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See detailTransmission Efficiency of Cucumber Mosaic Virus by Myzus persicae According to Virus Strain and Aphid Clone from China
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Yin, Ronling; Bragard, Claude et al

in Asian Journal of Plant Pathology (2016)

Background: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting vegetables in the fields throughout the world. Transmission efficiency of CMV could depend on the variability of ... [more ▼]

Background: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting vegetables in the fields throughout the world. Transmission efficiency of CMV could depend on the variability of virus strain but also aphid vector species and/or clones. Materials and Methods: By sequence analysis, the coat protein gene of CMV strains from different regions revealed that the CMV isolates used for this study belong to the same group. Both CMV strains and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) aphid clones were investigated for their role in viral dispersion by reciprocal tests on Nicotiana tabacum (L.) using the same clone of Myzus persicae towards different CMV strains or using one CMV strain on different Myzus persicae clones. Results: Virus transmission efficiency was found to be significantly influenced by selected CMV strains (from 5-30% of transmission rate for identical aphid clone) and also by the selected aphid clones (variation from 15-70% of transmission rate for identical virus strain). Conclusion: The CMV transmission efficiency depends on the variability of virus strain but also aphid vector clones. Combining the variability of CMV transmission rates for both aphid and virus sides, the prediction and modeling of virus spreading seems to be difficult to organize and are closely dependent on the variability of each protagonist-aphid and virus. [less ▲]

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See detailLa philosophie de la conscience comme intertexte des Temps Modernes et de Critique
Franck, Thomas ULg

in Slamti, Sad; Chakir, Bouchra (Eds.) L'Interculturel dans la littérature et les arts. Matière et manière intertextuelles (2016)

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See detailA review of Silurian dispersed spore assemblages from the Arabian Plate: biostratigraphy and palaeogeography
Wellman, CH; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Breuer, P et al

Conference (2016, October)

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See detailLe bouleau, une essence qui s'impose. Description de la ressource dans son aire de distribution
Dubois, Héloïse ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lecomte, Hugues et al

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 140

L'essentiel de la ressource en bouleau (verruqueux et pubescent) se situe en Russie et en Scandinavie (15 milliards de m³) et cette ressource augmente graduellement depuis plusieurs années. Il y est ... [more ▼]

L'essentiel de la ressource en bouleau (verruqueux et pubescent) se situe en Russie et en Scandinavie (15 milliards de m³) et cette ressource augmente graduellement depuis plusieurs années. Il y est fortement valorisé en sciage, déroulage et trituration. En Europe de l'Ouest, cette croissance s'observe aussi, même si seulement 1 % de la ressource s'y concentre (dû notamment à la plus grande diversité d'essences commerciales présentes). En Wallonie, les évolutions du contexte socio-économique et environnemental jouent en faveur d'une augmentation de la présence du bouleau (parcelles non reboisées, entretien insuffisant, mélanges spontanés...). Le bouleau représente souvent une belle opportunité pour les mélanges, une excellente essence d'accompagnement et une diversification de la production. Mais, sans une sylviculture adaptée, les grumes sont généralement de faible dimension et présentent de nombreux défauts. C'est le cas de l'essentiel de la ressource actuelle en Wallonie. Aujourd'hui, les besoins sont de mieux le connaître, notamment les opportunités de valorisation, et d'aboutir à des recommandations sylvicoles. Il ne s'agit donc pas de vouloir faire du bouleau à tout prix mais plutôt de tirer profit d'une étape transitoire de la succession forestière. [less ▲]

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See detailConjoint influence of mind-wandering and sleepiness on task performance
Stawarczyk, David ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception & Performance (2016), 42(10), 1587-15600

Recent research suggests that sleepiness and mind-wandering—the experience of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—frequently co-occur and are both associated with poorer ... [more ▼]

