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See detailINTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP Employment relationships in migrant domestic work: a transnational perspective
Safuta, Anna; Camargo, Beatriz; Vivas Romero, Maria ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 15)

Domestic work provided by migrants in private households, both formally and informally, has been on the agenda of researchers and policymakers since the early 2000s. Employment relationships between ... [more ▼]

Domestic work provided by migrants in private households, both formally and informally, has been on the agenda of researchers and policymakers since the early 2000s. Employment relationships between migrant workers and employers in this sector remain however underexplored, in particular in European contexts. Three aspects deserve further examination: the comparison between formal and informal settings, differences between childcare, elderly care and housework provision, as well as the links between inter-individual relations and policies. The main objective of this International Workshop is to open new perspectives in the study of employment relationships in domestic work, and to promote transnational and cross-disciplinary exchange between scholars studying the topic. This International Workshop featured keynote lectures by confirmed academics with expertise in migrant domestic work, followed by workshops open to early career researchers (PhD student-level and up). Theses workshops allowed selected participants to discuss papers submitted in advance with senior academics investigating domestic work, care and migration. The Workshop aimed to make the most of new methodological perspectives in the sociology of migration, promoting a transnational approach in the study of domestic work. The objective was also to bring employment relationships in migrant domestic work out of the shadow of the private sphere and allow discussion between academics specializing in this area of investigation. We welcomed researchers investigating both micro and macro aspects of migrant domestic work. Questions of interest included the personalization of the employment relationship between migrant domestic workers and private employers; differences between employment relations in housework, elderly care and childcare; as well as the influence on employment relationships of ‘otherness’ in the private space, of the formalization of employment and/or regularization of migratory status, and of different migratory and care regimes. Transnational perspectives are particularly welcome. This International Workshop was organized in the framework of the Social Sciences Thematic Doctoral School of the Wallonia-Brussels Federation – Program “Migrations and Interculturality” (École doctorale thématique en sciences sociales de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles – Programme «Migrations et Interculturalité»), coordinated by Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) and Université de Liège (ULg). [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-light LBT Nulling Interferometric Observations: Warm Exozodiacal Dust Resolved within a Few AU of eta Crv
Defrere, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Skemer, A. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 799

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η ... [more ▼]

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% ± 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6 AU for the distance of η Crv) and shows no significant variation over 35° of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS; ~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the solar zodiacal cloud unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (~3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust for the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU). [less ▲]

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See detailQuid des acquis culturels de nos élèves au sortir du secondaire ? Étude transversale (2002-2009)
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg; Stevens, Xavier ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 14)

La recherche dont il est fait état porte sur la culture historique scolaire. Quels sont les "savoirs culturels" à caractère historique des élèves de 6e année de l'enseignement secondaire général ? Quel ... [more ▼]

La recherche dont il est fait état porte sur la culture historique scolaire. Quels sont les "savoirs culturels" à caractère historique des élèves de 6e année de l'enseignement secondaire général ? Quel est leur niveau de maîtrise de ces savoirs ? Dans quelle mesure cette maîtrise dépend-t-elle de l'indice socio-économique moyen de l'école et de la filière d'enseignement qu'ils fréquentent ? Ou du profil de l'école ? Comment cette maîtrise a-t-elle évolué durant la période 2002-2009, soit celle au cours de laquelle les nouveaux programmes, inspirés de l'approche par compétences, ont été implémantés ? [less ▲]

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See detail(Tissue PET) Vascular metabolic imaging and peripheral plasma biomakers in the evolution of chronic arotic dissections
SAKALIHASAN, Natzi ULg; NIENABER, Christoph; HUSTINX, Roland ULg et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and ... [more ▼]

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and biomarkers of thrombus renewal and lysis. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitiques d'éducation et de formation : une approche par les capacités
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 13)

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See detailIntroduction to item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) with the R software
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 13)

Item response theory (IRT) has become an important field of research for psychology and educational assessment. Recently, with the increase of computational power, several IRT-related topics have emerged ... [more ▼]

Item response theory (IRT) has become an important field of research for psychology and educational assessment. Recently, with the increase of computational power, several IRT-related topics have emerged, among others, computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The main aim of CAT is to provide a framework for individualized assessment by means of optimal item selection and administration to the test takers. CAT has several assets to linear (non-adaptive) testing: individualized assessment, limited risk of cheating or fraud, shorter tests providing the same amount of information as longer linear tests, automatic scoring and reporting at the end of the test. Practical use of CAT, however, remains limited so far due to several factors (lack of available large item banks, content validity and security, lack of suitable software for practical CAT assessment, ethical issues in administering different tests to estimate the same ability, etc.). The purpose of this workshop is threefold: (a) to provide a general overview of IRT and CAT, (b) to introduce the R software in a user-oriented way, as well as several IRT tools (including the package catR for CAT simulations), (c) to perform practical training sessions with the participants. The workshop will be a mix of oral presentations, demonstrations related to the R software, and practical sessions where participants will be invited to train with R and catR. The R software is an open-source platform for statistical inference and testing, graphical display and data visualization. It also holds several add-on packages for specific IRT purposes (item calibration, ability estimation, multidimensional scaling, equating, differential item functioning etc.). The R community is worldwide and proposes free exchanges of shared R packages through the CRAN (comprehensive R archive network). In this workshop, the R package catR will be examined and used in the practical sessions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes institutions politiques belges après la sixième Réforme de l'État
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2015)

