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See detailBien soigner l'arthrose: un enjeu capital pour notre société!
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, September 29)

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See detailMy Friend is a WWI Soldier: A Semiopragmatic Approach to Docufictions on Social Networks
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Bouko, Catherine

in Punctum. International Journal of Semiotics (2015), 1(1), 94-107

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These ... [more ▼]

At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These Internet-based audiovisual productions invite semiotics to reconsider its tools in order to grasp their complex, hybrid nature, above and beyond the binary opposition of reality and fiction. After considering the semiotic systems which characterize social networks and condition enunciation (Van Dijck, 2013), we proceed to examine the Léon Vivien, Louis Castel and Little Suzon documentary-dramas from a semio-pragmatic point of view. We will examine the relationship between reality, fiction and realism on the basis of the semiopragmatic models developed by Hanot (2002) and Jost (2001) in order to analyse these audiovisual productions on four levels: profilmic, plastic, iconic and diegetic. By adapting these models to Internet, we will be able to identify the authenticating and fictional strategies employed in such online productions to make the archive images waver between the status of index and icon. [less ▲]

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See detailHormones, Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity affect Bone and other Physiological Systems in Zebrafish Larvae
Aceto, Jessica ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Understanding the consequences of altered gravity on bone development and on general physiology in an ... [more ▼]

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Understanding the consequences of altered gravity on bone development and on general physiology in an entire organism remains to date incomplete. We used altered drug treatment and gravity experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. We started treatments at 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) and analyze early modifications in gene expression after 1 day using microarrays and the consequences on bone formation after 5 days using specific staining. We performed chemical treatments (Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D3), exposure to three different microgravity simulation devices (Clinostat, Random Positioning Machine and Rotating Wall Vessel) and finally exposure to hypergravity and "relative microgravity" in the Large Diameter Centrifuge. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton, and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10dpf) with, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. The microgravity simulators used were the 2D clinostat, random positioning machine and rotating wall vessel. Only clinorotation caused a significant decrease of bone formation when applied between 5 to 10dpf. This effect was not due to stress, as assessed by measuring cortisol levels in treated larvae. The two other devices caused no effect, or a slight acceleration of ossification. Gene expression results after one day in simulated microgravity indicate that musculo-skeletal, cardiavascular, and nuclear receptor systems are affected, however often in opposite directions in clinorotation compared to the two other devices. Based on the effects on bone formation and on the biological functions found to be affected, we conclude that clinorotation is the most appropriate method to simulate microgravity on ground when using free-swimming organisms such as zebrafish larvae. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. [less ▲]

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See detailL'architecte Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910)
Folville, Xavier ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 29)

The Architect Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910) L’architecte Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910) Architect by vocation and formation, then merchant, and after that designer and industrialist, Gustave ... [more ▼]

