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See detailAntarctic cyanobacteria: from diversity to genomics
Wilmotte, Annick ULiege

Conference (2017, June 30)

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See detailSoil Acidification in Southern China: Spatio-temporal Evolution and Effects on Phosphorus Availability
Zhou, Xiaoyang ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Rapid industrial development and intensive agriculture induced serious soil degradation in recent decades worldwide and specifically in China. In cropland, soil acidification and nutrient deficiency are ... [more ▼]

Rapid industrial development and intensive agriculture induced serious soil degradation in recent decades worldwide and specifically in China. In cropland, soil acidification and nutrient deficiency are often associated with increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Soil acidification can lead to reduction of phosphorus (P) availability, even though with high inputs of P fertilizer. The studies presented in the thesis deal with spatio-temporal evolution of soil pH in different soil types and land uses in southern China and effects of soil acidification on soil P availability. Evolution of inorganic P fractions in Red Soil was characterized upon fertilization trials, as a response to long-term fertilization and soil acidity changes. The first focus of the thesis deals with spatio-temporal evolution and main factors of soil acidification in different soil types, parent materials and land uses of Southern China. Firstly, data from 20 monitoring sites under 25-year fertilization on Paddy Soil were investigated to research changes of pH. Paddy Soil pH significantly declined from 1988-1998, then stabilized from 1998-2013 with conventional fertilization. Chemical N fertilization, manure application, soil available N and total N increases were significantly correlated with soil pH. Secondly, changes of pH in Red Soil and Paddy Soil were assessed in 32 monitoring sites of Hunan Province (Southern China) under 10-year fertilization in order to analyze soil acidification in different soil types and agro-systems. Soil pH decline was observed in Paddy Soils under rice-vegetable rotation but not observed in Paddy Soil under continuous cropping with rice. Soil pH significantly declined in Red Soil with high initial soil pH. Thirdly, spatio-temporal characteristics of soil pH were investigated by comparison of soil pH between 1982 and 2014 in Qiyang County (Hunan Province). Average topsoil pH declined of 0.58 units between the two surveys. Soil pH in the south was lower than in the north both in 1982 and 2014. Land use and parent materials are the main drivers of differences in the soil pH changes in Qiyang County. Soil pH declined significantly in forest and upland crop over non-alkaline parent materials during 1982-2014 period. Chemical N fertilizer application can have generated 12-42 kmol H+ ha-1yr-1, which is much higher than removal by crop harvest. Reduction of chemical N fertilization and return of straws to field should be conducted to reduce H+ production and supplement base cations in Qiyang County. The second approach studied evolution of inorganic P fractions in Red Soil under 25-year fertilization, and available P and inorganic P fractions responses to various soil acidity levels. Inorganic P fractions increased under P fertilization from 1990-2015, especially Ca2-P, Ca8-P and Al-P, but inorganic P fractions significantly decreased without P fertilization. Contributions of soil properties (SOC, C:P ratio and N:P ratio) and cumulative P apparent balance (CPAB) to inorganic P fractions were ≥ 95%, while interaction of CPAB and soil properties made greater contributions than did any single factor. Soil dissolved inorganic P (DIP) decreased with rising pH value, and a minimum DIP was observed between pH 5.5 and 6.5. Olsen-P, Ca-P and Al-P increased significantly with pH between 3.4 and 5.0. Soil with pH <5.0 P availability was much lower than soil with pH ≥5.0. Managing soil acidity is a key issue regarding availability of P in Red Soil of China and our results suggest that at least a pH of 5.0 should be targeted. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural and induced loss of function mutations in SlMBP21 MADS-box gene led to jointless-2 phenotype in tomato
Gomez Roldan, Maria Victoria; Périlleux, Claire ULiege; Morin, Halima et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that ... [more ▼]

Abscission is the mechanism by which plants disconnect unfertilized flowers, ripe fruits, senescent or diseased organs from the plant. In tomato, pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that controls yield and post-harvest fruit quality. Two non-allelic mutations, jointless (j) and jointless-2 (j-2), controlling pedicel abscission zone formation have been documented but only j-2 has been extensively used in breeding. J was shown to encode a MADS-box protein. Using a combination of physical mapping and gene expression analysis we identified a positional candidate, Solyc12g038510, associated with j-2 phenotype. Targeted knockout of Solyc12g038510, using CRISPR/Cas9 system, validated our hypothesis. Solyc12g038510 encodes the MADS-box protein SlMBP21. Molecular analysis of j-2 natural variation revealed two independent loss-of-function mutants. The first results of an insertion of a Rider retrotransposable element. The second results of a stop codon mutation that leads to a truncated protein form. To bring new insights into the role of J and J-2 in abscission zone formation, we phenotyped the single and the double mutants and the engineered alleles. We showed that J is epistatic to J-2 and that the branched inflorescences and the leafy sepals observed in accessions harboring j-2 alleles are likely the consequences of linkage drags. [less ▲]

