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See detailRefractive and diffractive contribution of linear chromatic aberration (LCA) on depth-of-focus with trifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs)
Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Gatinel, Damien

Poster (2016, September)

Purpose: To investigate the refractive and diffractive contribution of LCA on depth of focus extension of trifocal IOLs in polychromatic light conditions Setting: University of Liège, Belgium; Fondation ... [more ▼]

Purpose: To investigate the refractive and diffractive contribution of LCA on depth of focus extension of trifocal IOLs in polychromatic light conditions Setting: University of Liège, Belgium; Fondation Ophtalmologique A. de Rothschild, Paris Methods: The LCAs associated with the three focal points of hydrophobic and hydrophilic diffractive FineVision trifocal IOLs (PhysIOL SA, Liège, Belgium), were simulated in an Arizona eye model and experimentally measured on an optical bench at 480, 546 and 650 nm. The effect of Abbe number and aperture on different IOL materials was also evaluated. Based on wavelength–dependent MTF through-focus curves and PSF properties, polychromatic behavior of the trifocal IOLs was assessed under mesopic and photopic conditions. Results: LCA amplitude and sign were different for each of the trifocal IOL focal points. The diffractive LCA for near and intermediate was independent of IOL material (GFree versus hydrophilic acrylic, 26%), while far vision LCA appeared to be controlled by the material Abbe number. Under polychromatic conditions, the LCA contributed to depth of focus extension with different types of lens material, providing maximal visual acuity under white light conditions at all distances. Conclusions: Diffractive trifocal IOLs show chromatic aberrations with an increase in depth of focus under polychromatic light. This effect likely contributes to the extended range of vision. [less ▲]

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See detailClinically relevant optical properties of three types of intraocular lenses
Gatinel, Damien; Loicq, Jerôme ULg

Conference (2016, September)

Purpose: To experimentally compare the optical performance of three types of hydrophobic intraocular lenses (IOLs): extended depth of focus (TECNIS Symfony), bifocal (TECNIS ZMB00), and trifocal ... [more ▼]

Purpose: To experimentally compare the optical performance of three types of hydrophobic intraocular lenses (IOLs): extended depth of focus (TECNIS Symfony), bifocal (TECNIS ZMB00), and trifocal (FineVision GFree). Setting: Rothschild Foundation Paris, France - Liege Space Center Liège, Belgique Methods: Surface topography was analyzed by optical microscopy. Modulation transfer function (MTF) and spherical aberrations were determined on optical bench for variable pupil apertures and with two cornea models (0 µm and +0.28 µm). United States Air Force target imaging was analyzed for different focal points (near, intermediate, and far). Point spread function (PSF) and halos were quantified and compared. Results: All lenses presented step-like optic topography. For a pupil size of = 3 mm, distinctive MTF peaks were observed for all lenses: two peaks for the extended depth of focus and bifocal lenses with +1.75 and +4.00 diopters (D) addition, respectively, and three peaks for the trifocal lens with +1.75 and +3.50 addition for intermediate and near vision, respectively. The extended depth of focus and bifocal lens had slightly higher MTF at best focus with the +0.28 µm cornea model than with the 0 µm model, whereas the trifocal lens was likely to be more independent of the corneal spherical aberrations. Conclusions: Each lens appears to rely on light diffraction for optical performance, presenting halos with comparable intensities. For small pupil apertures, the MTF peaks for the far and intermediate focal distances of the trifocal and extended depth of focus lenses overlap, but the trifocal lens presented an additional MTF peak for the near focal points. [less ▲]

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See detailTraduction inter-culturelle et validation du Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) en français
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Bornheim, Stephen ULg; Remy, Gaël et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS (2016, September)

