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See detailEtude des principes supranationaux de prévention des conflits armés - Exemple du système éducatif primaire de Prishtina (Kosovo)
Pierre, Alexia ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The Unmik, United Nations Mission in Kosovo, was launched in the aftermath of mass violations of War Law and of International Humanitarian Law, perpetrated by the Republika Srpska against the Albanian ... [more ▼]

The Unmik, United Nations Mission in Kosovo, was launched in the aftermath of mass violations of War Law and of International Humanitarian Law, perpetrated by the Republika Srpska against the Albanian civilian of Kosovo. The Unmik was mandated to prevent the interethnic violence and to neutralise the roots of conflict, and to let emerge a new society where intercommunity antagonisms do not exist anymore. The mass education appears to be a tool that leads to a sustainable development of society. Therefore, the International Community links education and conflict prevention due to the role of education in social integration and development, and through specific contents. The supranational principles of education to conflict prevention are framed by an international framework, mostly developed in the nineties. Finally, education was at stake and was instrumentalised by the nationalist propagandas during the conflict between Serbs and Albanian in Kosovo. The main object of this research is to explore the way these principles of education to conflict prevention are operationalized in the primary public education system in Kosovo, through the study case of the main city Prishtina. The premise is that the operationalization can carry some boundaries to the complete expression of these supranational principles. The first step was dedicated to the research of the supranational principles in a normative and legislative corpus of local texts. The second step was a study of the expression of the principles of prevention in the primary public schools of Prishtina and with some members of the education system of Kosovo. This work highlights the sustainability of the operationalized principles on the formal and structural stages, due to the integration in the local normative and legislative frame. However, the operationalization can lead to an incomplete or a limited expression of the principles of an education involved in the conflict prevention. The top down approach of the Unmik and its lack of practical application of the principles are important elements in the limited expression of these principles. The boundaries are linked to the failure in questioning the education model applied in Kosovo as well, and to the assumptions it carries. Finally, the inadequate support to the educational staff and the inadequacy of this education model to the specificities of Kosovo are equally major factors of the limited operationalization of the supranational principles of conflict prevention in the primary schools of Prishtina. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Oedipe des Temps modernes: Athanase Kircher et l'interprétation des hiéroglyphes de l'Egypte ancienne
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg)
See detailAnalysing the response of European ecosystems to droughts and heat waves within ISI-MIP2 simulations
Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg; Dury, Marie ULg; François, Louis ULg et al

Conference (2015, December 14)

With unprecedented speed and extent, the future climate change can be expected to severely impact terrestrial ecosystems due to more frequent extreme events, such as droughts or heat waves. What will be ... [more ▼]

With unprecedented speed and extent, the future climate change can be expected to severely impact terrestrial ecosystems due to more frequent extreme events, such as droughts or heat waves. What will be the impacts of these extreme events on ecosystem functioning and structure? How far will net primary production be reduced by such events? What will be the impact on plant mortality? Could such events trigger changes in the abundance of plant species, thus leading to biome shifts? In this contribution, we propose to use ISI-MIP2 model historical simulations from the biome sector to analyse the response of ecosystems to droughts or heat waves, trying to understand the differences between several vegetation models (e.g. CARAIB, HYBRID, LPJ). The analysis will focus on Europe. It will compare and assess the model responses for a series of well-marked drought or heat wave events in the simulated historical period, such as those that occurred in 1976, 2003 or 2010. This analysis will be performed in terms of several important environmental variables, like soil water and hydric stress, runoff, PFT abundance, net primary productivity and biomass, fire frequency, turnover of soil organic matter, etc. Whenever possible, the response of the model will be compared to available data for the most recent well-marked events. Examples of data to be used are eddy covariance, satellite data (including leaf area and fire occurrence) or tree rings. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic health impact and cost-effectiveness of dairy products supplemented with vitamin D in prevention of osteoporotic fractures
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Burlet, Nansa et al

in Archives of Public Health (2015)

