimer avec violence, s’attaquer à des symboliques fortes (la Fête de la Communauté française en septembre 1995, le 1er mai 1996) et perturber la vie privée de la Ministre et de son entourage. Notre contribution s’inscrit dans le volet « images produites ». Elle s’interrogera sur le rôle des images dans la représentation que la presse écrite généraliste a donnée du mouvement enseignant et des enseignants eux-mêmes durant ce conflit. Grâce à certaines archives numérisées, le traitement du mouvement par l’audiovisuel public pourra, lui aussi, être abordé. La photographie de presse, la caricature et le reportage ont-ils contribué à présenter le mouvement enseignant de manière objective et dépassionnée ? Ont-ils au contraire – et jusqu’à quel point ? - intégré les clichés traditionnels véhiculés sur cette catégorie socio-professionnelle (conservatisme, attachement à de supposés « privilèges »…). Quelle image est renvoyée du syndicalisme enseignant ? Comment est mise en scène la relation triangulaire entre grévistes, ministre et public de l’école (parents et élèves) ? Quels sont le poids et le rôle dévolus à chacun ? Quelle est, spécifiquement, le traitement réservé au mouvement par un journal comme La Wallonie ? Comment a-t-il accompagné en images la rupture entre le monde enseignant, la CGSP et le parti socialiste, culminant le 1er mai 1996 ? [less ▲]

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See detailLe vécu de l'ICSI du côté de l'homme
Barbillon, Adrien ULg; Naziri, Despina ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

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See detailLe suivi des enfants nés prématurés ou avec un très petit poids de naissance : le projet CAP48
Mostaert, Anne; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Vermeylen, Danièle et al

Poster (2014, March 20)

This poster describes the cohort of very preterm and very low birth weight newborns recruted in the "CAP48" project and anaylses the main reasons for cessation of follow-up.

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See detailMénages ruraux et lutte contre la pauvreté : cas des communes de Tu Ly et de Xuang Phong dans la province de Hao Binh Viet Nam
Mai, Lan Phuong ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Since 1998, Viet Nam developed many poverty reduction strategies with the assistance of the WB and the IMF. However, although the national rate of poverty decreased in absolute terms, it does not reflect ... [more ▼]

Since 1998, Viet Nam developed many poverty reduction strategies with the assistance of the WB and the IMF. However, although the national rate of poverty decreased in absolute terms, it does not reflect a real reduction in poverty and does not take into account the nature of poverty. Income and opportunities inequality increased between urban and rural areas, between different social classes and between the Kinh (majority group in Viet Nam) and ethnic minorities. Poverty of ethnic minorities has become an ongoing challenge. In 2010, there were 66.3% of the poor among ethnic minorities against only 12.9% for the Kinh population. This thesis illustrates a reflection on the issue of poverty in Viet Nam and in particular mountainous northern regions where the poverty rate is the highest, reaching 39.4 % in 2012. The historical approach, the capacity approach, the descriptive statistical analysis and case analysis are used to conduct this research. The first difficulty is the identification of poor households and beneficiaries of poverty reduction strategies. Other difficulties are disclosed by the analysis of strategies against poverty: information confusion, budget limitation, insufficient participation of local people in program planning and monitoring, limited autonomy at the local level. Finally it appears that strategies against poverty are not efficient. In addition, land resource privatization, particularly forest resources, limits minority farmers’ ability to cope with unexpected risks Faced with this situation, a possible solution could be to strengthen the role of farmers' associations. Taking into account the ideas and initiatives of local actor, driven by farmers' associations, would have a positive impact on the poverty reduction strategy. Donations and subsidies to individuals should no longer be practiced. In the present threatening world, solidarity among small farmers is necessary to enable them to find their place in the production system and keep the justified profits. In the long run, it is better to give financial support to assist groups and support initiatives by associations of small farmers to facilitate their participation in the market economy while improving their well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailmaking the most of the LBTI nulling interferometry observations using a statistical data reduction method
Marion, Lindsay ULg; Mennesson, Bertrand; Defrère, Denis et al

Poster (2014, March 20)

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See detailApport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor)
Tangou Tabou, Thierry ULg; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Liady, Mouhamadou Nourou Dine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 37-48

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ... [more ▼]