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes de genou les plus répandus qui se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans des activités mettant en charge l'articulation ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes de genou les plus répandus qui se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans des activités mettant en charge l'articulation fémoro-patellaire. Le Kuala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (Kujala AKPS) est un questionnaire utilisé pour évaluer les symptômes subjectifs, tels que les limitations fonctionnelles et la douleur antérieure du genou. Le questionnaire a déjà été traduit et validé en portugais brésilien, en persan, en chinois, en turque, et en néerlandais. Le but de cette étude est de traduire ce questionnaire en français afin d'en évaluer sa fiabilité et sa validité. Matériel et méthode : La traduction et l’adaptation interculturelle du questionnaire a été adaptée selon les recommandations internationales qui se présentent en 6 étapes : traduction initiale, synthèse des traductions, traduction de retour vers la langue d’origine, comité d'experts, test de la version pré-finale et approbation du comité experts. Une fois la version française obtenue, les participants (n=101) ont remplis 2 fois le Kujula AKPS avec un intervalle de 7 jours, et le Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) afin d'en évaluer les propriétés psychométriques (la cohérence interne, la fidélité test-retest et la validité de construit). Résultats : Le Kujula AKPS montre une fidélité test-retest élevée pour le score total (ICC 0,97). La traduction française possède une cohérence interne élevée (0,87). Le Kujula AKPS possède une corrélation forte avec une partie des sous-échelles convergentes du SF-36 (PF, RP et BP). Il y a une corrélation faible ou modérée avec les sous-échelles divergentes du SF-36 (MH, SF et VT). Il n’y a pas d’effet plancher et plafond. Conclusion : La version française du questionnaire Kujula AKPS étant compréhensible, semble avoir une bonne adaptation interculturelle. Cette étude a démontré que le Kujula AKPS-F est fiable et valide pour les patients francophones souffrant d'un syndrome rotulien. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact d’une réathlétisation précoce sur les performances des sportifs opérés d’une rupture du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou
Duval, Thomas; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LEHANCE, Cédric ULg et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS (2016, September)

Introduction : La reconstruction du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou est une chirurgie lourde qui est suivie d’une longue période de rééducation. Le retour au sport après cette opération reste ... [more ▼]

Introduction : La reconstruction du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou est une chirurgie lourde qui est suivie d’une longue période de rééducation. Le retour au sport après cette opération reste toutefois un défi. Plus d’un tiers des athlètes est incapable de reprendre son activité au même niveau. La peur de subir un nouvel accident reste un obstacle majeur à cette reprise sportive et la persistance de déficits fonctionnels est la première cause de récidives de déchirure ligamentaire. Matériels et méthodes : Notre échantillon comprend dix sujets, cinq dans le groupe bénéficiant d’une réathlétisation précoce et cinq dans le groupe témoin. Le premier groupe réalise une séance de réathlétisation précoce hebdomadaire (à raison d’une fois par semaine et ce, durant six mois) associée à la rééducation en kinésithérapie durant une durée de six mois. Le deuxième groupe bénéficie uniquement de séances de kinésithérapie classique respectant un protocole bien défini du CHU de Liège. Nous avons choisi de réaliser, en pré-opératoire, dans les deux groupes, un test isocinétique. En post-opératoire (après six mois), les sujets des deux groupes ont réalisé dans l’ordre suivant : un test isocinétique, un questionnaire de KOOS et enfin des tests fonctionnels (Hop test). Les séances de réathlétisation et de kinésithérapie sont suivies selon un protocole spécifique respectant l’individualisation propre à chaque patient. Résultats : L’analyse des tests isocinétiques et du questionnaire de KOOS, nous a permis de constater des différences entre les deux groupes au niveau des valeurs chiffrées mais qui ne sont cependant pas significatives (P level= 0,07). Par contre, l’analyse des résultats obtenus dans les tests fonctionnels (tests de sauts en longueur évaluant la performance en distance) a montré des différences significatives (P level= 0,04 pour le single hop et le triple hop test, P level= 0,02 pour le cross over hop test) entre les deux groupes et celles-ci sont au bénéfice du groupe ayant bénéficié d’une réathlétisation précoce. Conclusion : Dans cette étude, nous constatons une amélioration globale des performances en faveur du groupe ayant bénéficié d’une réathlétisation précoce. Cependant lors de l’analyse statistique et ce surtout concernant dans le test isocinétique, peu d’éléments évoluent de manière significative voir aucun pour le questionnaire de KOOS. Le faible échantillonnage de cette étude préliminaire intervient certainement dans ce constat. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeted mutagenesis of orphan GPCRs of the SREB family
Laschet, Céline ULg; Dupuis, Nadine ULg; Soni, Arvind ULg et al