The Architect Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910) L’architecte Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910) Architect by vocation and formation, then merchant, and after that designer and industrialist, Gustave Serrurier, aka Serrurier-Bovy, is mostly known as a producer of furniture. Although more marginal, his architectural work are far from negligible. After 1888, and a couple of youthful projects, the architect from Liège most probably only does interior furnishings, but these prove to be considerable. For example, he brilliantly remodels the space and interior organization of the castle of La Cheyrelle (1903-1909) in the Cantal region of France. Just before, in 1902, he draws again the plans of an entire villa – his personal villa – which seems to function as a manifesto for an architecture different from Art Nouveau. Theoretician and utopian, he also develops a social reflection which leads him to think that architecture and furniture are interconnected practices, particularly apt to better the conditions of existence, notably of the less healthy. He applies and shows it in the furnishings of a workers housing complex in a competition organized on the occasion of the Liège World’s Fair in 1905. In his built work, through his spatial inventions and his sober and functional decoration, Serrurier opens perspectives onto a new art of life in the 20th century, and he anticipates thus the social, technical and artistic preoccupations of the Modern Movement. L’architecte Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (1858-1910) Architecte par vocation et formation, puis commerçant, ensuite créateur et industriel, Gustave Serrurier, dit Serrurier-Bovy, est surtout connu pour sa production de mobilier. Plus marginal, son travail d’architecte est pourtant loin d’être négligeable. Au-delà de 1888, après quelques œuvres de jeunesse, l’architecte liégeois ne réalise sans doute plus que des aménagements d’intérieurs, mais ceux-ci peuvent s’avérer considérables. Par exemple, il remodèle brillamment l’espace et la distribution intérieure du château de La Cheyrelle (1903-1909) dans le Cantal, en France. Juste avant, en 1902, on le voit dresser à nouveau les plans complets d’une villa – sa villa personnelle – qui sonne alors comme un manifeste pour une architecture différente de l’Art nouveau. Théoricien et utopiste, il développe aussi une réflexion sociale qui le conduit à penser qu’architecture et mobilier sont des pratiques liées, particulièrement propres à améliorer les conditions de l’existence, notamment des moins nantis. Il le prouve et l’expérimente encore dans l’aménagement d’un logement ouvrier lors du concours organisé à l’occasion de l’Exposition universelle de Liège en 1905. Dans son œuvre construite, par ses inventions spatiales, par sa décoration retenue et fonctionnelle, Serrurier ouvre des perspectives sur un nouvel art de vivre au 20e siècle et anticipe les préoccupations sociales, techniques et artistiques du Mouvement moderne. [less ▲]

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See detailPasser à Alma d’Ex Libris : projet de réinformatisation ? projet de bibliothèque ? L'expérience de l'Université de Liège 6 mois avant et 6 mois après
Renaville, François ULg; Thirion, Paul ULg

Conference (2015, September 29)

En janvier 2014, les Bibliothèques de l'Université de Liège ont décidé de passer au système de gestion de bibliothèque Alma. Le projet a débuté en août 2014 ; six mois après, la migration vers Alma et le ... [more ▼]

En janvier 2014, les Bibliothèques de l'Université de Liège ont décidé de passer au système de gestion de bibliothèque Alma. Le projet a débuté en août 2014 ; six mois après, la migration vers Alma et le lancement d'une nouvelle interface de découverte Primo étaient réalisés. Cette présentation balaye les moments clés de ce projet, en mettant l'accent sur la composante organisationnelle et la gestion du changement, ainsi que sur les premiers mois d’expérience avec le nouvel outil. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulations of the auroral signatures of Jupiter’s magnetospheric injections
Dumont, Maïté ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2015, September 29)

We report the evolution of ultraviolet auroral features located equatorward of the main emission appearing in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the northern and the southern Jovian hemisphere. We ... [more ▼]

We report the evolution of ultraviolet auroral features located equatorward of the main emission appearing in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the northern and the southern Jovian hemisphere. We investigate the possibility that those ultraviolet auroral structures are associated with energetic particle injections. For this study, we compare the characteristics of the simulated auroral signature of plasma injections with the observed parameters of equatorward isolated auroral structures. [less ▲]

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See detailRiver Talks behind the Urban Wall
Occhiuto, Rita ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 29)

The growth of the city in Wallonia (BE) is often closely connected to the river traces (A.Corboz 2001). In the case of Liège, the Maas river and its tributaries narrate the history of a progressive ... [more ▼]