Recent research suggests that sleepiness and mind-wandering—the experience of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—frequently co-occur and are both associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Whether these two phenomena have distinguishable effects on task performance remains unknown, however. To investigate this question, we employed the online experience sampling of mind-wandering episodes and subjective sleepiness during a laboratory task (the Sustained Attention to Response Task; SART), and also assessed mind-wandering frequency and sleep-related disturbances in daily life using self-report questionnaires. The results revealed that the tendency to experience mind-wandering episodes during the SART and daily life was associated with higher levels of daytime sleepiness and sleep-related disturbances. Importantly, however, mind-wandering and sleepiness were independent predictors of SART performance at both the within- and between-individuals levels. These findings demonstrate that, although mind-wandering and sleepiness frequently co-occur, these two phenomena have distinguishable and additive effects on task performance. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential for Composite Analysis in the Black Sea
Capet, Arthur ULg; Mason, Evan; Troupin, Charles et al

Conference (2016, October)

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See detailQuantitative Three-Dimensional Color Flow Echocardiography of Chronic Mitral Regurgitation: New Methods, New Perspectives, New Challenges
zhou, x; vannan, m; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2016), 29(10), 935-937

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See detailRobust discriminant analysis based on the joint graphcial lasso estimator
Aerts, Stéphanie ULg; Croux, Christophe; Wilms, Ines

Poster (2016, October)

Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (LDA/QDA) are the most often applied classification rules under the normality assumption. When there is not enough data, the quadratic rule, which requires the ... [more ▼]

Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (LDA/QDA) are the most often applied classification rules under the normality assumption. When there is not enough data, the quadratic rule, which requires the estimation of one precision matrix in each class, is often replaced by the linear one, based on the homoscedasticity assumption. This strong assumption is however rarely verified in practice and ignores the intrinsic différences between groups that may be of particular interest in the classification context. In this aper, alternatives to the usual maximum likelihood estimates for the precision matrices are proposed that borrow strength across classes while allowing for heterogeneity at the same time. This results in a classifier that is intermediate between QDA and LDA. Moreover, our estimator is sparse: the undesirable effect of uninformative variables is reduced. The performance of the method is illustrated through simulated and real dataset examples. [less ▲]

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See detailIohexol plasma clearance for measuring glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice and research: a review. Part 2: Why to measure glomerular filtration rate with iohexol?
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Melson, Toralf; Ebert, Natalie et al

in Clinical Kidney Journal (2016)

2 | P. Delanaye et al. Abstract A reliable assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of paramount importance in clinical practice as well as epidemiological and clinical research settings. It is ... [more ▼]

2 | P. Delanaye et al. Abstract A reliable assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of paramount importance in clinical practice as well as epidemiological and clinical research settings. It is recommended by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines in specific populations (anorectic, cirrhotic, obese, renal and non-renal transplant patients) where estimation equations are unreliable. Measured GFR is the only valuable test to confirm or confute the status of chronic kidney disease (CKD), to evaluate the slope of renal function decay over time, to assess the suitability of living kidney donors and for dosing of potentially toxic medication with a narrowtherapeutic index. Abnormally elevatedGFRor hyperfiltration in patients with diabetes or obesity can be correctly diagnosed only by measuring GFR. GFR measurement contributes to assessing the true CKD prevalence rate, avoiding discrepancies duetoGFRestimation with different equations. Usingmeasured GFR, successfullyaccomplished in large epidemiological studies, is the onlyway to study the potential link between decreased renal functionand cardiovascular or total mortality, being sure that this association is not due to confounders, i.e. non-GFR determinants of biomarkers. In clinical research, it has been shown that measured GFR (or measured GFR slope) as a secondary endpoint as compared with estimated GFR detected subtle treatment effects and obtained these results with a comparatively smaller sample size than trials choosing estimated GFR. Measuring GFR by iohexol has several advantages: simplicity, low cost, stability and low interlaboratory variation. Iohexol plasma clearance represents the best chance for implementing a standardized GFR measurement protocol applicable worldwide both in clinical practice and in research. [less ▲]

