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See detailMass Surveillance Technology: Trading Trojan Horses
Caponetti, Lia ULg

in Strategic Trade Review (2016), (Spring 2016), 53-71

This paper challenges the effectiveness and necessity of “mass surveillance technology”(MST) on two dimensions: (a) states’ internal use of MST and the subsequent issue of violation of fundamental ... [more ▼]

This paper challenges the effectiveness and necessity of “mass surveillance technology”(MST) on two dimensions: (a) states’ internal use of MST and the subsequent issue of violation of fundamental freedoms, and (b) surveillance technology export control, especially to third countries likely to use such technology to violate human rights. Following the Snowden Datagate scandal, many States undertook inquiries and adopted measures that, in some cases, were meant to regulate the use of mass surveillance technology. The paper will: a) assess and evaluate current regulations on mass surveillance technology and its place in democratic societies, including what is at stake in terms of technology, threats, reactions to threats, and geographic extension, b) the risks linked to the use of MST on the national level by questioning the validity of counter-terrorism measures as a justification for MST use c) analyze international trade control regimes and legislation to highlighting their inadequacy in the face of the threats posed by MST, and d) map the evolution of the EU dual-use trade control system towards a human security approach with regard to human rights protection, in order to assess the capability of the system to avoid the misuse of MST. [less ▲]

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See detailRhizosecreted proteases inhibition for the improvement of recombinant protein production in Arabidopsis thaliana
Lallemand, Jérôme ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

Poster (2016, April)

Plant-based biopharmaceuticals have gained a lot of interest in the past decade due to their reduced cost and relative safety compared to mammalian cell cultures. While the first plant-made recombinant ... [more ▼]

Plant-based biopharmaceuticals have gained a lot of interest in the past decade due to their reduced cost and relative safety compared to mammalian cell cultures. While the first plant-made recombinant proteins are now reaching the market, the production systems still need improvements to maximize their competitiveness. Optimizing production hosts requires the identification and subsequent inhibition of the most active endogenous peptidases, proteolysis being one of the main factors limiting yields. The aim of our study was to identify root-secreted proteases of Arabidopsis thaliana involved in target protein degradation (BSA) and inhibit them in vivo. Biochemical analyses identified serine proteases as the main class responsible for BSA degradation. An RT-qPCR experiment led to the choice of the serine protease gene SBT4.12 and its homologs as targets for an amiRNA-mediated silencing approach. Arabidopsis amiRNA-expressing lines showed lower levels of expression for SBT4.12 and reduced proteolytic activity in their rhizosecreted extracts. Crossing these lines with recombinant protein producing lines could lead to an improved production platform for proteins of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalized Piezoelectric Alveolar Decortication for Orthodontic Treatment in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
CHARAVET, Carole ULg; LECLOUX, Geoffrey ULg; BRUWIER, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Dental Research (2016)

AIMS : This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the benefits and clinical outcomes of piezocision, which is a minimally invasive approach to corticotomy that is used in orthodontic treatments ... [more ▼]

AIMS : This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the benefits and clinical outcomes of piezocision, which is a minimally invasive approach to corticotomy that is used in orthodontic treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Twenty-four adult patients presenting with mild overcrowdings were randomly allocated to either a control group that was treated with conventional orthodontics or a test group that received piezo-assisted orthodontics. The piezocisions were performed 1 wk week after the placement of the orthodontic appliances. Neither grafting material nor sutures were used. All patients were followed every 2 wk, and archwires were changed only when they were no longer active. The periods required for the completion of the overall orthodontic treatments were calculated, and the periodontal parameters were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the orthodontic treatment. Patient-centered outcomes were assessed with a visual analog scale; analgesic use following the procedures was also recorded. RESULTS : The patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The overall treatment time was significantly reduced by 43% in the piezocision group as compared with the control group. In both groups, periodontal parameters (i.e., recession depth, pocket depth, plaque index, and papilla bleeding index) remained unchanged between the baseline and treatment completion time points. No increase in root resorption was observed in either group. Scars were observed in 50% of the patients in the piezocision group. Analgesic consumption was similar following orthodontic appliance placement and piezocision surgery. Patient satisfaction was significantly better in the piezocision group than in the control group. CONCLUSION : In these conditions, the piezocision technique seemed to be effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. No gingival recessions were observed. The risk of residual scars might limit the indications for piezocision in patients with a high smile line (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02590835) [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoporosis International (2016, April), 27(supplement 1), 65

