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See detailPromoter specific regulation of NF-kappaB by RelA phosphorylation on Ser547
Trussart, Charlotte; Orban, Tanguy; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 29)

NF-KB (p50/RelA) controls the expression of numerous genes involved in inflammation, survival, proliferation, and cancer initiation and progression. Both classical NF-kB activation by pro-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

NF-KB (p50/RelA) controls the expression of numerous genes involved in inflammation, survival, proliferation, and cancer initiation and progression. Both classical NF-kB activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines and ATM-dependant activation by DNA damage require IKK activation and IkBa degradation. Stimuli dependant phosphorylation of p65 controls its transcriptional potential often in a gene specific manner. Previously, we have reported a direct interaction between RelA and ATM, and, demonstrated the in vitro phosphorylation of Ser547 by this kinase. A comparative transcriptomic analysis performed in HEK cells expressing either p65WT or p65S547A identified several differentially transcribed genes after an etoposide treatment. Substitution of S547 to alanine does not affect p65 binding on the kB site of the modulated promoters but it reduces p65 interaction with HDAC1. The resulting enhanced histone H3 acetylation increases gene transcription at some specific promoters. Our data indicate that ATM regulates a sub-set of NF-kB dependent genes after a genotoxic stress by direct phosphorylation of p65. Presently, we are investigating the impact of p65S547A/D mutations after the addition of TNFa in Mefs p65 KO complemented with HA-p65WT or S547A/D. No differences are observed in the degradation of IkBb or the nuclear translocation of p50/p65. However both basal and TNFa-induced transcription levels of some kB dependent genes are elevated in Mefs expressing p65S547D. The role of ATM in NF-kB activation by TNFa is analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailA post-mortem study of physiopathological characteristics of genital tracts of culled dairy cows in South Vietnam.
Nguyen Kien, Cuong; Okouyi, Marcel; Hanzen, Christian ULg

Poster (2014, August 28)

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See detailL'odeur : question de sens ou de chimie
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

Scientific conference (2014, August 28)

Afin de mesurer au mieux un paramètre, il faut préalablement connaître son identité. Concernant la métrologie de la pollution olfactive, toute la difficulté réside dans la particularité de cette pollution ... [more ▼]

Afin de mesurer au mieux un paramètre, il faut préalablement connaître son identité. Concernant la métrologie de la pollution olfactive, toute la difficulté réside dans la particularité de cette pollution. En effet, bien qu’associée à la pollution de l’air par les molécules volatiles qui la génèrent, elle en diffère par son effet sensoriel. Il va de soi que la pollution olfactive n’a de sens que par son odeur. Chaque individu a son propre odorat et dès lors sa propre interprétation de l’odeur. C’est cette subjectivité qui rend cette pollution si délicate à qualifier et à quantifier et qui la distingue de la pollution de l’air. De plus, contrairement à d’autres pollutions sensorielles de type sonore ou visuel, l’élément porteur ’est pas dans ce cas une grandeur physique telle que la longueur d’onde électromagnétique ou la variation de pression mais une grandeur physico-chimique particulière dont la mesure est beaucoup plus complexe. Un dictionnaire de langue française définit l’odeur comme « une émanation volatile, caractéristique de certains corps et susceptible de provoquer chez l’homme ou chez un animal des sensations dues à l’excitation d’organes spécialisés ». Cette définition de l’odeur met notamment en jeu deux disciplines : la chimie et la physiologie. En effet un chimiste pourrait présenter l’odeur comme un ensemble de molécules aux propriétés spécifiques qui inhalées par un individu génère une réaction, il s’intéresserait dès lors aux odorants alors qu’un physiologiste parlerait plutôt du stimulus induit par ces odorants et des mécanismes qui le provoquent au niveau des organes. Le traitement de l’information olfactive par le cerveau, la perception olfactive, conduit à plusieurs types de sensation. En effet, l’odeur perçue a trois grandes particularités : l’intensité, la qualité (ou la nature de l’odeur) et la tonalité hédonique ou affective (agrément/désagrément). A ces trois dimensions, il faut ajouter le caractère temporel du stimulus, dimension très utilisée dans le cadre de la pollution olfactive. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian approach integrating correlated foreign information into a multivariate genetic evaluation
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Book of Abstracts of the 65th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2014, August 28)

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and ... [more ▼]