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See detailIohexol plasma clearance for measuring glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice and research: a review. Part 1 : How to measure glomerular filtration rate with iohexol?
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Ebert, Natalie; Melsom, Toralf et al

in Clinical Kidney Journal (2016)

While there is general agreement on the necessity tomeasure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) inmany clinical situations, there is less agreement on the bestmethod to achieve this purpose. As the gold ... [more ▼]

While there is general agreement on the necessity tomeasure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) inmany clinical situations, there is less agreement on the bestmethod to achieve this purpose. As the gold standardmethod for GFR determination, urinary (or renal) clearance of inulin, fades into the background due to inconvenience and high cost, a diversity of filtrationmarkers and protocols compete to replace it. In this review, we suggest that iohexol, a non-ionic contrast agent, is most suited to replace inulin as the marker of choice for GFR determination. Iohexol comes very close to fulfilling all requirements for an ideal GFRmarker in terms of low extra-renal excretion, low protein binding and in being neither secreted nor reabsorbed by the kidney. In addition, iohexol is virtually non-toxic and carries a low cost. As iohexol is stable in plasma, administration and sample analysis can be separated in both space and time, allowing access to GFR determination across different settings. An external proficiency programme operated by Equalis AB, Sweden, exists for iohexol, facilitating interlaboratory comparison of results. Plasma clearance measurement is the protocol of choice as it combines a reliable GFR determination with convenience for the patient. Single-sample protocols dominate, butmultiple-sample protocolsmay bemore accurate in specific situations. In lowGFRs one ormore late samples should be included to improve accuracy. In patients with large oedema or ascites, urinary clearance protocols should be employed. In conclusion, plasma clearance of iohexol may well be the best candidate for a common GFR determination method. [less ▲]

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See detailLes corps des scientifiques et de l’intellectuel dans la revue La Recherche
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Mabrour, Abdel; Bajomée, Danielle (Eds.) La lettre et l’image. Enquêtes interculturelles sur les territoires du visible (2016, October)

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail ... [more ▼]

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail collectif en laboratoire etc., et les conceptions de la science qui en sont valorisées. L’étude des relations entre les photographies et les textes qui les accompagnent ont ainsi pour objectif de déployer une réflexion non seulement sur les différents types de commensurabilité entre le langage verbal et le langage visuel mais aussi sur le fait que le langage visuel est à même de forger de manière tout à fait autonome des valeurs identitaires et des formes de vie identifiables via l’analyse sémiotique. Notre exploration se développera en deux volets : le premier vise à esquisser la méthodologie de la sémiotique visuelle pour pouvoir introduire les niveaux pertinents de l’analyse sémiotique, le deuxième consiste à analyser un corpus constitué de textes tirés de quelques numéros de la revue La Recherche en en distinguant les différents genres discursifs (entretien, présentation de travaux en cours, etc.) et les différents types de cadrage et de mise en scène photographique afin d’expliquer comment ils se combinent avec les prises de position épistémologiques valorisées. [less ▲]

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See detailThe peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Alpha (PPARA) is expressed in non-somatotroph pituitary adenomas : a potential therapeutic target ?
Rotondi, S; Polidoro, MA; Morace, R et al

Poster (2016, October)

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See detailLa transition énergétique, l’affaire de tous
Ernst, Damien ULg

Speech/Talk (2016)

Conférence d'ouverture donnée par le Prof . Ernst lors de la soirée de lancement de la saison 2016-2017 de Liège Créative. Accéder à la vidéo de la conférence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SJ14Sj33bI