Background: Dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D are recommended as a first-line strategy in prevention of osteoporosis-related fractures but their public health and economic impact has never been ... [more ▼]

Background: Dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D are recommended as a first-line strategy in prevention of osteoporosis-related fractures but their public health and economic impact has never been studied. Methods: We designed a population-based model to forecast the potential health outcomes and medical effectiveness of the daily administration of dairy supplements containing 800 IU of vitamin D and 1 g of calcium in cohorts of subjects, from both genders, aged 50, 60, 70 and 80 years. Annual costs of dairy products were tested at €150, €250 and €350. Results: In total, the daily intake of vitamin-D rich dairy products reduces by 30,376 and 16,105 events the number of osteoporotic fractures in women and men respectively and permits to gain 6605 and 6144 life-years, in women and men respectively. This intervention is cost-effective from 70 years on in the general population and from 60 years on in patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Conclusion: The recommendation to use dairy products as the preferred source of calcium and vitamin D in aging males and females is supported by public health and health economic analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailUsages du montage cinématographique : entre renfort de l'idéologie et résistance critique (sur Siegfried Kracauer)
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December 14)

Je voudrais commencer par sonder/éprouver – à partir des textes de S. Kracauer – la possibilité d’un usage politiquement émancipateur de l’image à travers le montage. À larges traits, ma proposition ... [more ▼]

Je voudrais commencer par sonder/éprouver – à partir des textes de S. Kracauer – la possibilité d’un usage politiquement émancipateur de l’image à travers le montage. À larges traits, ma proposition consiste à tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle le montage cinématographique n’a peut-être pas (ou n’avait peut-être pas dans les années 1920-1930) toutes les vertus « ouvrantes », « critiques » et « libératrices » que plusieurs auteurs actuels lui prêtent. Ou plutôt que le montage cinématographique, en soi et par nature, est loin de ces effets émancipateurs. Pour le dire encore autrement : seul un usage singulier (et en fait très détourné) du montage – usage qu’il faudrait essayer de définir avec précision – peut prétendre déstabiliser les idéologies les plus fermes, plutôt que de les conforter, au minimum, ou de les renforcer, au pire. En réalité, Kracauer ne semble pas au premier abord voir positivement les effets du montage au cinéma. Il commence en effet par penser le montage comme force déréalisante dans son opposition au principe de réalité. [less ▲]

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See detailLe financement de l’agriculture au Bénin : stratégies de gestion et d’adaptation des exploitations agricoles
Sossou, Comlan Hervé ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Benin is highly dominated by agriculture: about 80 % of the population are rural and involved in farming activities. The challenge now is to create suitable conditions for the improvement and ... [more ▼]

Benin is highly dominated by agriculture: about 80 % of the population are rural and involved in farming activities. The challenge now is to create suitable conditions for the improvement and competitiveness of farming systems and the creation of small and medium enterprises along the different chains of agricultural value. One such challenge involves facilitating the access of farmers and other stakeholders, to input markets, products and especially financial services. This highlights the need to establish an optimal framework for financing agricultural activities based on lessons learned from current experiences and using the best recent institutional innovations in the field. This thesis focuses on the issue of funding for agriculture and strategies developed by producers and other stakeholders including the public sector. To understand agricultural activities financing problems in rural areas, a research was conducted from 2010 to 2014. The research targets are farms and their access to financial services. A survey of 475 farms was conducted in 2011. In 2014, a deepening phase was performed on 40 farms. Research results revealed that financial needs of farms are not totally satisfied. The loans granted are small amounts, mostly. Productive investments that constitute investments in medium and long term, which can lead to significant improvements in agricultural production, are almost unsatisfied. Moreover, analysis showed that income determines access to credit. This factor reflects to a certain level the ability of farmers to provide the financial guarantees required by microfinance institutions. Also, producer's ability to invest and to provide the required guarantees, his loyalty and compliance with the rules of microfinance institutions (MFIs) facilitate access to high loan amounts. Analysis also showed that credit rationing affects a large number of producers. The consequence of this rationing is the reduction in agricultural inputs use, in hired labour, in acreage, etc. And therefore, decrease in yields and producers incomes. In summary, current conditions offered by microfinance institutions is not conducive to agricultural development and livelihoods improvement of rural populations. It is therefore necessary to rethink agricultural activities funding and develop a sustainable financing mechanism for both producers and funding agencies. To this end, the initiative for the establishment of a National Fund for Agricultural Development (NFAD) should be accelerated to allow farmers easier access to credit and adequate. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-vivo parcellation and structure-function relationships
Genon, Sarah ULg; Eickhoff, Simon