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and problem sizes. However, to our knowledge and especially for variance components estimations, most software available in animal breeding, based on sparse matrices computations, do not allow parallel computing and are limited by memory accessible by the central processing unit, or allow parallel computing only for options with dense matrices computations, which limits anyway problem sizes due to storage of dense matrices. The aim was to propose simple and effective modifications for the BLUPF90 family of programs to reduce computing time with consideration of required memory. Modifications were based on academic free packages proposing solver and sparse inversion for sparse symmetric indefinite linear systems. First, modifications concerned the sparse inversion subroutine implemented in the package FSPAK. Rearrangements of 'do' loops to allow optimizations of computer operations by some compilers and addition of OpenMP directives were performed. The ordering operation was modified to more easily compare a multiple minimum degree algorithm (MMD; implemented in FSPAK) and a multilevel nested dissection algorithm (implemented in METIS 4.0.3). Second, the package PARDISO Version 5.0.0 was used instead of FSPAK. This package proposes in particular a parallel solver and sparse inversion on shared-memory multiprocessors. Modified FSPAK and PARDISO were compared to original FSPAK using MMD through REMLF90. Different models, such as univariate or bivariate (random regressions) test-day animal and single-step genomic models, were tested. All jobs were run 5 times. With an appropriate ordering algorithm, speedup for each REMLF90 iteration were up to 7.5 for modified FSPAK and up to 22.8 for PARDISO with 2 threads. With 4 threads, speedup increased to 8.3 and 32.5, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of high performance computing in animal breeding
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Poster (2014, August 28)

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and ... [more ▼]

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and problem sizes. However, to our knowledge and especially for variance components estimations, most software available in animal breeding, based on sparse matrices computations, do not allow parallel computing and are limited by memory accessible by the central processing unit, or allow parallel computing only for options with dense matrices computations, which limits anyway problem sizes due to storage of dense matrices. The aim was to propose simple and effective modifications for the BLUPF90 family of programs to reduce computing time with consideration of required memory. Modifications were based on academic free packages proposing solver and sparse inversion for sparse symmetric indefinite linear systems. First, modifications concerned the sparse inversion subroutine implemented in the package FSPAK. Rearrangements of 'do' loops to allow optimizations of computer operations by some compilers and addition of OpenMP directives were performed. The ordering operation was modified to more easily compare a multiple minimum degree algorithm (MMD; implemented in FSPAK) and a multilevel nested dissection algorithm (implemented in METIS 4.0.3). Second, the package PARDISO Version 5.0.0 was used instead of FSPAK. This package proposes in particular a parallel solver and sparse inversion on shared-memory multiprocessors. Modified FSPAK and PARDISO were compared to original FSPAK using MMD through REMLF90. Different models, such as univariate or bivariate (random regressions) test-day animal and single-step genomic models, were tested. All jobs were run 5 times. With an appropriate ordering algorithm, speedup for each REMLF90 iteration were up to 7.5 for modified FSPAK and up to 22.8 for PARDISO with 2 threads. With 4 threads, speedup increased to 8.3 and 32.5, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative lactation stage specific prediction of CH4 from milk MIR spectra
Vanlierde, Amélie; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2014, August 28)

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See detailInteractions in massive binaries: spectral modelling – CoMBiSpeC – and observational analyses
Palate, Matthieu ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Massive stars are very important to the life of the galaxiesbut they are rare and many open questions on their formation, evolution and characteristics remain. One of the best ways to improve our ... [more ▼]

Massive stars are very important to the life of the galaxiesbut they are rare and many open questions on their formation, evolution and characteristics remain. One of the best ways to improve our knowledge on massive stars is to study massive binaries (that represent at least 50% of massive stars see Mahy et al. 2009, and Sana & Evans 2011) and their spectra. Spectral and atmosphere modelling of stars are very interesting tools that are now often used in spectral analyses. However, these models are designed for single spherical stars. In this context, we have developed a numerical code of spectral modelling of massive binary systems: CoMBiSpeC (code of massive binary spectral computation) that computes the spectra of massive binary systems and accounts for various effects that affect these systems. Our models, and the observational analyses of the four binary systems presented in the second part of this work, have allowed to explain several effects linked to binarity: luminosity class discrepancy, temperature distribution, Struve-Sahade effect, and some kind of line profile variations. In summary, CoMBiSpeC is a first step in the spectral modelling of massive binary systems and several improvements are still needed to be able to study all massive binaries. Nevertheless, this model can explain and reproduce various observed phenomena which was the main goal of this thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring consciousness in coma and related states
Di Perri, Carol; Thibaut, Aurore ULg; Soddu, Andrea ULg et al

in World Journal of Radiology (2014), 6(8),

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See detailIntroduction à la Théorie générale de l'Etat - Manuel (3e édition)
Behrendt, Christian ULg; Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