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought at assessing the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron) using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g), nitrogen and phosphorus concentration varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+.L-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-.L-1, respectively. The digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight). Our results showed that image processing method allowed a continuous and non destructive monitoring of duckweeds biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreases when nitrogen and phosphorus were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+.L-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-.L-1. The maximum growth rate μmax are of the order of 0.07 d-1, the kinetic constants Ks and Ki are respectively 3.83 mg.L-1 and 204 mg L-1 for nitrogen, 1.26 mg.L-1 and 13.3 mg.L-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could serve in the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure-function relationship of oligomers in amyloidoses
Huynen, Céline ULg

Scientific conference (2014, March 20)

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See detailChildren’s perspectives on their working lives and on public action against child labour in Burkina Faso
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

Since the end of 1990’s, there has been a growing interest to combat child labour in Burkina Faso. State actors as well as civil society organisations have started to engage themselves to urgently combat ... [more ▼]

Since the end of 1990’s, there has been a growing interest to combat child labour in Burkina Faso. State actors as well as civil society organisations have started to engage themselves to urgently combat the worst forms of child labour. The 2006 National Statistical Survey found that 41.1 % of children aged 5 to 17 years were economically active. Compared to other West African countries, Burkina Faso is said to have the highest rate of children involved in hazardous work, which is one working child out of two. In this context of renewed interest regarding child labour, working children have their say. Based on a qualitative survey, this paper is focused on the perspectives of children working in two of the eleven hazardous sectors of activity identified by the 2009 National Decree: a stone quarry located in the capital Ouagadougou and an artisanal gold mine in a northern rural area. The paper aims to better understand the experience and opinions of children at work, to describe what work means to them, the role and the benefits of work in their lives and the difficulties they encounter. The focus is also on what children (and their families) think about public action against child labour and what are their aspirations regarding the current interventions. The analysis shows that if economic reasons lead children to work in in these two sectors of activity, this not the only determinant. The wish of a large number of children (and their parents) to find other less difficult work reopens the debate on children’s right to work. The results of this study reveal that there is a need to better understand how working children and their fmailies negotiate everyday life within the socio-cultural and economic context of Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailL’ambition climatique de l’Europe est aussi socio-économique
Chapelle, Grégor; de Borchgraeve, François; de Callataÿ, Etienne et al

Article for general public (2014)

Les objectifs climatiques et énergétiques de la Commission européenne sont trop faibles. Inquiets, plusieurs chefs d’entreprises et académiques demandent à notre Premier ministre de plaider, lors du ... [more ▼]

Les objectifs climatiques et énergétiques de la Commission européenne sont trop faibles. Inquiets, plusieurs chefs d’entreprises et académiques demandent à notre Premier ministre de plaider, lors du Conseil européen, pour une politique climat-énergie bien plus ambitieuse. [less ▲]

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See detailLa résilience chez les plus vulnérables au Rwanda
Militery Ngamata, Olivier ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

After the tragedy of the genocide against Tutsi in 1994, the Rwandan Government has developed and implemented different programmes and interventions in the sector of social protection in order to reduce ... [more ▼]

After the tragedy of the genocide against Tutsi in 1994, the Rwandan Government has developed and implemented different programmes and interventions in the sector of social protection in order to reduce the poverty of the vulnerable populations and so reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The different interventions done in the context of social security of the poor people are considered as means of increasing the economy, integrating people in employment market, improving human development thanks to a better access to health and education, and reducing poverty. After the context and justification of the research as well as the methods for data collection, this study focuses primarily on the conceptualization of resilience and connected concepts. Secondly, it scrutinizes the impact of the three programmes of social protection that were developed to reduce poverty of the beneficiaries. The first programme is FARG that supports the survivors of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in the domain of education, access to accommodation, medical health and income generating activities. The second programme is Ubudehe-VUP-2020. This one helps very poor households via direct financial transfers, creation of jobs and access to financial services. Girinka is the third programme; it contributes to food improvement, subsistence means and land fertility by supplying a dairy cow to poor families. In third position, this research assesses the achievements of the association of the widows survivors of genocide called - Agahozo (AVEGA) as well as the successes so far reached by the widows beneficiaries. The widows consider AVEGA as an important ‘tutor for resilience’ because it not only deals with their psychological aspects related to the tragedies they experienced but also the promotion and development of economic activities that can supply them with an income for their social reintegration at both economic and social levels. Thus, AVEGA involves a diversity of actors in order to help the widows and implement various income generating activities. Research conducted on the field has targeted, in last position, the most resilient widows. These widows have got support from social protection programmes and AVEGA, in order to involve in income generating activities among which the most developed are agriculture, animal rearing and commerce. All in all, the widows of genocide who were surveyed positively commented the support they get from SPP and AVEGA regarding the reinforcement of their economic resilience. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation de l'Action de Recherches Concertée EpistolART
Delfosse, Annick ULg; Allart, Dominique ULg; Moreno, Paola ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 19)

