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See detailHigh gene flow between alternative morphs and the evolutionary persistence of facultative paedomorphosis
Oromi Farrús, Neus ULg; Michaux, Johan ULg; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis and metamorphosis are two major developmental processes that characterize the evolution of complex life cycles in many lineages. Whereas these processes were fixed in some taxa, they remained facultative in others, with alternative phenotypes expressed in the same populations. From a genetic perspective, it is still unknown whether such phenotypes form a single population or whether they show some patterns of isolation in syntopy. This has deep implications for understanding the evolution of the phenotypes, i.e. towards their persistence or their fixation and speciation. Newts and salamanders are excellent models to test this hypothesis because they exhibit both developmental processes in their populations: the aquatic paedomorphs retain gills, whereas the metamorphs are able to colonize land. Using microsatellite data of coexisting paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus), we found that they formed a panmictic population, which evidences sexual compatibility between the two phenotypes. The high gene flow could be understood as an adaptation to unstable habitats in which phenotypic plasticity is favored over the fixation of developmental alternatives. This makes then possible the persistence of a polyphenism: only metamorphosis could be maintained in case of occasional drying whereas paedomorphosis could offer specific advantages in organisms remaining in water. [less ▲]

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See detailNarrowing the science/policy gap for environmental management
Hughes, Kevin A; Liggett, Daniela; Roldan, Gabriela et al

in Antarctic Science (2016), 28(5), 325

Antarctic terrestrial and marine environments are under increasing pressure from national operator activities, tourism and climate change. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty ... [more ▼]

Antarctic terrestrial and marine environments are under increasing pressure from national operator activities, tourism and climate change. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides overarching legislation concerning the environmental management of the Treaty area, with 2016 marking the Protocol’s 25th anniversary. The Protocol also established the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) to provide advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) on environmental matters. Today, the CEP’s Five-Year Work Plan and Climate Change Response Work Programme lists and prioritises issues that need to be addressed to ensure impacts in Antarctica by human activities are both recognized andminimised.Despite all of this, recent evaluations have suggested that a slow pace of environmental policy development presents a significant threat to effective Antarctic conservation. Progress on many environmental issues, including wildlife disturbance, the conservation status of Antarctic species, area protection and pollution management, is glacial or has stalled completely. Whilst in some cases capacity issues concerning those responsible for Antarctic environmental policy work may be a contributing factor, the level of interaction between researchers and those responsible for environmental management and decision-making is also of importance. Without quality science - and effective interpretation of research results - policymakers have little evidence on which to base their decisions. But researchers need to know policymakers’ needs. Two-way communication is essential: policymakers could ask the research community to answer specific environmental questions, and, in turn, researchers could present evidence-based recommendations and highlight emerging threats. But how is this to be funded? Ultimately, effective communication is needed between national government departments responsible for funding Antarctic research and those dealing with Antarctic environmental protection. Hopefully, this will ensure essential research informing environmental policy decisions is adequately resourced. In reality, the cost is likely to be trivial compared with the resources spent by Parties on Antarctic logistics. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt
Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Meyer, Christelle et al

in Science (2016), 351(6300),

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See detailRelationship between frailty, physical performance and quality of life among nursing home residents: the SENIOR cohort
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Petermans, Jean ULg et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2016), Epub ahead of print

Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between frailty and a large number of indicators related to physical and muscular performance as well as quality of life. Methods This is an ... [more ▼]

Background The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between frailty and a large number of indicators related to physical and muscular performance as well as quality of life. Methods This is an analysis of data collected at baseline in the Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research (SENIOR) cohort including nursing home residents. Subjects are volunteer, oriented and able to walk (walking assistance allowed) nursing home residents in Belgium. A large number of demographic and clinical characteristics, including physical and muscular performance, were collected from each patient. The prevalence of frailty in this population was assessed using Fried’s definition. Results In total, 662 subjects are included in this analysis. The mean age of the sample is 83.2 ± 8.99 years, and 484 (73.1 %) are women. In this population of nursing home residents, the prevalence of frailty is 25.1 %, pre-frailty, 59.8 % and robustness, 15.1 %. Compared to non-frail subjects, frail subjects have lower physical and muscular performances and a lower quality of life. Conclusion Frailty, according to Fried’s definition, seems to be associated with several clinical indicators suggesting a higher level of disability and an increased propensity to develop major clinical consequences. Follow-up data of the SENIOR cohort will be helpful in confirming these findings, establishing cause–effect relationships and identifying the most predictive components of physical frailty for adverse outcomes in nursing homes. [less ▲]