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See detailLa narrativité greimassienne comme élément d'organisation du sens dans le croisement du football et la publicité
Bassilua Nzuzi, Anicet ULiege

Conference (2017, June 30)

Considérée comme principe d’organisation du discours (Greimas et Courtés, 1979), la narrativité greimassienne semble garder ce statut au-delà des types d’objets sur lesquels elle a été testée à l’origine ... [more ▼]

Considérée comme principe d’organisation du discours (Greimas et Courtés, 1979), la narrativité greimassienne semble garder ce statut au-delà des types d’objets sur lesquels elle a été testée à l’origine, par exemple le système d’oppositions dans les figures-signes. Notre étude, consacrée aux pratiques du football et de la publicité telles qu’elles se réalisent et se croisent au stade, montre que la narrativité, en lien avec le système tensif des possibles, organise aussi le parcours du sens dans cette interaction. Cette opération se déroule à deux niveaux de pertinence hiérarchisés: niveau de l’organisation syntagmatique de chacun des deux ensembles (niveau inférieur) et niveau de leurs ajustements l’un vers l’autre (niveau supérieur). On repère ainsi, pour le football, par exemple une organisation syntagmatique qui se réalise par la succession des séquences (passe, tacle, but, etc.) qu’opèrent des sujets (joueurs) à partir d’un système ordonné des modes d’existence des unités (potentialisation /virtualisation - actualisation/réalisation). Pour la publicité, cela se réalise à travers l’agencement des syntagmes (topologiques, eidétiques, chromatiques) qui s’inscrivent sur les objets-supports (panneaux) selon le même schéma. Les deux univers s’ajustent par la suite grâce à la combinaison de deux types d’articulations (statiques et dynamiques) qui, au final, aboutit à la formation d’une sorte de discours englobant “football-publicité” qui présente une organisation syntaxique propre. [less ▲]

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See detailEcolo lave-t-il plus vert ?
Van Ruymbeke, Laurence; Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailPhD Support Day - présentation Justine Contor
Contor, Justine ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, June 30)

Il s'agit d'une présentation des mes travaux de recherche dans le cadre d'une journée d'échange entre les doctorant du Professeur Nadia Molenaers.

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See detailSmall solar system bodies as granular systems
Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang et al

in EPJ Web of Conferences (2017, June 30)

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See detailVibration Induced Phenomena in Granular Media in Microgravity
Opsomer, Eric ULiege; Noirhomme, Martial ULiege; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULiege

in EPJ Web of Conferences (2017, June 30)

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See detailRequired hospital capacity in 2025 and criteria for rationalisation of complex cancer surgery, radiotherapy and maternity services
Van de Voorde, Carine; Van den Heede, Koen; Beguin, Claire et al

Report (2017)

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See detailPlant traits variability within and among populations in the context of calcareous grassland restoration
Harzé, Mélanie ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In Western Europe, abandonment of traditional forms of agriculture has caused the fragmentation of semi-natural grasslands, affecting ecosystems functioning as well as population survival. Habitat ... [more ▼]