The growth of the city in Wallonia (BE) is often closely connected to the river traces (A.Corboz 2001). In the case of Liège, the Maas river and its tributaries narrate the history of a progressive control of the water. The industrialization, insinuating itself in the narrow valleys of the Ourthe and Vesdre and then along the banks of the Maas river, forms new artificial landscapes. These sites, built by the bourgeois society, offered dual sceneries: walls, harbors and chimneys among the smokes in the suburbs and parks with green walks and quality architecture in the center. From the cessation of the industrial activity, resurface canalized rivers. They flow in silence among the outlines of abandoned places. The river and its relationships with modern city seem to have been forgotten. Only operations of new observation, recognition and explanation of what is still present in places allow to recover elements that even the people have anymore the awareness to exist. The study of the equilibrium of the Maas river waters is presented in relation to the characters of the domination and the reconstruction of river artifacts that have already bent the natural elements in order to re-generate. The waterways, initially treated as normal infrastructure, at the same level of roads and railways, formed a network of rivers channeled used only for the transport, and new sites or islands that have often lost all connection with the river resource. Sometimes however, the rivers flow in residual spaces that line the back of long linear urban fronts. Here the character of the worker housing, now in decay, acts as an opaque forgetful scene of past narratives landscapes. The reinterpretation of the interrelations between river and lands or the infrastructural islands artificially created can bring out new reasons useful for the landscape project. We have to highlight the importance of observation and selective design of elements (A.FOXLEY 2010) that make up the landscape and serve to bring out the dormant memories and collective stories on which is possible to relaunch project practices (D.A.SCHÖN 2011) to share and to accompany over time: observation and explanation of the reasons which have led to the sedimentation and the mutation of the landscape within their formation process become the essential elements for making a lasting and sustainable recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy Facebook is flying up high and Twitter can't fly away
Artige, Lionel ULg

Article for general public (2015)

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See detailMultifractality of quantum wave functions in the presence of perturbations
Dubertrand, Rémy ULg; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Georgeot, Bertrand et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 92

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a ... [more ▼]

We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a pseudointegrable system, the Anderson model, and a random matrix model. We apply several types of natural perturbations which can be relevant for experimental implementations. We construct an analytical theory for certain cases and perform extensive large-scale numerical simulations in other cases. The data are analyzed through refined methods including double scaling analysis. Our results confirm the recent conjecture that multifractality breaks down following two scenarios. In the first one, multifractality is preserved unchanged below a certain characteristic length which decreases with perturbation strength. In the second one, multifractality is affected at all scales and disappears uniformly for a strong-enough perturbation. Our refined analysis shows that subtle variants of these scenarios can be present in certain cases. This study could guide experimental implementations in order to observe quantum multifractality in real systems. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos de l'O. Caire JdE 72460 : faut-il continuer la quête de la tombe d'une reine de la XIXe dynastie dans la Vallée des Rois ?
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 28)

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la ... [more ▼]

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la Nécropole thébaine et a été récemment utilisé pour tenter de localiser une tombe perdue, celle d'Isisnofret, dans la Vallée des Rois. (2) Nous proposons ensuite une traduction du texte du recto (ancien verso) et discutons les problèmes d'identification entre endroits mentionnés et structures archéologiques connues. (3) Nous passons ensuite à un examen du texte du verso (ancien recto) et construisons une représentation schématique des relations entre les emplacements mentionnés. Nous essayons alors de voir si cette schématisation abstraite correspond à des lieux connus dans la Vallées des Rois ou dans la Vallée des Reines. Nous concluons par la négative et proposons de renverser la perspective : les structures mentionnées sont à chercher au sein de la Tombe des fils de Ramsès II (KV 5) et non à l'extérieur dans la Vallée des Rois. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput sequencing of toxins with pharmacological interest: proof of concept and first applications
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Degueldre, Michel ULg; Boulanger, Madeleine ULg et al

Conference (2015, September 28)

Animal venoms are complex chemical cocktails, comprising wide ranges of biologically active reticulated peptides that target with high selectivity and efficacy varieties of membrane receptors. Assuming ... [more ▼]