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See detailTable ronde : quand évoquer une maladie du motoneurone ?
WANG, François-Charles ULg; TINANT, France ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 13)

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See detailNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Monitoring Changes of Sponge Cakes During Storage at 20 °C and 65 % Relative Humidity
Botosoa, Eliot Patrick; Chèné, Christine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2015), 8

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from NMR showed that the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), measured on the crumb part, decreased from day 1 to day 16 while the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) increased throughout the whole storage time (i.e. 1 to 20 day(s)). Based on the analysis of the state of water, TGA allowed to establishing a kinetic profile of retrogradation degree of starch contained in sponge cakes. This approach evidenced that the evolution of the sponge cakes freshness and staling closely depends on the dynamic of the water in the crumb during ageing. These results were supported by DSC thermograms exhibiting a variation of three main endotherms detected in sponge cakes at −15, +5 and +45 °C throughout ageing. The enthalpy changes of these endotherms reflected the evolution of chemical and physical reactions occurring in the sponge cakes during storage. The analysis of the endotherm enthalpy change at 45 °C allowed to determine the time τ (i.e. τ≈9 days) corresponding to the apparition of amylopectin crystallites that could be considered as a reference time to separate fresh sponge cakes from the aged ones. [less ▲]

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See detailCOPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailGrandeur et misère du système politique belge
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailFeedback loops: From cellular to network principles
Dethier, Julie ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 12)

Biological rhythms play a major role in the functioning of the brain. However, the generation mechanisms and functions of these rhythms are still under debate and the question of which cellular details ... [more ▼]

Biological rhythms play a major role in the functioning of the brain. However, the generation mechanisms and functions of these rhythms are still under debate and the question of which cellular details must be retained at the network level is largely open. In this presentation, I will highlight that cellular properties have a major impact at the network level, especially in the study of modulation and robustness. I will focus on a particular cellular property, a positive feedback loop in a specific timescale, and illustrate its network level impact with two simple examples: the modulation and robustness of an half-center oscillator, a very simple central pattern generator composed of two reciprocal-inhibitory populations, and the control of transient beta-band oscillations in the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that act as a cohesive functional unit, in relation to motor movements. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a two-slope pyramid made by SPIF using an adaptive remeshing method with solid-shell finite element
Velosa De Sena, José ULg; Guzmán Inostroza, Carlos Felipe ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2015)

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has grown in the last years, both experimentally and numerically. However, numerical investigations into SPIF process need further improvement to predict the formed shape correctly and faster than current approaches. The current work aims the use of an adaptive remeshing technique, originally developed for shell and later extended to 3D “brick” elements, leading to a Reduced Enhanced Solid-Shell formulation. The CPU time reduction is a demanded request to perform the numerical simulations. A two-slope pyramid shape is used to carry out the numerical simulation and modelling. Its geometric difficulty on the numerical shape prediction and the through thickness stress behaviour are the main analysis targets in the present work. This work confirmed a significant CPU time reduction and an acceptable shape prediction accuracy using an adaptive remeshing method combined with the selected solid-shell element. The stress distribution in thickness direction revealed the occurrence of bending/unbending plus stretching and plastic deformation in regions far from the local deformation in the tool vicinity. [less ▲]

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See detailLa managérialisation de l’administration publique locale en Wallonie Comment l’autorité régionale tente de rationaliser l’action publique locale
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 10)

A travers cette contribution, nous développerons une analyse critique des transformations actuelles du recours aux théories et méthodes du management public dans la gestion des politiques, à partir d’une ... [more ▼]

A travers cette contribution, nous développerons une analyse critique des transformations actuelles du recours aux théories et méthodes du management public dans la gestion des politiques, à partir d’une étude des développements récents de l’administration locale en Belgique (Wayenberg et al. 2015). Les autorités locales, politiques et administratives, se voient confrontées à une multiplication des injonctions à une approche stratégique de la gestion publique et aux démarches évaluatives en matière d’analyse politique. Ces outils de rationalisation sont couplés à une extension de la contractualisation de l’administration au niveau des cadres supérieurs. Ces démarches gestionnaires et stratégiques sont diffusées à travers les injonctions réglementaires, les programmes de financement des autorités régionales ainsi que les bureaux de consultants. Elles sont aussi couplées à une extension des processus participatifs, les citoyens étant plus souvent intégrés dans le développement et le pilotage de l’action publique, voire son évaluation. Il s’agit de mettre en évidence les effets réciproques des processus de rationalisation de l’action publique et de sa démocratisation. [less ▲]

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See detailProfession art-thérapeute?
Vandeninden, Elise ULg

