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See detailDifferentiation of swidden agriculture in Northeast Cambodia: Kavet swiddeners, the state and the markets in Kok Lak commune
You, Rithy; Kleinpeter, Vivien; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This ... [more ▼]

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This present study aims to trace the historical transformation of land use and tenure practices by Kavet communities in Kok Lak commune in the context of various state-driven and social-economic transformations. At commune level, we look at land use changes along with the migrations associated with these transformations. We also aim to understand how these changes have induced social differentiation between households as it relates to their entitlements, their production activities and their income structure. We examine the transformation in land use prompted by a multiplicity of drivers (demographic, economic, political, institutional and cultural) and in land tenure regimes through a land control matrix that differentiates between two types of rights (the land rights of the users and the rights to manage those rights given to the users). We discovered that the Kavet people have been resilient in protecting and promoting the core of their swidden territories and traditions; however, recent developments (including the establishment of the Virachey National Park (VNP) and market incentives) have considerably fragmented their land uses, cultural values and institutions. Through forced and free migration, some households have adopted new forms of agriculture (e.g. paddy, and annual and perennial non-rice crops) and converted their swidden land into cashew plantations, while others still rely solely on the practice of swidden agriculture as a lifestyle. By reviewing past transformations, by identifying the role swidden agriculture has had and the contribution it has made to the lives of the Kavet people, we recommend that efforts be made to conserve it in recognition of the pivotal role it plays in community development and to adopt better land use planning at local level. But proper consideration should also be given to the Kavet people who do not practice swidden agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailPathways of change in a coastal resource system: Study from Kampong Trach district, Kampot province
Voe, Pisidh; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp ... [more ▼]

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp farming, sand mining, and trade, to name just the most significant. Against this background, this study analyzes pathways of change over the past 15 years in coastal resource systems in two neighboring communities in the Kampong Trach district of Kampot province. The analysis proceeds on two different levels. We first look at change in respect of the cross-scale multiple drivers in the resource system at village level and its effects on the social and ecological components of the marine, intertidal and agricultural areas of the coastal zone. Then, at household level, we examine the diversity of adaptation measures adopted to deal with these changes, and evaluate their impacts on livelihoods. We argue that the degradation of fisheries resources in marine and intertidal zones results from drivers that originate outside and inside the communities, but mostly stems from problems of governance. Despite tangible improvements in rain-fed rice yield, the development of the farming sector is constrained by limited capacity to diversify and intensify production. The adaptation paths to this resources degradation squeeze are multiple. The few households who can afford to enhance or intensify their farming and fishing efforts usually manage to improve their food security status. But in a majority of cases, the adaptation works through a move away from the land and the sea, either through self-employed non-farm and non-fishing activities (local business associated with cross-border trade with Vietnam) or through wage labor. Self-employed activities and demand more capital but represent the main path of improvement in these communities. Wage labor - particularly associated with migration - has become widespread but its potential to improve food security is very limited. Accessing credit and going into debt is another significant way in which people have attempted to adapt either to address chronic food insecurity or to maintain the same level of productivity.The increase of mobility is a central element in adaptation strategy adopted by many who have been affected. This includes: mobility of labor (non-farm, wage and migration); the mobility of capital (e.g. conversion from marine zone fishing to trade); and mobility of landownership (occurring through market-based land concentration). However, we suggest that these processes of adaptation have actually reinforced the wealth disparity that exists between households. It has particularly exacerbated the vulnerability of those who are most dependent on small-scale fisheries. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning towards resilience
Jones, Ronald; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailOsteoporosis in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a focus on fracture outcome
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Endocrine (2015), 48(1), 65-68

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of ... [more ▼]