Book published by Larcier (2014)

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See detailNeutrophil contribution to spinal cord injury and repair
Neirinckx, Virginie ULg; Coste, Cécile ULg; Franzen, Rachelle ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroinflammation (2014), 11(1),

Spinal cord injuries remain a critical issue in experimental and clinical research nowadays, and it is now well accepted that the immune response and subsequent inflammatory reactions are of significant ... [more ▼]

Spinal cord injuries remain a critical issue in experimental and clinical research nowadays, and it is now well accepted that the immune response and subsequent inflammatory reactions are of significant importance in regulating the damage/repair balance after injury. The role of macrophages in such nervous system lesions now becomes clearer and their contribution in the wound healing process has been largely described in the last few years. Conversely, the contribution of neutrophils has traditionally been considered as detrimental and unfavorable to proper tissue regeneration, even if there are very few studies available on their precise impact in spinal cord lesions. Indeed, recent data show that neutrophils are required for promoting functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. In this review, we gathered recent evidence concerning the role of neutrophils in spinal cord injuries but also in some other neurological diseases, highlighting the need for further understanding the different mechanisms involved in spinal cord injury and repair. [less ▲]

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See detailGene Regulatory Network Inference via Conditional Inference Trees and Forests
Bessonov, Kyrylo ULg

Poster (2014, August 28)

Trees are classical data structures allowing effectively classifying and predicting responses. Due to versatility and high performance in classification and prediction, there exist plenty of tree-based ... [more ▼]

Trees are classical data structures allowing effectively classifying and predicting responses. Due to versatility and high performance in classification and prediction, there exist plenty of tree-based methods including popular Conditional Inference Tree (CIT) and Forests (CIF), Random Forests (RF), Randomized Trees (RT), randomized C4.5, etc. In this work we assessed the performance of CIT and CIF methods in correct gene regulatory network (GRN) prediction from expression data by using reference golden standard built from real transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli. The synthetic microarray expression data was obtained from DREAM4 challenge. The performance of each network inference method was assessed via Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) and Area Under Precision Recall (AUPR) metrics. Our preliminary results show that CIT and CIF successfully predict directed GRNs at acceptable performance rates although not optimal (the best AUROC at 0.68 and AUPR at 0.13 for CIF and the best AUROC at 0.58 and AUPR at 0.18 for CIT). Surprisingly by using the current aggregation scheme of feature importance that prefers features with the highest number of observations, a single CIT was a better performer compared to CIFs in all 5 networks. Nevertheless, the CIFs showed an overall 10% improvement in AUROC. A single CIT has 24% and CIFs have 27% lower overall performance compared to the best performer of DREAM4 Challenge based on cumulative areas of PR and ROC curves. We plan to test other feature importance aggregation techniques in a single tree and in tree ensembles in order to outperform the top DREAM4 algorithms. In addition the effects of expression data standardization to unit variance will be presented. In future, the developed CIF framework will be used to perform data integration analysis of multi-omics datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic de sites et méthode d’implantation de tours pour une insertion urbaine de qualité
Saint-Pierre, Claire ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The matter of towers construction in urban areas has been coming back among topical subjects, taking part in the questioning of sustainable urban development. While the debate still remains as regards ... [more ▼]

The matter of towers construction in urban areas has been coming back among topical subjects, taking part in the questioning of sustainable urban development. While the debate still remains as regards towers legitimacy, location choices are primarily driven by economic considerations (funding, real estate availability) and the issue of urban insertion is not always tackled at the right time. The decision-making process of tower construction is linear and takes into account some criteria relatively late even though if it was done earlier they could anticipate the impact of the tower on its urban environment. Using several comparative analysis (benchmarking), we identified the inherent criteria in this decision-making process. Their analysis and classification allowed us to highlight the preponderance of six criteria and the presence of significant interaction between them: the functionality, the shape, the movement, the public space, the environment and the townscape. The relations which exist between criteria reflect the complexity of the tower location process for which the most appropriate study approach seems to be the systemic. Between the multi-criteria analysis and the systemic approach, our implantation method of towers offers to consider these criteria at the very beginning of the project. Thus, it allows to draw up a list of indicators of urban integration which evaluation will indicate the quality of tower insertion in the urban environment. By considering upstream the identified criteria and also in a regular and diffuse way, the decision-making process of tower construction will be more efficient and effective to help finding the right location for a future tall building project. This implantation method is also designed to give rise discussions and reflections on the topics tackled, so that the dialogue between the actors turns towards a better location of towers in urban areas. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of meso-scale mechanical properties of poly-silicon materials
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 27)