In Western Europe, abandonment of traditional forms of agriculture has caused the fragmentation of semi-natural grasslands, affecting ecosystems functioning as well as population survival. Habitat restoration has become a crucial aspect of grasslands conservation, and one of the main issues is evaluating restoration success and setting appropriate criteria to do so. Indicators used to judge whether a restoration has been successful may concern a wide range of organisms. They may be defined at different geographical scales and may concern various levels of biodiversity organization. Among them, population parameters are less represented despite their usefulness. To consider restoration as a success, restored populations of targeted species should demonstrably possess characteristics allowing their dispersal, reproduction, growth and adaptation to the environment. In this thesis, the use of plant population parameters for evaluating grassland restoration was assessed based on a literature review. Then, the success of calcareous grassland restoration was determined regarding colonization of restored grasslands by five calcareous grasslands species; Helianthemum nummularium, Hippocrepis comosa, Potentilla tabernaemontani, Sanguisorba minor and Scabiosa columbaria. Population establishment and intra-specific functional trait variability in response to the environment were observed and compared among restored and reference populations of those species, through field inventories and in-situ traits measurements in calcareous grasslands of south Belgium. Moreover, a glasshouse experiment was set-up with the aim to evaluate the intra-specific variability in response to drought stress in reference populations of P. tabernaemontani. The results indicated that population parameters were less well studied for evaluating grassland restoration success compared to indicators related to ecosystems and communities. The population parameters used to assess the success of calcareous grassland restoration showed that the study species colonized restored sites and established new populations. The fitness of the restored populations was very high. High intra-specific trait variability was highlighted at a very local scale in the reference habitat. Individuals exhibited high leaf dry matter content (LDMC), low specific leaf area (SLA) and low vegetative height in relation to low soil depth and high potential incident radiation (PDIR). These environmental variables are possibly linked to the availability of soil moisture. Further, the relationship between traits and environmental variables was not always consistent in restored sites. However, the intra-specific variability of plant traits was similar in the reference and restored grasslands. Finally, the findings from the glasshouse experiment suggested that individuals originating from drier parts of calcareous grasslands better survive drought stress.   The overall conclusion of this thesis is rather optimistic concerning restored populations of the five specialist plant species studied, specifically regarding their colonization, persistence and response to the environment or to potential climate change. The conclusions must, however, be modified depending on the reference ecosystem used as a model. This approach has to be integrated into a multi-scales and a multi-species approach to fully evaluate restoration outputs. Yet, this thesis has contributed to the understanding of population responsiveness to habitat restoration, as well as to the evaluation of restoration success of calcareous grasslands in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial OnLine Analytical Processing Applied to Cities Security with Raster Data - A Case Study on Emergency Services of Brussels Agglomeration
Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULiege; Devillet, Guénaël ULiege

Conference (2017, June 29)

Public institutions in charge of cities security are confronted to always more complex and voluminous data. In particular, georeferenced data can be extracted from many sources: mobile phones, social ... [more ▼]

Public institutions in charge of cities security are confronted to always more complex and voluminous data. In particular, georeferenced data can be extracted from many sources: mobile phones, social media, cars, security camera, satellite images, crowdsourcing, geography portals, etc. Uses of these data are various. For instance, it is very precious to firefighters in order to fairly distribute their resources (equipment and men) on the territory. These large spatial data sets (“Big Data”) require powerful tools for their extraction and their analysis. For this purpose, an original Spatial OnLine Analytical Processing (SOLAP) model is developed for emergency services. A case study involving firefighters and medical aids of Brussels is presented [less ▲]

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See detailTracing Transnational and intersectional inequalities in immigrants families’ access to social protection: The case of Andean families’ in Brussels
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Vivas Romero, Maria ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, June 29)

Immigrants and family members in the home and host urban spaces often experience inequalities in access to social protection (Faist, 2016, Amelina, 2017). Focusing on healthcare, we demonstrate that ... [more ▼]

Immigrants and family members in the home and host urban spaces often experience inequalities in access to social protection (Faist, 2016, Amelina, 2017). Focusing on healthcare, we demonstrate that immigrant families today respond to healthcare needs of family members here and there through four cross-border strategies. We show that Andean transnational family networks based in Brussels select and articulate these different strategies to assemble transnational health care arrangements. The arrangements we follow are based in the urban area of Brussels but are connected to other urban spaces in southern Europe and Latin America in which migrants have developed networks of informal and formal support. Using an intersectional approach, we argue that heterogeneity markers such as gender, race, class and levels of transnational engagement determine the choice between different types of arrangements (Mahler et al. 2015). We support our argument with multi-sited (Marcus, 1995) ethnographic data collected with 48 members of 10 Andean transnational family members during fieldwork in Belgium, Colombia and Peru. [less ▲]

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See detailThe art to talk on immigration: a state of emergency
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULiege

Conference (2017, June 29)

This paper intend to present the results of the state of emergency project. The project started in 2014 with a simple question: how researchers that work in immigration can communicate with civil society ... [more ▼]

This paper intend to present the results of the state of emergency project. The project started in 2014 with a simple question: how researchers that work in immigration can communicate with civil society outside the traditional academic channels? It is not only a matter of popularization of academic research, but mainly brings researchers into society, far from the academic walls. The answer to this question was the art and the spaces of culture. Art, and also cultural spaces have enormous potential, its could bring together different social groups and help researchers to be in society, and making their research accessible. In the society, debates on immigration are mostly dominated by media and political representations, what is also polarizing societies between solidarity and anti-immigration movement's. Therefore, the presence of researchers to discuss the immigration issue in society has become urgent. The state of emergency project had as a bases my research, “The borders of Nord-Pas-deCalais” (2014), and brought together two dancers, two acrobats, a scene director and a plastic artist. The project started from the assumption that art is a collective production, but artistic intention started with the individual consciousness on the issue the artist is focusing. It was adopted the artistic improvisation method to develop a spectacle and other tolls. In order to incorporate research on immigration into artistic production it was necessary to present and to appropriate the artists of basic concepts, but also carry out a fieldwork, that was developed during a month at the French border (Calais city). The methodology adopted by the artists consisted in a fieldwork. The project took two years to be concluded. The result was a dance spectacle, “Dites a ma mère que je suis la”, and a hybrid form of workshop that mixes the artistic and the methods of immigration research. I contrast, I developed during the project a multi-sited ethnography whit the artists. Where the main objective was to understand which impact the scientific knowledge on the issue could produce in artist's way to see immigration, and how this new approach could change the researcher and artist productions. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-producing sociotechnical solutions in difficult times: the art of governing nuclear wastes in France
Parotte, Céline ULiege; Delvenne, Pierre ULiege