Scientific conference (2015, December 14)

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See detailSpatial autocorrelation: robustness of measures and tests
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2015, December 14)

Distinguishing the analysis of spatial data from classical analysis is only meaningful if the spatial components bring information. Therefore, testing if the spatial autocorrelation is significant may ... [more ▼]

Distinguishing the analysis of spatial data from classical analysis is only meaningful if the spatial components bring information. Therefore, testing if the spatial autocorrelation is significant may confirm or deny the need to consider spatial analysis over the classical one. Spatial autocorrelation expresses the dependence between values at neighbouring locations. Several measures of spatial autocorrelation are defined in the literature. Moran’s index, Geary’s ratio and Getis-Ord statistic are the most used statistics. Tests based on these measures have been developed in the literature using asymptotic and permutation results. They are used in practice in many fields, for instance in geography, economics, biogeosciences, medicine, ... However, these tests should be cautiously applied because they are not robust. A single contaminated observation can significantly modify their results. The talk has two main objectives. Firstly, the already available tools for measuring spatial autocorrelation will be reviewed with an emphasis on the study and comparison of their robustness. Secondly, alternative methods will be proposed to robustly estimate the spatial autocorrelation. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging the representations for an active lifestyle in women
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2015, December 13)

Representations are a key factor in the development of a physically active lifestyle. In women, it is fundamental to verify if there are not wrong represnetations about physical activity because that ... [more ▼]

Representations are a key factor in the development of a physically active lifestyle. In women, it is fundamental to verify if there are not wrong represnetations about physical activity because that could be an important barrier to any change. This workshop will propose several activities aiming to show how it is possible to increase the awareness of people about what is physical activity and how to accept to reach the international recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailSyndrome metabolique: prise en charge par le kinésithérapeute
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, December 13)

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See detailMultivariate coefficients of variation: a full inference toolbox
Aerts, Stéphanie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2015, December 13)

The univariate coefficient of variation (CV) is a widely used measure to compare the relative dispersion of a variable in several populations. When the comparison is based on $p$ characteristics however ... [more ▼]

The univariate coefficient of variation (CV) is a widely used measure to compare the relative dispersion of a variable in several populations. When the comparison is based on $p$ characteristics however, side-by-side comparison of marginal CV's may lead to contradictions. Several multivariate coefficients of variation (MCV) have been introduced and used in the literature but, so far, their properties have not been much studied. Based on one of them, i.e. the inverse of the Mahalanobis distance between the mean and the origin, this talk intends to demonstrate the usefulness of MCV's in several domains (finance and analytical chemistry) as well as provide a complete inference toolbox for practitioners. Some exact and approximate confidence intervals are constructed, whose performance is analyzed through simulations. Several bias-correction methods, either parametric or not, are suggested and compared. Finally, since MCV's are used for comparison purposes, some test statistics are proposed for the homogeneity of MCV's in $K$ populations. Throughout the talk, the robustness of the techniques will be discussed. As a by-product, a test statistic allowing to reliably compare $K$ univariate CV's even in presence of outliers will be outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailLe complot à l'ère du webdocumentaire par et pour tous. Approche critique.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2015, December 12)