Animal venoms are complex chemical cocktails, comprising wide ranges of biologically active reticulated peptides that target with high selectivity and efficacy varieties of membrane receptors. Assuming the fact that each of the 170,000 venomous species reported can produce more than 250 bioactive toxins, at least 40,000,000 bioactive peptides and proteins may be discovered. Among the four described species of mambas, Eastern Jameson’s mamba (Dendroaspis jamesonii kaimosae) venom is the less characterized since only 9 peptides are referenced in database. This work aims at developing a new strategy devoted to the deep analysis of animal venoms. Our approach consists in a first separation of the venom using cation exchange chromatography. Each primary fraction is then purified a second time by classical RP-HPLC. A total of 328 fractions, containing amongst 1 and 4 toxins, are finally collected. MALDI-MS analysis of each fraction is done in order (1) to obtain information about masses and (2) to obtain sequences of toxins thanks to MALDI-In Source Decay (ISD) dissociation coupled with on MALDI target plate reduction of the peptides. ISD has already been demonstrated efficient for toxin sequencing1, and especially when using 1,5-DAN as reducing matrix2. ISD yields to sequences that cover more than 50% of peptide sequences by series of singly charged c-type ions. Thanks to this methodology, we were able to obtain 85% of satisfactory results i.e. spectra giving quite long tags of amino acids (up to 20 residues). As a way to validate our method, a tag coming from ISD spectrum interpretation has found a match in database for an Eastern Jameson’s mamba toxin. The global sequence has then been obtained by extrapolation on the ISD spectrum. Since ISD spectra are simpler than classical MS/MS spectra, automation of spectra interpretation, difficult with other fragmentation techniques (CID, ETD…), is implementable. In the near future, sequences obtained with this approach will be used to direct tests of biological activity through sequence homologies with already known ligands for different kinds of membrane receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet expérimental multidisciplinaire (PEMD) en 3ème Bachelier à Gembloux
Colaux-Castillo, Catherine; Pochet, Bernard ULg

in Former aux compétences informationnelles à l'heure du web 2.0 et des discovery tools (2015, September 28)

Cette courte présentation, dans l'atelier 3 du colloque ILIB15, décrit l'intégration d'un cours (« littérature scientifique et méthodologie documentaire »), dont le titulaire est un bibliothécaire, dans ... [more ▼]

Cette courte présentation, dans l'atelier 3 du colloque ILIB15, décrit l'intégration d'un cours (« littérature scientifique et méthodologie documentaire »), dont le titulaire est un bibliothécaire, dans une unité d’apprentissage intégrée basée sur la résolution d'un problème concret de recherche dans un contexte scientifique non familier. Ce cours a été proposé pour la première fois durant l'année académique 2014-2015 à une partie des étudiants du bloc trois du Master Bioingénieur, orientation Sciences et technologies de l’environnement de l'Université de Liège. Cette activité se déroule en plusieurs phases sur les deux quadrimestres. [less ▲]

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See detailMilk production, milking frequency and rumination time of grazing dairy cows milked by a mobile milking robot.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Minet, Julien ULg et al

in Conington, J; Klopcic, M; Lauridsen, C (Eds.) et al Book of abstracts of the 66th Annual meeting of the European Federation of animal science (2015, September 28)

In Europe, analysis of meteorological data shows that the average temperature has increased by ~1°C over the past hundred years (IPCC, 2013). Heat stress periods are thus expected to be more frequent even ... [more ▼]

In Europe, analysis of meteorological data shows that the average temperature has increased by ~1°C over the past hundred years (IPCC, 2013). Heat stress periods are thus expected to be more frequent even in temperate areas. The use of an automatic milking system (AMS) implies the need to stimulate cows’ traffic to the robot, especially with grazing cows. Describing how heat stress influenced cows’ traffic to the robot is the aim of this study. Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AMS) experienced heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer 2013 in July (J) and August (A). The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than 75. Each HS period was compared with a “normal period”(N), presenting the same number of cows, similar lactation number, days in milk, distance to come back to the robot and an equal access to water. The first HS period of 5 days with a mean THI of 78.4 was chosen in J, and a second that lasted for 6 days in A with a THI value of 77.3. Heat stress periods were cut off with the same duration of days with no stress (N) and mean THI <70. Milk production, milkings and refusals to the robot during HS were compared with N periods. Milkings and refusals were significantly more numerous in HS periods in July (HS: 2.54 ± 0.11 vs N: 2.19 ± 0.08, 1.87 ± 0.20 vs 0.72 ± 0.16) but milk production dropped from 21.8 ±0.6 kg per cow and per day during N periods to 18.9 ± 0.8 kg in HS. In August, MY increased slightly during HS. This could be explained by less high ambient temperatures and decreased distance to walk inducing less energy expenditure. The increase in milkings and refusals to the robot during HS could be linked to water availability nearby the robot and confirmed previous findings (Lessire et al., 2014). [less ▲]