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See detailHorner syndrome in children: a clinical condition with serious underlying disease
Barrea, Christophe ULg; Vigouroux, Tiphaine ULg; Karam, Joe ULg et al

in Neuropediatrics (2016), 47(4), 268-272

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See detailQuel effet cela fait, de mordre dans un citron?
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Article for general public (2016)

Le thème de la conscience a connu un regain d’intérêt spectaculaire, ces dernières années, chez les philosophes et les scientifiques. Des théories nouvelles ont vu le jour dans l’espoir de rendre compte ... [more ▼]

Le thème de la conscience a connu un regain d’intérêt spectaculaire, ces dernières années, chez les philosophes et les scientifiques. Des théories nouvelles ont vu le jour dans l’espoir de rendre compte de « l’effet que cela fait », par exemple, de tomber amoureux, de se faire mal ou de… mordre dans un citron. Contrairement à une conception populaire, de nombreux chercheurs ont suggéré que ressentir quelque chose équivalait en réalité à se représenter quelque chose. L’ouvrage "Conscience et représentation. Introduction aux théories représentationnelles de l’esprit" (Paris, Vrin, 2016) dresse un état des lieux des controverses liées à cette question. [less ▲]

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See detailInference in a stochastic SEIR model using Sequential Monte Carlo methods
Bonou, Wilfried ULg; LAMBERT, Philippe

in The 37th Annual Conference of the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics (ISCB): Book of Abstracts. Birmingham, UK, 21-25 August 2016 (2016, August)

Many biological, physical, chemical, economic, and social phenomena are dynamic and are modeled using (systems of) Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). But a more realistic way to describe these ... [more ▼]

Many biological, physical, chemical, economic, and social phenomena are dynamic and are modeled using (systems of) Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). But a more realistic way to describe these dynamics relies on Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMC). There is a growing interest in the development of Bayesian statistical methods to infer on the parameters in such dynamic models, particularly those defining epidemic spread, by combining prior information with experimental or observational data. Our proposal aims to explore the merits of the Bayesian Optimal Filtering technique in the estimation of the parameters of a stochastic SEIR (S = Susceptible, E = Exposed, I = Infectious, R = Removed) epidemic model. State Space Models (SSMs) are used to describe the epidemic dynamic. The unknown static parameters are estimated using a combination of Sequential Monte Carlo techniques with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, . . . [less ▲]

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See detailHigh selfing rate, limited pollen dispersal and inbreeding depression in the emblematic African rain forest tree Baillonella toxisperma - Management implications
Duminil, Jérôme; Mendene Abessolo, D. T.; Ndiade Bourobou, D. et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2016), 379

Mating system and gene flow are major influencing factors of species population dynamics and evolution. These factors are often not characterized in tropical tree species, yet they constitute basic ... [more ▼]

Mating system and gene flow are major influencing factors of species population dynamics and evolution. These factors are often not characterized in tropical tree species, yet they constitute basic information that must be considered to implement sustainable management practices. In particular, as logging implies a reduction of the density of congeneric mates, the connectivity through pollination between individuals has to be well characterized (selfing versus outcrossing rates, distances between mates). We conducted a genetic-based analysis (using 10 nuclear microsatellites) to determine the mating system and gene flow characteristics of an emblematic timber tree species from lowland rain forests of the Congo Basin, Baillonella toxisperma (Sapotaceae). The species, which is frequently exploited for its wood and for a number of non-timber forest products, naturally occurs at low densities (ca. 0.01–0.1 individuals/ha). It is supposedly an entomophilous species whose seeds are probably dispersed by mammals. We have shown that the species presents a mixed-mating system (about 20–40% of selfing depending on analysis method). However, the comparison of inbreeding parameters among cohorts suggests that inbred individuals die between seedling and mature tree stages. The mean pollen dispersal distance was relatively low for such a low-density population species (estimated to be 690 or 777 m depending on analysis method) and, together with a low mean number of pollen donors (NEP = 2.76), it suggests a pattern of nearest-neighbour mating where allo-pollen could be a limiting factor. However, B. toxisperma presents a relatively weak genetic structure (Sp statistic = 0.0095) indicative of long gene dispersal distance (rg = 3–5 km according to the assumed effective population density). Overall, this would indicate that gene flow occurs mainly by extensive seed dispersal in this species. These results suggest that mammals and local populations involved in the dispersal of the species play a key role by lowering biparental inbreeding effects. Sustainable population management might require assisted regeneration using unrelated planting material. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational modelling of local calcium ions release from calcium phosphate-based scaffolds
Manhas, Varun ULg; Guyot, Yann; Kerckhofs, Greet et al

in Biomechanics & Modeling in Mechanobiology (2016)