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms among older adults because of their presumed favorable adverse effect profile. However, they could have deleterious effects on the bone. Evidence from longitudinal, crosssectional, and prospective cohort studies suggests that the use of antidepressants at therapeutic doses is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The association between SSRIs use and fracture risk could potentially differ depending on dose, exposure duration, time of exposure, age, or sex. However, the risk of fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use of SSRIs. The evidence now seems sufficient to consider adding SSRIs to the list of medications that contribute to osteoporosis. In practice, assessment of risk factor for osteoporosis or fractures could be made taking into account age, gender, duration, and severity of depression, length of SSRI treatments, and other concurrent risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of cobalt and copper speciation in metalliferous soils from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Houben, David et al

in Journal of Geochemical Exploration (2015), 149

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See detailMonte Carlo Simulations of Autorotative Dynamics of a Simple Tower Crane Model
Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wind Engineering (2015)

The increasing number of crane accidents recorded over the last years might be understood as a need for progress on crane modeling. The induced risk of self-excited vibrations has already been ... [more ▼]

The increasing number of crane accidents recorded over the last years might be understood as a need for progress on crane modeling. The induced risk of self-excited vibrations has already been investigated through numerous experiments. This work presents a simple numerical model of a crane in a turbulent wind field, in order to support the available experimental approaches. First, the problem is defined with the necessary assumptions of the model. Second, the equation of motion is developed and wind characteristics are detailed. This equation presents several specificities requiring dedicated resolution methods. In a first analysis, the crane model is simplified in order to approach the behavior of the parametric pendulum and enable a general comparison of both responses. Indeed, the parametric pendulum is a well-known problem that is already widely described in the literature. In a second step, the response of the crane is studied under a realistic stochastic wind load with the full model. [less ▲]

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See detailLa préservation du bois
Jourez, Benoît ULg

Learning material (2015)

En Belgique, la préservation du bois est un domaine très organisé, suivi et contrôlé, dans lequel il n’y a pas de place pour l’amateurisme, et son importance est à la hauteur des enjeux. Alternative ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, la préservation du bois est un domaine très organisé, suivi et contrôlé, dans lequel il n’y a pas de place pour l’amateurisme, et son importance est à la hauteur des enjeux. Alternative écologiquement intéressante qui rencontre les attentes des citoyens, le bois convient dans un très grand nombre de situations. Compte tenu de la durabilité naturelle des divers essences potentiellement utilisables, sa mise en œuvre nécessite néanmoins des précautions afin d’assurer une certaine longévité des édifices et la sécurité des personnes. Lorsque la durabilité naturelle d’une essence est insuffisante pour une classe d’emploi, le concepteur d’un ouvrage a la possibilité de choisir une autre essence dont la durabilité naturelle supérieure permettra de faire face aux risques d’altérations biologiques rencontrés dans cette classe. Il peut aussi décider d’appliquer un traitement de préservation approprié pour conférer au bois une durabilité suffisante. Préserver le bois signifie qu'il faut définitivement le rendre insensible aux attaques biologiques dans l'ensemble du volume où elles peuvent se développer (zone vulnérable). Sachant que ce volume vulnérable s'accroît parallèlement à l'intensité du risque, il faut encore pouvoir y incorporer, à la profondeur requise, (exigences de pénétration) un produit adapté et efficace, en quantité suffisante (exigences de rétention) compte tenu de l’imprégnabilité de l’essence. En fonction de la classe d’emploi dans laquelle le bois sera mis en œuvre, les normes définissent les exigences minimales que doivent rencontrer les produits de préservation vis-à-vis des agents de dégradation biologique. Le choix d’une essence, d’un produit et d’un procédé de traitement adapté à la classe d’emploi, compte tenu des exigences de pénétration et de rétention, assure l’efficacité dans le temps du traitement de préservation. Ces dernières années, une alternative intéressante a vu le jour pour permettre à des essences non ou moins durables d’être mises en œuvre dans des emplois pour lesquels elles ne font pas preuve d’une durabilité suffisante. Elle consiste à appliquer un traitement physique ou chimique (sans recourir aux biocides) en vue d’en modifier certaines substances constitutives qui la rend inappétante pour les agents biologiques de dégradation : on parle alors, non pas de préservation, mais bien de modification du bois. Cet aspect du traitement du bois ne sera pas développé dans ce document. Les traitements de préservation visent prioritairement une protection préventive du bois à laquelle on peut adjoindre également les traitements curatifs destinés à combattre les attaques biologiques installées. Pour ces dernières, les solutions de traitements sont plus concentrées en biocides. Ces deux types de traitement ne doivent en aucun cas être confondus avec les traitements de finition qui visent à assurer une protection physique et esthétique de la surface du bois sans apport significatif de biocides. Les informations reprises dans ce document visent à donner un aperçu global du domaine de la préservation du bois en Europe et plus spécifiquement en Belgique. Elles éclairent sur la philosophie et la stratégie générale suivies dans cette activité industrielle. Néanmoins les données, les progrès, les découvertes évoluent sans cesse et de ce fait, la réglementation doit s’adapter en permanence. Aussi, il est recommandé de toujours se référer aux documents officiels actualisés pour éviter tout malentendu. [less ▲]