Poster (2016, September)

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See detailLa Cour pénale internationale et les entorses aux droits essentiels des personnes privées de liberté
Deprez, Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Ce texte propose un bref aperçu des faiblesses de la pratique de la Cour pénale internationale en matière de privation de liberté.

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See detailMacro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry
Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (2016), First online

Introduction: Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry and its ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry and its underlying business model. Despite significant articles in the press, there is little medical and economic evidence on the rationale driving the transformation from the traditional Research & Development (R&D) model to new alternative business models, such as Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A). The purpose of this review is to understand the macro-economic factors responsible for the revolution of the pharmaceutical business model, by understanding the needs, desires, new behavioral patterns, but also challenges within the industry. Considering these changes will be the key to possessing a competitive advantage over the market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on new macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature and media sources show that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration in their business model, with more M&A deals and collaborations headlining the papers. Although Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant) pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements such as Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion [1] showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of virulotypes and serotypes of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and Shigatoxigenic (STEC) Escherichia coli from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia.
Takaki, Shino; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg; Fakih, Ibrahim et al

Poster (2016, September)

Escherichia coli producing the attachment-effacement (AE) lesion (EPEC) and/or Shiga toxins (STEC) cause enteritis and (bloody) diarrhoea in young calves and in humans, and are also present in the ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli producing the attachment-effacement (AE) lesion (EPEC) and/or Shiga toxins (STEC) cause enteritis and (bloody) diarrhoea in young calves and in humans, and are also present in the intestines of healthy cattle. Besides the O157:H7 serotype, which is the main serotype causing STEC outbreaks in the world EPEC and STEC can belong to dozens of O serogroups. Of them, 9 have been frequently identified worldwide: O5, O26, O103, O104, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O165. The aim of this study is to identify the virulotypes and the O serotypes of EPEC and STEC isolated from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia. A total of 245 faeces (216 <1year-old bulls, 25 cows and 4 heifers) were sampled between April and June 2014 in 2 slaughterhouses in Wallonia and grown overnight at 37°C in Lauryl sulfate Enterobacteriaceae selective broth. The enrichment broths were assayed with an stx1, stx2 (Shiga toxin) and eae (AE lesion) triplex PCR and positive broths were inoculated onto 4 agar media: McConkey’s, Chromagar ES, Chromagar ES with tellurite and Chromagar STEC. Up to ten colonies per plate were picked up, sub-cultured and tested by the colony hybridization assay with gene probes targeting the stx1, stx2 and eae genes. The triplex PCR was again performed on all probe-positive isolates. The PCR-positive E. coli were subsequently assayed with two pentaplex PCR targeting the specific genes coding for the ten O serogroups listed above. Of the 2563 sub-cultured isolates, 744 isolates (29%) from 62 animals (25%) tested positive with the colony hybridization assay. Of them, 687 isolates (92%) from 59 animals were positive with the triplex PCR and the results of both tests were in agreement for 617 isolates (83%). One to 29 isolates per animal were probe- and PCR-positive. The positive isolates grew on Chromagar STEC (379; 55%), on Chromagar ES with tellurite (189; 28%), on Chromagar ES (62; 9%) or on McConkey’s agar (57; 8%). The most frequent virulotypes were eae+ (EPEC: 372 isolates; 54%), eae+stx1+ (AE_STEC: 119 isolates; 17%) and stx2+ (STEC: 118 isolates; 17%). In some animals different virulotypes were identified. The serogrouping with the two pentaplex PCR is in progress. AE-STEC, EPEC and STEC are excreted by 25% of the healthy cattle at slaughterhouses in Wallonia and different virulotypes can be excreted by the same animal. Conversely the methodology followed gives no precise idea of the actual level of excretion since the hybridization and PCR were performed after enrichment in selective broth. Therefore multiple isolates belonging to the same virulotype might represent the same clone. Identification of the serogroups and comparison by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis should help to clarify that point. Quantitative (q)PCR is today the best method to quantify bacterial excretion, but is more expensive. The results of the hybridization and PCR correspond to between 80 and 90%. Though the colony hybridization is still useful for large-scale surveillance it needs radioactive probes for highest sensitivity and is more time-consuming than PCR. Therefore the PCR should be the first routine choice if it can be automatized at large scale. Further steps are the confirmation of the PCR results of the 70 isolates with different hybridization and PCR results and the identification of the serogroups with the two pentaplex PCR and later with PCR for the other serogroups, to compare them with isolates from young diarrhoeic calves and from humans. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit international humanitaire
Collienne, Fleur ULg; Wittorski, Isaline ULg; Deprez, Christophe ULg et al