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See detailEvolution of biological innovations in early complex cells
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

Conference (2016, August)

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See detailInfluence of cracks on the stiffness of timber structural elements
Mergny, Elke ULg; Mateo, Raquel; Esteban, Miguel et al

Scientific conference (2016, August)

Cracks in timber structural elements lead users to downgrade them, while their influence on the mechanical properties is globally unknown. They are thus disadvantageous and responsible for an ... [more ▼]

Cracks in timber structural elements lead users to downgrade them, while their influence on the mechanical properties is globally unknown. They are thus disadvantageous and responsible for an underutilization of timber in new constructions. The phenomenon also impacts constructions subjected to transformation or renovation that are most of the time fully replaced, simply because of the ignorance of their bearing capacity. The present paper investigates the influence of cracks on stiffness, by analytical and numerical developments. It proposes a classification of cracks in six types (+ composite types) and models real beams, randomly cracked. It shows that the presence of cracks seems to decrease the stiffness of the beam. However, it is not so obvious to give the most damaging type of crack, among the six proposed. Further investigations will be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailSarcoptic mange infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Belgium
Volpe, Rosario ULg; Caron, Yannick ULg; Lesenfants, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2016, August)

Eight cases of sarcoptic mange in foxes were reported during summer 2014 (n=3) and winter 2015 (n= 5) in Belgium. All animals came from the same restricted forest zones near urbanized areas and some of ... [more ▼]

Eight cases of sarcoptic mange in foxes were reported during summer 2014 (n=3) and winter 2015 (n= 5) in Belgium. All animals came from the same restricted forest zones near urbanized areas and some of them were discovered in private gardens (Forest District of Thuin, Hainaut, Belgium). Three of them were found dead, the others were shot for sanitary reasons. At necropsy, all of them presented large areas of alopecia and extensive skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and suppurative lacerations. Animals presented poor body condition and some of them were severely emaciated (absence of visceral fat). Mange has profound influences on population since, if untreated, death follows in four to six months. In the present cases, cutaneous scrapings and histopathological examinations were systematically performed. Numerous parasites were observed in skin scrapings and marked dermo-epidermatitis with several parasites was observed in histopathological sections. These results suggest an outbreak of sarcoptic mange in red foxes in a limited area of the country. This is a first record for the country. Furthermore, investigations on lungs and digestive tracts performed on 3 of these foxes revealed they were also infected by parasites transmissible to pets and/or humans: Angiostrongylus vasorum was observed in the respiratory tract of one fox whereas Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis worms were detected in the digestive tract. In conclusion, urban foxes represent a source of parasites of public health and veterinary importance and foxes surveillance should be strengthened in these areas. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistically Bundled Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Delivery Chains Systems
Foster, Earnest; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in European Journal of Industrial Engineering (2016)

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Continuous monitoring of Delivery Time variables by means of control charts in a delivery chain is a very recent application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to the service sector. The aim of the proposed method is to provide supply chain decision makers with an easy to be managed tool monitoring the current functioning state of the delivery chain. The implementation of SPC control charts makes it possible to limit over-corrections to false alarm conditions and to maintain at an acceptable level the safety stock, with a consequent reduction of the overall management costs of the delivery chain. An illustrative example shows the proposed control chart implementation in a real delivery chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting the peripheral stalk of the mitochondrial ATP synthase of chlorophycean algae.
Vázquez-Acevedo, M; Vega de Luna, F; Sánchez-Vásquez, L et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2016), 1857(8), 1183-90

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See detailA general methodology for optimal load management with distributed renewable energy generation and storage in residential housing
Georges, Emeline ULg; Braun, James; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2016)

In the US, buildings represent around 40% of the primary energy consumption and 74% of the electrical energy consumption [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2012. 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book. Energy ... [more ▼]