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See detailEfficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.
Rannou, F.; Maheu; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Osteoporosis International (2016, April), 27(supplement 1), 66

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See detailPrevalence of concomitant bone and muscle wasting in patients from the SarcoPhAge study.
Locquet, Médéa ULg; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2016, April), 27(supplement 1), 129

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See detailAlpha-synuclein as biomarker in Parkinson’s disease: strategies for detection in CGE-LIF
Houbart, Virginie ULg; Napp, Aurore ULg; Rudaz, Serge et al

Poster (2016, April)

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See detailTowards the Minimization of the Levelized Energy Costs of Microgrids using both Long-term and Short-term Storage Devices
François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Gemine, Quentin ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Smart Grid: Networking, Data Management, and Business Models (2016)

This chapter falls within the context of the optimization of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of microgrids featuring photovoltaic panels (PV) associated with both long-term (hydrogen) and short-term ... [more ▼]

This chapter falls within the context of the optimization of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of microgrids featuring photovoltaic panels (PV) associated with both long-term (hydrogen) and short-term (batteries) storage devices. First, we propose a novel formalization of the problem of building and operating microgrids interacting with their surrounding environment. Then we show how to optimally operate a microgrid using linear programming techniques in the context where the consumption and the production are known. It appears that this optimization technique can also be used to address the problem of optimal sizing of the microgrid, for which we propose a robust approach. These contributions are illustrated in two different settings corresponding to Belgian and Spanish data. [less ▲]

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See detail20 mai 1876 : augmentation des inscriptions et extension des bâtiments
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2016)

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See detailGlobal simulation of UV atmospheric emissions on Mars
González-Galindo; López-Valverde; Forget et al

Poster (2016, April)

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See detailLes juristes belges et la réhabilitation du droit à la guerre du Traité de Versailles au ‘Mouvement de Monaco’ de 1933-1938
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), 2016/1(Soixante et unième année), 155-188

Depuis la Charte des Nations Unies de 1945, l'interdiction du "recours à la force" est consacré comme règle de droit international applicable aux Etats. Toutefois, durant l'entre-deux-guerres, surtout de ... [more ▼]

Depuis la Charte des Nations Unies de 1945, l'interdiction du "recours à la force" est consacré comme règle de droit international applicable aux Etats. Toutefois, durant l'entre-deux-guerres, surtout de 1933 à 1938, la réhabilitation d'un droit à la guerre, jugée plus pragmatique par certains juristes que sa mise "hors-la-loi" par le Pacte Briand-Kellogg de 1929, connaît quelque succès. En réaction à ce qu'ils estiment être les "failles" des Pactes de la SDN et de Paris, médecins-militaires et juristes, surtout belges et français, en vue d'"humaniser la guerre" pour, selon eux, la rendre plus rare, forment un éphémère courant, oublié et devenu anachronique : le "Mouvement de Monaco". Tel est l'objet de notre étude. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a liquid nutritional supplement on water intake in experimental Beagle dogs
Rotat, Christelle; Lhoest, Estelle; Rauw, Anaelle ULg et al

in Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2016), 6

The objectives were to evaluate the effects of a liquid nutritional supplement formulated for dogs on water intakes and urine output. A liquid nutritional supplement was tested by way of a cross-over ... [more ▼]