Learning material (2016)

Ces notes de cours provisoires, initialement coordonnées par Fleur Collienne et Isaline Wittorski, sont destinées à servir de support au cours de droit international humanitaire dispensé à la Faculté de ... [more ▼]

Ces notes de cours provisoires, initialement coordonnées par Fleur Collienne et Isaline Wittorski, sont destinées à servir de support au cours de droit international humanitaire dispensé à la Faculté de droit, de science politique et de criminologie de l'Université de Liège (année académique 2016-2017). [less ▲]

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See detailEtat de la contraception en 2016
Manigart, Yannick; BELIARD, Aude ULg; Rozenberg, Serge et al

in Revue Médicale de Bruxelles (2016), 37

Introduction: The Pill and and other forms of hormonal contraception, if taken correctly, are very effective and safe for millions of women, but since a few years, due to debates and controversies about ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The Pill and and other forms of hormonal contraception, if taken correctly, are very effective and safe for millions of women, but since a few years, due to debates and controversies about third- and fourth-generation pills, other options have gained in popularity. Objectives: to provide a review of oestroprogestative contraception (OP), progestative contraception, IUDs with a focus on their advantages and side-effects according to the specific needs of women.Methods: Literature review and lessons learned from clinical practice.Results: the importance of family and individual history, the life-style and socio-economic conditions are critical factors for advising women of the 15 contraceptive choices available to them. The risk/benefit ratio of OP contraception needs a yearly follow-up. The progestative contraception is the preferred option for women who have contraindication for estrogen, are older than forty, and/or have risk factors such as a history of venous thromboembolism, overweight and smoking. The IUD is well tolerated and causes few side effects. Among the other contraceptive methods, sterilization and diaphragms are briefly discussed. Conclusions: Among the many safe and effective contraceptive methods, it is important for general practitioners to know the advantages and the side effects of each method, as well as the specific conditions of the woman, to propose the best options available. In case of difficulties of follow up or adherence to daily uptake, in particular among adolescents, long-acting methods such as IUD or implants are preferable. [less ▲]

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See detailLe décentrage du pouvoir mondial
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Zacharie, Arnaud (Ed.) La nouvelle géographie du développement (2016)

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See detailSemantic Integration by Pattern Priming: Experiment and Cortical Network Model
Lavigne, Frédéric; Longrée, Dominique ULg; Mellet, Sylvie et al

in Cognitive Neurodynamics (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11571-016-9410-4

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See detailAge-related differences in the dynamics of cortical excitability and cognitive inhibition during prolongedwakefulness
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Chelllappa, S.; Ly, J. et al

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailCompte rendu de l’atelier « Entretiens de stages »
Francois, Nathalie ULg; Simons, Germain ULg; Van Hoof, Florence ULg

in Didactiques en Pratique (2016, September), 2

Cet article présente le compte rendu d'un atelier portant sur les entretiens de stages dans l'enseignement. Lors de l'atelier, les participants étaient invités à analyser des extraits d'entretiens entre ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente le compte rendu d'un atelier portant sur les entretiens de stages dans l'enseignement. Lors de l'atelier, les participants étaient invités à analyser des extraits d'entretiens entre un futur enseignant, son maitre de stage et son formateur. La discussion collective a permis ensuite de mettre en exergue des éléments potentiellement porteurs et facilitateurs dans ces situations d'entretiens. [less ▲]