Conference (2015, January 09)

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See detailLes mots, la mort, les sorts. Jeanne Favret-Saada
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Learning material (2015)

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See detailManaging the carnivore comeback: assessing the adaptive capacity of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to cohabit with humans in shared landscapes
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Conflicts between humans and large carnivores are one of the most visible examples of the challenges that arise when seeking to achieve coexistence between humans and wildlife. With their large spatial ... [more ▼]

Conflicts between humans and large carnivores are one of the most visible examples of the challenges that arise when seeking to achieve coexistence between humans and wildlife. With their large spatial requirements and predatory behavior, large carnivores are among the most difficult species to preserve in our modern day landscapes. Although large carnivores are usually considered as the epitomes of wilderness, because of human population growth and habitat fragmentation they are inexorably and increasingly faced with the need to live in human-modified landscapes. As a direct consequence, conflicts over depredation on livestock, competition for game species and sometimes over human injury or death will only increase if clear management measures are not taken. This is particularly true in Europe, where, after many decades of absence, large carnivores are recolonizing areas where millions of people are present and where landscapes have been drastically modified. Two approaches to integrating wildlife into a human-dominated world have been proposed at an international scale. The first solution is called land sparing, in which wildlife lives exclusively in protected or wilderness areas where contact between animals and humans will be reduced to the minimum. The second solution, called land sharing, proposes to integrate human activities and wildlife in the same landscapes in non-protected interface zones in what is often called a coexistence approach. In a context of scarce true wilderness areas and a continuum of human-modified habitats, land sharing (i.e. the coexistence approach) is seen as the only possible approach valid for Europe. While a coexistence approach can be readily implemented with smaller species, it can represent a major challenge for species with large space requirements and with predatory behavior. To help manage these species in a long-term conservation vision and to predict where potential conflicts could arise between humans and carnivores, information on large carnivores and their habitat use in anthropogenic landscapes is a pre-requisite. With the return of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in Western Europe, the most densely populated areas of the continent_ information on the species tolerance to human land use will help predict where it is likely to occur in anthropogenic landscapes. Data collected in Scandinavia over 15 years were used to assess the use of landscape by lynx. In this study, we explored the effect of anthropogenic and environmental factors on Eurasian lynx habitat use in Scandinavia. The work was developed along two main axes. The first axis aims to explore large scale potential patterns of lynx distribution through transferability of results obtained from habitat modelling to geographically different areas. Transferability of results was tested in two steps. Firstly, transferability success (i.e. predictive ability of the map) was tested at a regional scale using data on roe-deer, the main prey of lynx, to create a map of relative distribution and abundance of prey in southeastern Norway (Chapter 1). Secondly, transferability success was assessed at a larger extent and using data obtained from different sampling method (Chapter 2). A habitat suitability map for Eurasian lynx was produced to be used in management planning in geographically differentiated lynx management zones in Scandinavia. The results indicated that transferability of results from one region to an ecologically different region must be taken with caution. Nevertheless, the habitat suitability maps we constructed on the basis of extrapolation are a valuable asset to help management of the Scandinavian lynx population. The second axis deals with lynx habitat use in relation to anthropogenic and environmental predictors. Lynx tolerance to human presence was first explored by looking at the orientation of home range in the landscape, taking into account proxies of human presence (Chapter 3). Values of these proxies were compared both inside home ranges and within a buffer surrounding the home ranges for several lynx inhabiting an anthropogenic gradient going from near-wilderness to urban periphery. Results showed a high diversity in the extent to which individual lynx are exposed to human influence, indicating that lynx are highly adaptable in terms of living space. Lynx seemed to be able to orientate their home range in order to avoid highest human impacts and select for areas of medium human impacts. Building on these results, finer scale information on lynx habitat use in an anthropogenic landscape were obtained taking into consideration different types of behavior (day-beds, moving and killing) displayed by adult lynx, as well as the effect of cumulative anthropogenic pressures on habitat selection (Chapter 4). Our results showed that lynx select for areas with medium levels of human modification, avoiding both the areas with highest and least modification. Females in general appear to be less tolerant to human modification than males, especially for day-beds. Our study shows that Eurasian lynx can be considered as a species that is adaptable to human- induced changes in landscape even if its motivation to tolerate human presence is clearly linked to the presence and density level of its main prey, the roe deer. Our work shows that, contrary to much of the public and many conservation professionals’ opinions, land sharing with large carnivores in Europe may be possible – even in the immediate proximity to urban centers. However, it is important to bear in mind that these results were obtained from countries with a relatively low human population density; even though some individuals observed lived in the periphery of large cities, the level of habitat fragmentation is less severe than in most of Western Europe. In order to properly assess the capacity of Eurasian lynx to live in highly populated areas, such as the Benelux, more detailed information on lynx distribution from continental European will be needed. However, our results underline the value of combining both correlational and mechanistic studies, and the need for caution in extrapolating data too far from its original context. As large carnivore recovery continues to progress in Europe we may not yet have seen the limits of these species' abilities to adapt. [less ▲]

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