The objectives were to evaluate the effects of a liquid nutritional supplement formulated for dogs on water intakes and urine output. A liquid nutritional supplement was tested by way of a cross-over design in 8 experimental healthy Beagle dogs (4 males and 4 females, aged 9.3 years). The supplement (87 percent water, 2.7 percent protein, 2.6 percent fat, 0.4 percent crude fiber) was added to water and tested at 2 incorporation rates (50 or 70 ml/day/dog—D50 or D70) versus the control placebo (CO-water only). The dogs were kept in a controlled environment; water intakes and urine output were measured. Individual water intakes were characterised by large variations. Mean water intake increased significantly by 28 percent in dogs receiving the liquid nutritional supplement, in both genders, irrespectively of the dosage. Urine output was also increased, by 55 percent. Faeces scores remained unchanged. It was concluded that the liquid supplement increased water intake and urine output in a safe way, without increasing dramatically the daily dietary sodium chloride intake. The recommended dosage of the manufacturer—50 ml/day for dogs weighing 10 - 20 kg BW is efficient. Increasing the dosage had no advantage, nor adverse effects. Increased water intake and urine output is of interest for dogs suffering from urolithiasis. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape
Chaffin; Schneider; McClintock et al

Conference (2016, April)

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See detailThe O2(a1Δ) Venus nightglow intensity: internal versus solar activity control
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference (2016, April)

Introduction: The O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm occurs in the atmospheric region governed by the subsolar to antisolar circulation. Several studies showed that the intensity of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm occurs in the atmospheric region governed by the subsolar to antisolar circulation. Several studies showed that the intensity of this emission is highly variable on a timescale of hours. Here, we study the possible correlation between the solar flux and the O2 infrared emission using VIRTIS-VEx spectral images at 1.27 μm that has been predicted to exist by theVTGCM model calculations by Bougher and Borucki(1994). VIRTIS data: Using the entire VIRTIS-M-IR nadir database, Soret et al. (2014) generated seven statistical maps of the O2(a1Δg) emission, each containing 500 observations. The purpose was to analyze the location of the brightest spot of the emission and its variations over time. Here, we analyze the intensity of the emission over time. Several methods have been used by Soret et al., (2015) to do so (evolution of the emission maximum, evolution of the average intensity, …) Here we present the results of a new analysis using a masking technique to calculate the time evolution of the nightglow brightness. However, none of them follow the same trend over time. Solar flux data: We now focus on solar flux variations in the time of VIRTIS observations (between May 2006 and October 2008), which were collected during a deep solar minimum. We use the SOHO-CELIAS/SEM (Judge et al., 1998) EUV daily average full solar disk fluxes at 1 AU between 0.1 and 50 nm available from the Space Sciences Center of the University of Southern California. EUV0.1–50 daily average fluxes decrease from 2.6 in May 2006 to 1.9 in October 2008 at the Earth. These values have been adapted to Venus by taking into account the distance from the Sun to the planet, but also the shift in date, considering the difference in solar longitude of the two planets. Values at Venus vary from 4.4 to 3.4, which corresponds to a decrease of 10.4% of the solar flux at Venus compared to a complete solar cycle (ranging from 13.5 to 3.9) Comparison of VIRTIS and SEM datasets: The linear correlation coefficient between the solar flux and the intensity peak is found to be 0.62, which expresses the global decreasing trend for both quantities. This coefficient is not higher because internal variations of the two studied variables do not occur simultaneously. More significantly, the correlation coefficient between the solar flux and the averaged intensities is found to be 0.35, meaning that no relation-ship exists between the O2(a1Δg) brightness and the solar activity. Conclusions: Contrary to the VTGCM calculations, we do not observe here a correlation between the O2(a1Δg) brightness and the solar flux. However, VIRTIS data were acquired during a deep solar minimum and, more importantly, during a relatively stable phase of the solar activity. A high level of variability of the O2(a1Δg) emission has been detected in the same dataset from day to day though (Hueso et al., 2008; Soret et al., 2014). It thus appears that the variability is more controlled by internal than external conditions: transport appears to play a major role in the nightglow emissions than the solar activity eventually does. This conclusion is at least valid for solar minimum conditions. A space mission with global imaging capabilities over an entire solar cycle would definitely allow determining the relative role played by solar activity and internal factors. [less ▲]