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See detailEngineering education at the heart of the Raw Materials Value Chain
Pirard, Eric ULg; Sonnemann, Guido

in Mazijn, Bernard (Ed.) Proceedings 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (2016, September)

EIT Raw Materials has the mission to reinforce Europe’s innovation capacity by preparing the entrepreneurs and innovators of tomorrow. By fully integrating the three sides of the knowledge triangle ... [more ▼]

EIT Raw Materials has the mission to reinforce Europe’s innovation capacity by preparing the entrepreneurs and innovators of tomorrow. By fully integrating the three sides of the knowledge triangle (education, research and industry), the EIT Raw Materials aims at boosting the innovation process: from idea to product; from lab to market and from student to entrepreneur. A key mission of the EIT Raw Materials is to educate young professionals and specifically engineers and scientists by breaking the barriers of classical disciplines. The so-called T-shaped professional will have a strong entrepreneurial mindset and combine an in depth knowledge of his own discipline with a sound understanding of the challenges appearing along the whole raw materials value chain, such as exploration, extraction and processing of primary resources, recycling of secondary resources and substitution of critical and toxic materials. It is essential that these T-shaped professionals understand their role within the value chain as actors of a more circular economy. Every educational activity organized under the umbrella of the EIT Raw Materials (RM) Academy will therefore make sure to involve all stakeholders of the raw materials value chain and to contribute to raising awareness with respect to the societal function of raw materials and the related supply and availability challenges. To achieve these missions and create a long lasting impact, the RM Academy aims to innovate in terms of teaching, which includes: • The promotion of problem-based learning, self organisation and learning by doing. • The offer of an open learning environment and a series of online courses. • Enabling a high degree of mobility of students and professionals. • Facilitating access to experimental platforms and pilot plants for hands-on training • Adopting a strong multidisciplinary approach (e.g. joint courses across sectors) • Thinking beyond boundaries and systematically exploring and generating new ideas • Transforming innovations into feasible business solutions • Joint curriculum development Critical reflection, peer review processes as well as assessments and collegial discussions under the roof of the EIT Raw Material Academy will be used for continuing quality development of the programs. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom resource to process efficiency. Educating a new generation of georesources engineers
Pirard, Eric ULg; Fiorentino, Rosalia ULg

in Mazijn, Bernard (Ed.) Proceedings 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (2016, September)

Even though the Circular Economy paradigm clearly puts the emphasis on recycling, it is essential to understand that we will still need for decades to explore and find resources in the earth crust. Mining ... [more ▼]

Even though the Circular Economy paradigm clearly puts the emphasis on recycling, it is essential to understand that we will still need for decades to explore and find resources in the earth crust. Mining is vital to feed the loop and make sure enough metals and minerals are made available to society. But, mining is also one of the most challenging industrial operations when it comes to sustainability objectives. A modern education in mineral resources engineering must build on a strong technical background but give students the opportunity to confront their knowledge with societal needs and responsibilities. The EMerald Erasmus Mundus Master program in Georesources Engineering was set up by four leading European universities with the clear objective to educate responsible professionals who will be actors of sustainable solutions. Therefore, the University of Lorraine, the Lulea Technical University, the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and the University of Liege (coordinator) designed a unique curriculum bridging the traditional gap between natural sciences and engineering, encompassing the valley too often separating the industrial operators from the stakeholders of a mining project. The program offers a unique blend of courses from geology to mineral processing with the aim to familiarize students with the most advanced tools for improving the efficiency of processes. Field trips and industrial visits are a key component of this program as are the non-technical seminars delivered by professionals (lawyers, entrepreneurs, NGO leaders, etc.). Evaluation is often based on written reports, documentary research and short oral presentations to make sure students acquire the indispensable soft skills for efficient communication on environmental and societal issues linked to the impact of extractive activities. Internships and hands-on practices on pilot platforms or laboratory equipments are absolutely essential to reach the highest standards and meet the objectives of the master program. This is costly and can only be maintained thanks to the strong presence of the participating universities in research programs. All four universities are core partners of the EIT Raw Materials knowledge innovation community. This gives an additional leveraging effect when it comes to the education of young entrepreneurs with a strong sustainability mindset. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-Molecule Force Spectroscopy on Synthetic Helical Nanoarchitectures
Devaux, Floriane ULg; Li, Xuesong; Huc, Ivan et al