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See detailPhenology of farmed seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii infestation by the parasitic epiphyte Polysiphonia sp. in Madagascar
Tsiresy, Gaëtan; Preux, Jérémy; Lavitra, Thierry et al

in Journal of Applied Phycology (2016), 28(5), 29032914

epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) disease has appeared in many regions of Madagascar. This infestation has dramatic consequences for local farmers as it alters drastically farmed algal growth and has ... [more ▼]

epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) disease has appeared in many regions of Madagascar. This infestation has dramatic consequences for local farmers as it alters drastically farmed algal growth and has caused farming activity to collapse in many places. The present study characterizes the structure and ultrastructure of the stages observed in the life cycle of Polysiphonia sp. and gives the results of a monitoring of 18 months made in three Kappaphycus alvarezii farming sites in the southwest of Madagascar. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the ultrastructure of the cortex in infested K. alvarezii. Five stages have been observed in the life cycle of Polysiphonia sp.: the infesting stage that is a small dark spot observed at the surface of K. alvarezii, the male gametophyte, the female gametophyte, the tetrasporocysts, and the undifferentiated stage where individuals show normal thalli without sexual differentiation. EFA infestation was never recorded in Sarodrano, but often in the two other monitored villages (Lambohara, Tampolove). Prevalence of infestation varied from 40 to 100 % and the rates of infestation from 42 to 78 epiphytes cm−2. Prevalence of infestation showed significant seasonal variation and a between-sites variation; the rates of infestation were not significantly different between sites and did not vary with the period. The ways of infestation between K. alvarezii individuals in an infested field and from infested to healthy fields are discussed at the light of the present results. [less ▲]

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See detailHypogonadism due to a novel inactivating mutation of the luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHB) gene leading to impaired protein trafficking
Potorac, Iulia ULg; Rivero-muller, a; Trehan, A et al

in 26nd meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society - Abstract book (2016, October)

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See detailAgent-based analysis of dynamic access ranges to the distribution network
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) (2016, October)

There is a need to clearly state an interaction model that formalizes interactions between actors of the distribution system exchanging flexibility. In previous works we quantitatively evaluated the ... [more ▼]

There is a need to clearly state an interaction model that formalizes interactions between actors of the distribution system exchanging flexibility. In previous works we quantitatively evaluated the performance of five interaction models devised with industrial partners using the agent-based testbed DSIMA. Simulation results showed that these interaction models relying on active network management suffer from a lack of coordination between the distribution and the transmission system operator, activating flexibility simultaneously in opposite directions. This paper introduces a new interaction model fixing this issue based on dynamic access bounds to the network changing throughout the day and preventing the activation of flexibility leading to congestions. This new interaction model is implemented in DSIMA and compared to a model restricting the grid users to a very restrictive but safe access range. Results show that this new model allows to safely increase by 55% the amount of distributed generation in the network. [less ▲]

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See detailA membrane-type- matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) - discoidin domain receptor 1 axis regulates collagen-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells
Assent, Delphine; Bourgot, Isabelle ULg; Hennuy, Benoit et al

Poster (2016, October)

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and proapoptotic properties. To ... [more ▼]

During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and proapoptotic properties. To develop metastatic capabilities, tumour cells must acquire the capacity to cope with this novel microenvironment. How cells interact with and respond to their microenvironment during cancer dissemination remains poorly understood. To address the impact of type I collagen on the fate of tumour cells, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were cultured within three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3D COL1). Using this experimental model, we demonstrate that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proteinase overexpressed in many aggressive tumours, promotes tumour progression by circumventing the collagen-induced up-regulation of BIK, a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor, and hence apoptosis. A transcriptomic analysis was performed to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating 3D COL1-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Control and MT1-MMP expressing MCF-7 cells were cultured on two-dimensional plastic plates or within 3D COL1 and a global transcriptional time-course analysis was performed. Shifting the cells from plastic plates to 3D COL1 activated a complex reprogramming of genes implicated in various biological processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a 3D COL1-mediated alteration of key cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, RNA processing and cytoskeleton remodelling. By using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase specifically activated by collagen, as the initiator of 3D COL1-induced apoptosis. Our data support the concept that MT1-MMP contributes to the inactivation of the DDR1-BIK signalling axis through the cleavage of collagen fibres and/or the alteration of DDR1 receptor signalling unit, without triggering drastic alterations of the transcriptome of MCF-7 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of breast carcinoma cell proliferation and apoptosis by type I collagen aging and 3D confinement involves differential activation of DDR1
Saby, Charles; Rammal, Hassan; Magnien, Kevin et al