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See detailRELMs in the Realm of Helminths
Horsnell, William G. C.; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg

in Trends in parasitology (2016)

Resistin-like molecule (RELM) proteins are essential for immunity to helminths. Recently, Chen and collaborators identified a dominant role for RELMalpha over RELMbeta in host immunity to Nippostrongylus ... [more ▼]

Resistin-like molecule (RELM) proteins are essential for immunity to helminths. Recently, Chen and collaborators identified a dominant role for RELMalpha over RELMbeta in host immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using a double knockout system. The study highlighted how important and yet divergent the contributions of these proteins are in the control of helminth infections. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotherapy in pet rodents and rabbits: a preliminary analysis of practitioners’ habits
Marlier, Didier ULg

in Proceedings of the European College of Zoological Medicine Symposium (2016, April)

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See detailInfluence of the ionospheric model on DCB computation and added value of LEO satellites
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Lestarquit, Laurent; Loyer, Sylvain et al

Poster (2016, April)

In order to compute inter-frequency Differential Code Biases (DCBs), the Geometry-Free combination of a GNSS signal pair needs to be corrected from the ionospheric refraction effect. Such information is ... [more ▼]

In order to compute inter-frequency Differential Code Biases (DCBs), the Geometry-Free combination of a GNSS signal pair needs to be corrected from the ionospheric refraction effect. Such information is obtained using either Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) or local models. In this work we investigate the influence of GIMs on the final value and precision of DCB solution. The study covers different ionospheric conditions, ranging from very quiet ionospheric background up to a severe ionospheric storm. In a first step, the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) between GIMs is assessed as a function of receiver latitude, elevation mask and ionospheric conditions. Then, daily DCBs are estimated using these different GIMs, receiver and satellite contributions being separated using a zero-mean constraint. At last, an independent estimation of DCBs is performed using Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observations (such as JASON's GPS data). This solution is compared with our ground network solution and with DCBs coming from Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service providing ionospheric and DCB solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailGood prognosis factors after a platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection for tendinopathies ?
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Sancerne, Audrey; Libertiaux, Vincent ULg

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2016, April), 52(suppl. 1 No. 2), 251

Introduction : Platelet-rich plasma injections are a recent treatment for chronic tendinopathies. However, this theraeutic remains controversed in litterature. Up to now, there is no prognosis factors ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Platelet-rich plasma injections are a recent treatment for chronic tendinopathies. However, this theraeutic remains controversed in litterature. Up to now, there is no prognosis factors identified to predict a good evolution after injection of PRP. Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of PRP injection followed by a standardized reeducation protocol among patients suffering from different tendinopathies and to determine the good prognosis factors, if any. Methods : 51 patients suffering from different tendinopathies and refractory to conventional physiotherapy were treated with a PRP injection. Prior to the injection, a blood sample was drawn and some biological parameters (glycemia, cholesterol level, …). A pain assessment was then made using a visual analog scale (VAS) and a pressure algometer. The same assessment was carried out after 6 weeks and 12 weeks when possible. Results : There is an overall significant improvement VAS score at the end of the 12 weeks follow- up. However, no correlation was found between the evolution of the clinical scores and the biological parameters measured. Discussion and Conclusions : A PRP injection followed by a program of eccentric rehabilitation positively affects the algo-functional scores of patients with tendinopathie who were refractory to conventional physiotherapy, whatever their initial biological parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration of platelet-rich plasma to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; CROISIER, Jean-Louis ULg; FORTHOMME, Bénédicte ULg et al

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2016, April), 54(Suppl. 1 No. 2), 199

Intorduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to ... [more ▼]

Intorduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of 2 or 3 successive infiltrations. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2 infiltrations of PRP proves more effective than a single treatment. Methods: Twenty patients suffering from chronic jumper’s knee were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups (1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. Results: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The comparison between 1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knees is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. A second infiltration should perhaps be envisaged later, but this remains to be demonstrated. [less ▲]

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