Poster (2016, September)

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries in nature, chemists have been developing the syntheses of artificial folded molecular architectures, namely foldamers. The ... [more ▼]

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries in nature, chemists have been developing the syntheses of artificial folded molecular architectures, namely foldamers. The investigation of these molecules using AFM-based Single Molecule Force Spectrosocopy (SMFS) allows the elucidation of both mechanochemical properties and conformational dynamics on the unimolecular scale in solution. The stepwise synthesis of aromatic oligoamide-based foldamers was designed to produce well-defined helically-folded molecular architectures. A PEO tether was coupled to one end of the foldamer. SMFS pulling experiments on this system yielded specific and reproducible force-extension patterns characteristic of single foldamers. Those patterns were further analyzed to determine unfolding forces and dynamics as well as to propose mechanistics hypotheses of the unfolding process. Several helical foldamers presenting variable lengths were considered. The force values measured for those foldamers are higher than those previously measured in natural biopolymers showing a high stability under a load and a propensity for the development of emergent properties. In addition, the increased stability of these aromatic oligoamide foldamers was confirmed by the observation of almost instantaneous reversibility of the unfolding under load. [less ▲]

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See detailProperties of single fasteners - Ring shank nails
Mergny, Elke ULg; Sandhaas, Carmen

Conference (2016, September)

In Eurocode 5, nailed joints are designed using the Johansen model extended with the rope effect. The necessary input parameters are embedment strength fh, yield moment My and withdrawal capacity Fax. We ... [more ▼]

In Eurocode 5, nailed joints are designed using the Johansen model extended with the rope effect. The necessary input parameters are embedment strength fh, yield moment My and withdrawal capacity Fax. We can obtain these parameters by using empirical equations based on regression analysis. These equations are given by EC5, for smoothed nails. However, especially for ring shank nails, no consistent rules are given in the current version of Eurocode 5 and the values must be taken from technical documents of the single nails. The aim of this STSM was firstly to develop a database. It was based on 96 reports, mostly about ring shank nails tests, carried out for certification purposes, from 33 producers. Based on this extensive database, regression analyses have been carried out, especially the wire tension strength 𝑓𝑢, the yield moment 𝑀𝑦 and nail tension capacity 𝐹𝑡, all are direct nail proprieties. Potential benefits are more robust design models covering a large range of nails, reduced testing and simplified design equations. [less ▲]

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See detailMachteloos tegen de kamikazeregering 2 JAAR LINKSE OPPOSITIE
Verjans, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2016)

Balans van 2 jaar linkse oppositie in Franstalig België. De politieke puzzel is er een stuk complexer dan in Vlaanderen, met cdH en PS regionaal aan de macht, wat op haar beurt de linkse oppositie tegen ... [more ▼]

Balans van 2 jaar linkse oppositie in Franstalig België. De politieke puzzel is er een stuk complexer dan in Vlaanderen, met cdH en PS regionaal aan de macht, wat op haar beurt de linkse oppositie tegen de regering-Michel bemoeilijkt. Die oppositie voelt zich, bijna halfweg de legislatuur, erg machteloos tegen de zogenaamde kamikazeregering gedomineerd door drie Vlaamse partijen. [less ▲]

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See detailCes robots qui pourraient nous vouloir du mal...
Bouffioux, Michel; Ernst, Damien ULg

Article for general public (2016)

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