The miniature sizes of micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS) as well as the nature of their manufacturing processes, such as etching, material layer deposition, or embossing, are responsible for the ... [more ▼]

The miniature sizes of micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS) as well as the nature of their manufacturing processes, such as etching, material layer deposition, or embossing, are responsible for the existence of a scatter in the final dimensions, material properties ... of manufactured micro–sensors. This scatter is potentially threatening the behavior and reliability of samples from a batch fabrication process, motivating the development of non-deterministic computational approaches to predict the MEMS properties. In this work we extract the meso-scale properties of the poly-silicon material under the form of a probabilistic distribution. To this end, Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) of the micro-structure are generated under the form of a Voronoï tessellation with a random orientation for each silicon grain. Hence, a Monte-Carlo procedure combined with a homogenization technique allows a distribution of the material tensor at the meso-scale to be estimated. As the finite element method is used to discretize the SVE and to solve the micro-scale boundary value problem, the homogenization technique used to extract the material tensor relies on the computational homogenization theory. In a future work, we will investigate, in the context of MEMS vibrometers, the propagation to the macro–scale of the meso-scale distribution of the homogenized elasticity tensor, with the final aim of predicting the uncertainty on their resonance frequencies. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotic resistance trend of Staphylococcus aureus isolated between 2010 and 2012 from mastitis cases in Azawak zebu in Niger
Issa Ibrahim, Abdoulkarim ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg; Bada-Alambedji, Rianatou et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research (2014), 8((35)), 3271-3275

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See detailIntérêt des cellules stromales mésenchymateuses en transplantation d’organes solides
Delens, Loic ULg; Jouret, François ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2014), 10

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological ... [more ▼]

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological and non-immunological injuries, whose severity impacts on early functional recovery and long-term survival of the transplant. Current research focuses on the identification of innovative approaches to 1) attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage, 2) accelerate processes of tissue repair, and 3) induce in fine graft tolerance. Encouraging observations from both preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that the administration of mesenchymal stromal cells at the time of SOT might be beneficial, as a result of theirs immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction à la Théorie générale de l'Etat - Recueil de textes
Behrendt, Christian ULg; Bouhon

Book published by Larcier (2014)

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See detailMatériaux du futur: ressources naturelles ou secondaires?
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2014, August 26)

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See detailUsing milk spectral data for large-scale phenotypes linked to mitigation and efficiency
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 26)

Even if producing milk efficiently has always been a major concern for producers, the direct environmental impact of their cows is becoming a novel one. Traits linked to this issue were identified as ... [more ▼]

Even if producing milk efficiently has always been a major concern for producers, the direct environmental impact of their cows is becoming a novel one. Traits linked to this issue were identified as methane emission (CH4), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed efficiency (FE); however they are available on a small scale. Researches showed that CH4 could be predicted from milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, allowing large-scale recording at low cost. The main objective of this study was to show, using a modelling approach, that DMI and FE could be derived from milk MIR spectra. For that, knowledge of body weight (BW) is required; however it was unknown in this study. Derived procedure was based on milk yield and composition, MIR CH4, and modelled standard animal requirements, allowing the prediction of expected BW. An external validation was conducted based on 91 actual records. 95% confidence limit for the difference ranged between -0.66 and 18.84 kg for BW, from -0.02 to 0.26 kg/day for DMI, and from -0.02 to 0.002 kg of fat corrected milk/kg DM for FE. Root mean square errors were 39.66 kg, 0.56 kg/d, and 0.03 kg/DM for the 3 studied traits. P-value for the t-test was not significant for BW and DMI. This suggests the possibility to obtain expected BW and therefore DMI from MIR spectra. Single trait animal test-day models used 1,291,850 records to assess the variability of studied traits. Significant variations were observed for the lactation stage, parity, genetics, and age. These findings were in agreement with the literature except for early lactation. This suggests in conclusion that the MIR information gave similar results for DMI and CH4 for the major part of lactation. The use of this novel method to predict expected BW offers new possibilities interesting for the development of genomic and genetic tools. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Silurian cryptospores from the subsurface of Saudi Arabia
Wellman, C.; Breuer, P.; Miller, M. et al

Conference (2014, August 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)