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See detailJeunesse, territorialité et postcolonialisme
Collin, Jonathan ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2015)

Cette séance propose de questionner les théories postcoloniales dans le champ des études en sciences sociales sous l'angle de la jeunesse et de la territorialité dans les anciennes métropoles, en ... [more ▼]

Cette séance propose de questionner les théories postcoloniales dans le champ des études en sciences sociales sous l'angle de la jeunesse et de la territorialité dans les anciennes métropoles, en particulier dans le contexte français des banlieues ou cités. Nous aborderons les écrits de deux sociologues – Mohammed et Lapeyronnie – ayant mobilisé, dans leurs analyses, des perspectives et outils redevables des études postcoloniales pour rendre intelligibles les pratiques de jeunes vivant dans ces espaces urbains ainsi que les politiques publiques qui leur sont spécifiquement appliquées. A côté de ces travaux, il nous a semblé intéressant de revenir à un auteur plus strictement "postcolonial" dont le questionnement porte explicitement sur le rapport entre ville et postcolonialisme. Pour ce faire, nous ferons appel lors de cette séance à Jane M. Jacobs. Textes : Lecture principale : - Jacobs Jane M., 1996, "Eastern Trading. Diasporas, Dwelling and Place", in Edge of Empire: Postcolonialism and the City, Routledge, London and New York, p.70-102. Lectures complémentaires : - Mohammed Marwan, 2011, « Des bandes de ‘blousons noirs’ aux Noirs en blousons ? » (Chapitre 5), in La formation des bandes, PUF, Le Lien Social, Paris, p.289-323. - Lapeyronnie Didier, 2005, « La banlieue comme théâtre colonial, ou la fracture coloniale dans les quartiers », in Bancel et al., La fracture coloniale, La Découverte, Cahiers libres, p.209-218. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-Walled Metal–Organic Nanotube Built from a Simple Synthon
Adarsh, Nayarassery; Dirtu, Marinela; Naik, Anil et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2015), 21

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See detailKnowledge of the concept Light Rail Transit: Exploring its relevance and identification of the determinants of various knowledge levels
Creemers, Lieve; Tormans, Hans; Bellemans, Tom et al

in Transportation Research. Part A : Policy & Practice (2015), 74

This paper explores the knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ (LRT) in the context of implementing a Light Rail system in a (sub)-urban region. To this end, three models are estimated: a first ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ (LRT) in the context of implementing a Light Rail system in a (sub)-urban region. To this end, three models are estimated: a first model to explore the role of knowledge on modal choice, a second one to identify the determinants of the level of knowledge and a third model to identify the determinants of a cognitive mismatch between actual (real) knowledge and perceived knowledge. The first model (a negative binomial regression model) underlines the significant relation between knowledge of the concept LRT and modal choice. Given the lack of knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ revealed by the descriptive results, it is of crucial importance to raise the level of knowledge. Knowledge acquisition can be based on transit experiences and information provision. To explore how information campaigns should be constructed and which target groups should be approached, the factors influencing travelers’ knowledge and the determinants of a cognitive mismatch are identified by a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL-model) and a binary logit model. The results show that various socio-economic variables as well as socio-psychological variables are significantly influencing actual knowledge and significantly influencing a cognitive mismatch. Among these variables, employment, gender, perception of ticket price of Public Transit (PT) and expectations with regard to seat availability in the LRT-vehicle are the most influential ones. [less ▲]