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See detailHa INTRAARTICULAR INJECTION: THERAPEUTIC AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, December 12)

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See detailSocioeconomic' impacts of the water and soil conservation technics in Maradi, Niger
bode, Sambo; Andres, Ludovic ULg; Dambo, Lawali et al

Conference (2015, December 12)

The Sahelian's environment suffered many perturbations increasing the food insecurity risks. Since three decades, the environment suffered a intense and significant land deterioration (Warren A. And al ... [more ▼]

The Sahelian's environment suffered many perturbations increasing the food insecurity risks. Since three decades, the environment suffered a intense and significant land deterioration (Warren A. And al., 2001). A lot of regreening actions have been developped in the Sahelian countries but some actions are most sustainable and the costs are lower than the other. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has developped some actions to strengthen the natural ressources management. The most important actions have been introduced from the mi-term of 1,980 (Sendzimir J. And al., 2011). These actions concerned the main water and soil conservation technics: Zaï; „contour“ stone bund; half-moons; permeable rock dams (Wesel A., Rath T., 2002). The paper attempts to answer about the following question: „what are the indirect and direct socioeconomic impacts of the natural ressources management in the Maradi’s region ?“. Moreover, Maradi is the historical area of the IFAD actions and illustrates some major causes of land degradation. The main causes are the increase of demography and agricultural areas. In fact, the demography and agricultural area of Maradi are seriously worrying: 8 children per women and the agricultural area is less than 1 hectare per household (Andres L., Lebailly Ph., 2013). The paper relates and describes the main anti-erosion technics. It compared also the cost-benefit analysis about the soil and water conservation technics. Finally, the report try to establish a key who links the technics with the context (soil, people, environment, agriculture, livestock) (Moussa Dit Kalamou M., 2015; Jasmien C.J. and al., 2013). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de la répartition spatiale des restes fauniques du site éémien de Caours. Apport des systèmes d'information géographique.
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULg

Poster (2015, December 12)

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a ... [more ▼]

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a large area and a recurrence Human occupation. That gave us a large amount of data about this period of Neanderthal history. We now questioning about the choice of this locality and the spatial organisation of Neanderthal. Then, spatial analysis using the Geographic Information System (GIS) appear to being a useful tool to answer it. We show the consequent availability of water, prey and tool raw material. Neanderthalians was opportunistic hunters of cervidae. There has also eat a heavier prey as aurochs and rhino by trapping or scavenging. Then Neanderthal of Caours butchering with tool made in-situ eating the meat and the marrow. [less ▲]

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See detailNonparametric estimation and bootstrap inference on recent trends in atmospheric ethane
Friedrich, Marina; Reuvers, H.; Smeekes, S. et al

Conference (2015, December 12)

Ethane is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon in the Earth's atmosphere and an important precursor of tropospheric ozone. Its monitoring is therefore crucial for the characterization of air quality ... [more ▼]

Ethane is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon in the Earth's atmosphere and an important precursor of tropospheric ozone. Its monitoring is therefore crucial for the characterization of air quality and of the transport of tropospheric pollution. Ethane is also an indirect greenhouse gas, influencing the atmospheric lifetime of methane. The main sources of ethane are located in the northern hemisphere, and the dominating emissions are associated to production and transport of natural gas. A preliminary trend analysis was conducted using measurements performed in the Swiss Alps. Over the last two decades, the trend of ethane showed a decline of around 1% per year, thanks to a reduction of fugitive emissions of fossil fuel sources. However, a recent upturn potentially attributed to the massive exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America was found. The goal is to investigate the presence and form of changes in trend functions using nonparametric techniques. The possible location of such changes is investigated. In addition, nonparametric estimation techniques are used to allow for nonlinear trend functions. Given the nonstandard nature of the measurements we rely on dependent wild bootstrap techniques to conduct inference on possible breaks in linear trends and on nonparametric trend functions. [less ▲]

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