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See detailContribution à l'amélioration de l'accès à une eau potable de qualité pour les populations de la région nord du Burkina Faso
Some, Issam; Guel, Boubié; Hantson, Anne-Lise et al

Poster (2014, March 19)

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See detailGoro Gheri, un secrétaire au service de l'art
Miesse, Hélène ULg

Poster (2014, March 19)

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See detailAn introduction to the PFEM (Particle-Finite Element Method)
Cerquaglia, Marco Lucio ULg

Scientific conference (2014, March 19)

The aim of the presentation is to give a "friendly" introduction to the PFEM (Particle-Finite Elements Method), a quite recent and powerful numerical method, designed to handle very non-linear problems ... [more ▼]

The aim of the presentation is to give a "friendly" introduction to the PFEM (Particle-Finite Elements Method), a quite recent and powerful numerical method, designed to handle very non-linear problems, involving large displacements and deformations, in a Lagrangian framework. In some cases, as for example in dynamic fluid-structure interaction problems, the Eulerian approach can become very cumbersome, due to the intimate Lagrangian nature of the phenomenon; on the other hand, it is well-known that classical Lagrangian numerical approaches can suffer from mesh distortion problems: the PFEM is one of the methods which try to avoid this kind of issues, still working in a pure Lagrangian framework. During the presentation, some of the key features of the method will be pointed out, also underlining its differences with others so-called "meshless" and "particle" methods. The first applications of the PFEM belong mostly to the fluid dynamics domain, but chances are that the method could be used in a very interesting way in solving solids non-linear problems as well: therefore some perspectives on the possible future applications of PFEM are given. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual spatial congruence, and applications to 3D sound and stereoscopic video
André, Cédric ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this thesis, we investigate the possibility of adding spatially accurate sound rendering to regular s-3D cinema. Our goal is to provide a perceptually matched sound source at the position of every object producing sound in the visual scene. We examine and contribute to the understanding of the usefulness and the feasibility of this combination. By usefulness, we mean that the technology should positively contribute to the experience, and in particular to the storytelling. In order to carry out experiments proving the usefulness, it is necessary to have an appropriate s-3D movie and its corresponding 3D audio soundtrack. We first present the procedure followed to obtain this joint 3D video and audio content from an existing animated s-3D movie, problems encountered, and some of the solutions employed. Second, as s-3D cinema aims at providing the spectator with a strong impression of being part of the movie (sense of presence), we investigate the impact of the spatial rendering quality of the soundtrack on the reported sense of presence. The short 3D audiovisual content is presented with three different soundtracks. These soundtracks differ by their spatial rendering quality, from stereo (low spatial coherence) to Wave Field Synthesis (WFS, high spatial coherence). The original stereo version serves as a reference. Results show that the sound condition does not impact on the sense of presence of all participants. However, participants can be classified according to three different levels of presence sensitivity with the sound condition impacting only on the highest level (12 out of 33 participants). Within this group, the spatially coherent soundtrack provides a lower reported sense of presence than the other custom soundtrack. The analysis of the participants' heart rate variability (HRV) shows that the frequency-domain parameters correlate to the reported presence scores. By feasibility, we mean that a large portion of the spectators in the audience should benefit from this new technology. In this thesis, we explain why the combination of accurate sound positioning and stereoscopic-3D images can lead to an incongruence between the sound and the image for multiple spectators. Then, we adapt to s-3D viewing a method originally proposed for 2D images in the literature to reduce this error. Finally, a subjective experiment is carried out to prove the efficiency of the method. In this experiment, an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through WFS is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dBA. Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise is present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) is higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope is steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it is not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed. [less ▲]

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