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See detailNew data on the recent history of the littoral forests of southern Cameroon: an insight into the role of historical human disturbances on the current forest composition
Biwolé, Achille ULg; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2015), 148(1), 19-28

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they ... [more ▼]

Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central Africa, forest canopy is dominated by long-lived lightdemanding tree species, suggesting a possible role of human disturbance. The aim of this study was to bring new insights into the possible effect of historical human disturbances in terms of timing and spatial extent on the current forest composition. Location – Wet evergreen littoral forest in south-western Cameroon. Methods and key results – A combined vegetation sampling and archaeobotanical survey were conducted. Potsherds, oil-palm endocarps, and charcoal were found throughout the study area, suggesting generalised human occupation and anthropogenic fire. Human occupancy occurred in two periods: between 2200 and 1500 BP, and, more recently, beginning three centuries ago. High frequency of fire and the presence of Elaeis guineensis both dated recently (between 260 and 145 BP) suggest slash-and-burn shifting cultivation practices. These human-induced disturbances may coincide with the age of the current emergent lightdemanding species, the age of which can be estimated around 200 years, or with the phases of drying climate recorded in the Central African forest in the early 18th century. Conclusions – These results support the idea that historical human disturbances are one of the major factors that shaped the current forest composition in Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Normative Force of Perceptual Justification
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Breyer, Thiemo; Doyon, Maxime (Eds.) Normativity in Perception. Phenomenological, Analytical, and Psychopathological Perspectives (2015)

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See detailSequential testing of k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests
Wenchao, Wei; Coolen, Kris ULg; Talla Nobibon, Fabrice et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the ... [more ▼]

A k-out-of-n system configuration requires that, for the overall system to be functional, at least k out of the total of n components be working. We consider the problem of sequentially testing the components of a k-out-of-n system in order to learn the state of the system, when the tests are costly and when the individual component tests are imperfect, which means that a test can identify a component as working when in reality it is down, and vice versa. Each component is tested at most once. Since tests are imperfect, even when all components are tested the state of the system is not necessarily known with certainty, and so reaching a lower bound on the probability of correctness of the system state is used as a stopping criterion for the inspection. We define different classes of inspection policies and we examine global optimality of each of the classes. We find that a globally optimal policy for diagnosing k-out-of-n systems with imperfect tests can be found in polynomial time when the predictive error probabilities are the same for all the components. Of the three policy classes studied, the dominant policies always contain a global optimum, while elementary policies are compact in representation. The newly introduced class of so-called `interrupted block-walking' policies combines these merits of global optimality and of compactness. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgebrability and nowhere Gevrey differentiability
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Conejero, J. Alberto; Esser, Céline ULg et al

in Israel Journal of Mathematics (2015), 205

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and ... [more ▼]

We show that there exist c-generated algebras (and dense in C^infty([0,1])) every nonzero element of which is a nowhere Gevrey diff erentiable function. This leads to results of dense algebrability (and, therefore, lineability) of functions enjoying this property. In the process of proving these results we also provide a new construction of nowhere Gevrey di fferentiable functions. [less ▲]

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See detailVII.15 Cahier de texte et reliure [manuscrit arabe MRAH I.S. 5007]
Franssen, Elise ULg

in van Raemdonck, Mieke (Ed.) En Harmonie. Art du monde islamique aux Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire de Bruxelles (2015)

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See detailSome considerations concerning the artificially colored aquarium fish trade
Eşanu, Valentin O.; Gavriloaie, Claudiu; Oroian, Ioan G. et al

in Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation (2015), 8(1), 116-121

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish ... [more ▼]

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish as a phenotypically uniform line, strain or breed; a standardized color, shape and size describe better a fish population and thus it is promoted better on the market. Several varieties of fish are being artificially colored to improve marketability. Painted, dyed or tattooed fish are terms for a new variety of pet fish whose scales have been transformed from monochrome silver into vivid pigmentations using artificial colors or lasers. These practices produce many health problems for fish. We should not to put money above the life and welfare of any living thing. Education of the customers is a very important thing, because artificially colored fish continue to exist because of demand. [less ▲]

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