Conference (2017, June 29)

Radioactive wastes and their management are posing pressing political and epistemic issues to modern societies such as, for instance, how shall we design sociotechnical solutions to deal with an object ... [more ▼]

Radioactive wastes and their management are posing pressing political and epistemic issues to modern societies such as, for instance, how shall we design sociotechnical solutions to deal with an object with a half-life of more than 100.000 years? This paper’s starting point is the so-called “participatory turn” in the nuclear waste management (NWM) in France, when tensions appeared concerning claims of epistemic authority of national nuclear agencies. In 1990, in the aftermath of violent contestations and citizen mobilization in four Departments, the then Prime Minister of France, Michel Rocard, decided to impose a one-year moratorium on the research conducted by the national nuclear waste management organization (ANDRA). A not so well-known parliamentary technology assessment (PTA) institution, OPECST (the French Office Parlementaire d’Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques), was called to the rescue to clear up a difficult situation and to restore trust between state and scientific agencies and a critical population. We find that OPECST played a surprisingly central role in defining the French NWM program. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of health concerns in scientific and policy debates on climate change
Schütte, Stefanie; Depoux, Anneliese; Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara ULiege et al

in Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health (2017)

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See detailQUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF POTATO STEAMED BREAD USING FOOD HYDROCOLLOIDS
Liu, Xingli ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for composite or gluten-free products due to some economic, nutritional reasons or the number of the celiac patient. The estimated prevalence of Celiac disease is ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for composite or gluten-free products due to some economic, nutritional reasons or the number of the celiac patient. The estimated prevalence of Celiac disease is about 1% of the general population, and it affects persons of any age, race, and ethnic group. Steamed bread is a traditional staple food of China, and has been consumed for at least 2000 years, taking up almost 40% of wheat consumption, and the popularity is increasing around the world. However, most traditional wheat steamed bread lack essential nutrients, including lysine, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, etc. Therefore, the use of composite flour for steamed bread making has attracted great attention. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most widely planted vegetables worldwide and is the only tuber used as a major food crop. Potato has a balanced amino acid composition, high total vitamin and mineral levels, and also contains phytochemicals such as polyphenols, polyamines, and carotenoids. However, the replacement of wheat flour is a major challenge for food technologist to produce the steamed bread with desirable quality and technological properties because that gluten is important to retain gas to obtain the desired volume and texture in a dough system. It is essential to form a strong protein network required for the desired viscoelasticity, and the easiest way to ensure the viscoelasticity properties is via the use of food hydrocolloids. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the quality improvement of potato steamed bread using food hydrocolloids. Firstly, the influence of potato flour on dough rheological properties and quality of steamed bread showed that the dough stability and specific volume of steamed bread were significantly decreased with the potato flour proportions increasing. Then we carried out the comparative study of the nutritional quality of steamed and baked breads from four potato cultivars because that the steamed and baked breads were two type of staple food in eastern and western countries, respectively. The results showed that potato flour addition increased the contents of dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity. Hongmei was the optimum choose of the studied four cultivars, followed by Blue Congo, Shepody, and Atlantic, in terms of nutritional value. For the same cultivar, the nutritional value of steamed bread was higher than that of baked bread. Secondly, the effect of different food hydrocolloids on the dough rheology and steamed bread quality parameters in composite and gluten-free formulations based on potato flour was studied. Compared to control, the food hydrocolloids addition significantly increased tightly bound water population, water absorption, starch gelatinization temperature, dough viscoelasticity, recovery percentage and development height. Little adhesion and aggregation of starch were observed and the density of potato protein bands was decreased when food hydrocolloids were added, suggesting that some aggregation formed between starch-hydrocolloids or proteins-hydrocolloids. Moreover, steamed breads with food hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume, lower hardness, and lower estimated glycemic index. In conclusion, food hydrocolloids showed the potential as a gluten replacement in composite or gluten-free potato steamed bread, particularly HPMC. Thirdly, we optimized the formulations of gluten-free potato steamed bread. The optimal gluten-free steamed bread could be produced by adding 4.84 g/100g pregelatinized potato flour (PGPF), 1.68 g/100g hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), 5.87 g/100g egg white protein (EWP) and 69.69 g/100g water based on potato flour, and this optimal bread was compatible with regular wheat bread in key sensory properties. Moreover, the optimized solid phase microextraction parameters (sample weight 2.42 g, extraction time 60 min, and extraction temperature 50°C) were adopted to determine the volatile compounds of gluten-free potato steamed bread. 72 volatile compounds were detected in the dough and crumb. The contents of alcohols, acids and esters increased significantly with the fermentation time increasing, which would improve the aroma of steamed bread. However, further investigations are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action and the interactions with dough components and making additives. The other studies should be focused on technological approaches to improve steamed bread quality, which involved different flour particles, high pressure technology and application of sourdough. [less ▲]