Poster (2016, October)

During breast carcinoma development, cells are confronted to a type I collagen-rich environment which induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects (Maquoi et al., Oncogene, 2012). These effects ... [more ▼]

During breast carcinoma development, cells are confronted to a type I collagen-rich environment which induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects (Maquoi et al., Oncogene, 2012). These effects occurred only in 3D cell matrix and involved Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) but not β1 integrin (Assent et al., PlosOne, 2015). During aging, type I collagen undergoes post-translational modifications which have a detrimental effect on type I collagen fibrillar organization (Aït-Belkacem, J Biomed Optics, 2012 ; Guilbert et al., Oncotarget, 2016). This property is well known to be requested to activate DDR1. Here, we address the effect of type I collagen aging on cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in breast carcinoma cells in 3D cell confinement system. Type I collagen was extracted from tail tendons of 2 months (adult) and 2 years (old) rats, and MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells were used as an experimental model. We provide evidence for a decrease in cell proliferation by adult collagen but not by old one. This effect involves a higher phosphorylation of DDR1 by adult collagen when compared to the old one. Inhibition of DDR1 kinase activity by the specific inhibitor DDR1-IN-1 induced an increase in cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. An increase in cell proliferation was also observed using siRNA targeting DDR1 mRNA. At the opposite of old collagen, adult collagen was also able to trigger apoptosis by inducing an increase in expression of the pro-apoptotic protein (BIK). Inhibition of DDR1 kinase activity induced a decrease in BIK expression and apoptosis. Our data support the concept that aging contributes to the loss of the growth suppression and apoptotic effect of collagen on breast carcinoma, but only in 3D cell confinement model, by inactivating the DDR1-BIK signaling axis via a downregulation of DDR1 activation. [less ▲]

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See detailHautes Valeurs de Conservation (HVC) dans les Unités Forestières d'Aménagement du Cameroun : concepts, choix et pratiques
Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Bracke, Charles; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg et al

Book published by Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux (2016)

Le système de certification FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) vise à promouvoir la gestion durable des forêts. Il repose sur un ensemble de normes dont une est particulièrement complexe à mettre en oeuvre ... [more ▼]

Le système de certification FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) vise à promouvoir la gestion durable des forêts. Il repose sur un ensemble de normes dont une est particulièrement complexe à mettre en oeuvre en Afrique Centrale, le principe 9 traitant des Hautes Valeurs de Conservation (HVC). Ce principe devrait être interprété aux échelons nationaux afin de prendre en compte les spécificités de chaque pays. Bien que des ouvrages aient déjà été élaborés par diverses organisations, aucun ne cible particulièrement les grandes concessions forestières. Au Cameroun, ces concessions ou Unités Forestières d’Aménagement (UFA), représentent pourtant 40 % du domaine forestier national. Le présent guide ambitionne de fournir aux acteurs de la gestion forestière au Cameroun les connaissances les plus pertinentes afin de leur permettre d’identifier, de gérer et de suivre les Hautes Valeurs de Conservation dans les UFA. Il se démarque des précédents guides par plusieurs points : (i) une revue bibliographique détaillée est fournie sur le sujet épineux de l’identification de chaque HVC, et l’opinion des auteurs y est mise en exergue; (ii) la démarche d’identification est appuyée par les références les plus pertinentes, évitant au gestionnaire de se disperser dans sa quête de documentation; (iii) sur la base de leur expérience, les auteurs proposent une série de menaces pouvant affecter les HVC, de mesures de gestion et d’indicateurs de suivi. L’approche développée se base sur des méthodes empiriques et pragmatiques d’une part et, d’autre part, sur des études scientifiques. Cet ouvrage devrait constituer une base intéressante pour une interprétation solide des HVC au Cameroun. De plus, bien que ciblant les UFA camerounaises, il pourrait inspirer d’autres acteurs forestiers œuvrant dans le Bassin du Congo. [less ▲]

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