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See detailChondrogenic Differentiation in the growth Plate: a Computational Modelling Approach
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The specialization of cartilage cells, or chondrogenic differentiation, is an intricate and meticulously regulated process that plays a vital role in both bone formation and cartilage regeneration. This ... [more ▼]

The specialization of cartilage cells, or chondrogenic differentiation, is an intricate and meticulously regulated process that plays a vital role in both bone formation and cartilage regeneration. This PhD work centers on the development of computational models to study the molecular regulation of this process. First, we investigate how individual genes and their defects contribute to the overall change in functionality of the growth plate, where chondrogenic differentiation fuels bone growth. As each gene is influenced by a myriad of feedback mechanisms that keep its expression in a desirable range, predicting what will happen if one of these genes defaults is challenging. Therefore, we constructed a qualitative model, focusing on the process of bone formation, that simulates how the intricate interplay between the genes results in a functional growth plate morphology. This model allows the effect of gene knockouts or overexpression to be evaluated from a network perspective, and hence relates this genetic deficiency to the impairment of the gross bone formation on a tissue level. This knowledge can be of great assistance in the design and control of \textit{in vitro} bone tissue engineering processes. A framework with increased temporal and quantitative resolution is then used to study chondrocyte hypertrophy in an expanded network. Chondrocyte hypertrophy, a process in which cartilage cells enlarge and change their secretion profile to attract bone forming cells and blood vessels, is orchestrated on a molecular level by a switch between two ‘genetic programs’. In this switch, one set of transcription factors that represents chondrocyte proliferation competes with, and is ultimately replaced by, another set that represents hypertrophy. Since hypertrophy plays a vital role not only in the development the skeleton, but is also thought to be involved in several bone-related diseases, it has been studied extensively. We combine information of how individual factors that prevent or contribute to the hypertrophic switch interact in a computational model to develop a more global view of the regulatory network underlying hypertrophy. Through simulations of this regulatory network model we can perform an in silico screening for factors that greatly impact, positively or negatively, the decision to undergo hypertrophy. The results of this screening are checked for consistency using an ensemble approach. Specifically, a genetic algorithm is used to generate an ensemble of models, differing only in parameter values, whose qualitative dynamics match those observed in the growth plate. The range of behaviour exhibited by individual factors throughout this ensemble is mostly consistent. Additionally, a subset of the network topology is compared to that obtained by inference from growth plate expression profiles. Understanding how individual factors contribute to the hypertrophic switch in the context of the regulatory network has important repercussions in both cartilage and bone tissue engineering. Our approach further suggests several putative targets for intervention in disease processes where hypertrophy plays a role. In summary, this PhD offers and explores a series of tools that form a first step to a rigorous and systems-level understanding of chondrogenic differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the retaining wall design problem in the framework of the Tyler Rationale
Charlier, Robert ULg; Bertrand, François ULg; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg et al

Poster (2015, September 28)

The coherence of any education system lies on the respect of the Tyler Rationale which puts the relationship between the objectives, the teaching method and the evaluation forward. The practical part of ... [more ▼]

The coherence of any education system lies on the respect of the Tyler Rationale which puts the relationship between the objectives, the teaching method and the evaluation forward. The practical part of the examination of the course of Geotechnics generally includes a retaining wall design problem. We listed and classified the mistakes identified in the student answers for the retaining wall design problem. In this classification, the mistakes specific to geotechnics are distinguished from the ones which are not specific to geotechnics. This list allows the teacher to be aware of the most common mistakes so he can insist on things not to do during the learning experiences. The classification is also fundamental. Indeed, if a student failed essentially because of a lack of pre-requisites, there is no reason he succeed by repeating the course in the same conditions. He should be therefore redirected to a self-regulating. [less ▲]

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