In the US, buildings represent around 40% of the primary energy consumption and 74% of the electrical energy consumption [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2012. 2011 Buildings Energy Data Book. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy]. Incentives to promote the installation of on-site renewable energy sources have emerged in different states, including net metering programmes. The fast spread of such distributed power generation represents additional challenges for the management of the electricity grid and has led to increased interest in smart control of building loads and demand response programmes. This paper presents a general methodology for assessing opportunities associated with optimal load management in response to evolving utility incentives for residential buildings that employ renewable energy sources and energy storage. An optimal control problem is formulated for manipulating thermostatically controlled domestic loads and energy storage in response to the availability of renewable energy generation and utility net metering incentives. The methodology is demonstrated for a typical American house built in the 1990s and equipped with a single-speed air-to-air heat pump, an electric water heater and photovoltaic (PV) collectors. The additional potential associated with utilizing electrical batteries is also considered. Load matching performance for on-site renewable energy generation is characterized in terms of percentage of the electricity production consumed on-site and the proportion of the demand covered. For the purpose of assessing potential, simulations were performed assuming perfect predictions of the electrical load profiles. The method also allows determination of the optimal size of PV systems for a given net metering programme. Results of the case study showed significant benefits associated with control optimization including an increase of load matching between 3% and 28%, with the improvement dependent on the net metering tariff and available storage capacity. The estimated cost savings for the consumer ranged from 6.4% to 27.5% compared to no optimization with a unitary buy-back ratio, depending on the available storage capacity. Related reduction in CO2 emissions were between 11% and 46%. Optimal load management of the home thermal systems allowed an increase in the optimal size of the PV system in the range of 13–21%. [less ▲]

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See detailPEGylation of lipoplexes: The right balance between cytotoxicity and siRNA effectiveness
Lechanteur, Anna ULg; Furst, Tania ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2016), 93

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See detailLe traumatisme psychologique des anesthésistes suite aux erreurs humaines : Quand les processus de résilience organisationnelle renforcent la résilience individuelle
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2016, August)

Les erreurs médicales provoquent souvent des dommages énormes, pour la victime en premier lieu bien évidemment mais aussi pour le ou les professionnel(s) impliqué(s) dans l’erreur ainsi que pour les ... [more ▼]

Les erreurs médicales provoquent souvent des dommages énormes, pour la victime en premier lieu bien évidemment mais aussi pour le ou les professionnel(s) impliqué(s) dans l’erreur ainsi que pour les institutions hospitalières. L’objectif de cette communication est d’analyser le vécu post-erreur humaine chez des anesthésistes en étudiant l’impact de l’événement sur ces médecins. Nous avons récolté 217 incidents/accidents qui se sont produits en anesthésie en milieu hospitalier avec une analyse complète de l’événement, son origine et ses conséquences pour le patient et l’anesthésiste. Nos résultats montrent que les dommages à court terme pour le patient influencent significativement le sentiment de colère contre soi-même chez l’anesthésiste. Les dommages à long terme pour le patient provoquent de la colère contre soi-même, des troubles de l’appétit et de la perte de plaisir. Plus les dommages pour le patient sont graves, plus ils provoquent de troubles chez l’anesthésiste, particulièrement quand le patient décède suite à l’erreur. En outre, les anesthésistes développent plus de ruminations, de sentiments de culpabilité et de pensées intrusives quand l'accident était considéré comme évitable. Enfin, nous notons l’importance pour les anesthésistes de pouvoir parler de l’événement dans un cadre bienveillant avec pour effet de diminuer les reviviscences et ruminations personnelles, de faire taire les rumeurs, et d’améliorer la qualité des relations entre collègues. Ainsi la gestion institutionnelle des erreurs humaines dans une perspective constructive et bienveillante est génératrice de résilience en permettant aux médecins d’apprendre de leurs erreurs et d’améliorer leur expertise professionnelle au lieu de développer une psychopathologie posttraumatique [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete Modeling: The Concept of Shannon Entropy used for Thermodynamic Model Development
Wallek, Thomas; Pfleger, Martin; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

Conference (2016, August)

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See detailHeart Team Session
PIERARD, Luc ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; PETERMANS, Jean ULg et al

Conference (2016, August)

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See detailEntretien avec Céline Letawe - ULg
Letawe, Céline ULg

in Chambre Belge des Traducteurs et Interprètes (Ed.) Le Linguiste (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)