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See detailL’usage vocal des professeurs de formation musicale
Remacle, Angélique ULiege; Schiller, Isabel ULiege; Sfez, Lou et al

Conference (2017, June 29)

Introduction : En Belgique, les professeurs de formation musicale, ou professeurs de solfège, dispensent une éducation à la musique par un enseignement du langage musical. Plus précisément, ils enseignent ... [more ▼]

Introduction : En Belgique, les professeurs de formation musicale, ou professeurs de solfège, dispensent une éducation à la musique par un enseignement du langage musical. Plus précisément, ils enseignent l’apprentissage de la rythmique, de la lecture et de l’écriture de partitions, la pratique du chant, le développement de l’oreille musicale, ou encore la constitution d’un répertoire de référence. Ces enseignements sont dispensés dans des académies de musique ou des conservatoires. En tant que professionnels de la voix, ces professeurs font partie des travailleurs les plus à risque de consulter un phoniatre pour leur voix (1). Cependant, leur usage vocal reste peu décrit. Cette étude a pour objectif 1) de mesurer la charge vocale de professeurs de formation musicale en contexte professionnel et extra-professionnel, 2) de décrire l’influence du bruit ambiant sur leur voix et 3) d’identifier l’impact de la charge vocale sur leur qualité et leur fatigue vocale. Méthode : 13 professeurs de formation musicale (9 femmes, 4 hommes) ont été enregistrés pendant une semaine complète à l’aide d’un dosimètre vocal (VoxLog) porté du lever au coucher. Le dosimètre mesure la durée de phonation et la fréquence vocale (F0) avec un accéléromètre, ainsi que l’intensité de la voix et du bruit ambiant avec un microphone positionné au niveau du cou. L’analyse du signal est réalisée avec le logiciel VoxLog Discovery. Ce logiciel calcule notamment le nombre d’oscillations des plis vocaux par jour. A la fin de chaque journée, les professeurs ont auto-évalué leur qualité et leur fatigue vocale à l’aide d’échelles visuelles analogiques. Résultats : Les paramètres vocaux et le bruit ambiant sont significativement plus élevés en contexte professionnel qu’extra-professionnel (p<.001). L’élévation du bruit ambiant est accompagnée d’une élévation de l’intensité vocale pour les 13 professeurs (r=.61, p<.001), ainsi que d’une augmentation de F0 pour les femmes (r=.41, p=.002) mais non pour les hommes (r=.39, p=.055). Enfin, le bruit ambiant élevé est associé à une augmentation de la durée de phonation (r=.05, p<.001). L’augmentation du nombre d’oscillations journalier des plis vocaux est associée à une augmentation de la fatigue (r=0.438, p<.001) et à une diminution de la qualité vocale (r=-0.538, p<.001). Conclusion : De façon similaire aux professeurs d’école (2), les paramètres vocaux ainsi que le bruit ambiant sont significativement plus élevés en contexte professionnel. Sur leur lieu de travail, les professeurs d’éducation musicale sont confrontés à un bruit ambiant dépassant la limite recommandée par l’OMS (3). En accord avec l’effet Lombard, ce bruit élevé est associé à une augmentation de l’intensité vocale. Chez les femmes, une voix plus aigüe est observée en environnement bruyant. Comme dans l’étude de Ternström, Södersten et Bohman (4), un bruit ambiant élevé est associé à une durée de phonation plus importante, potentiellement dû à une prolongation des segments voisés par souci d’intelligibilité. En conclusion, les professeurs de formation musicale utilisent leur voix de manière intensive dans le cadre de leur travail, alternant voix parlée et voix chantée. Les corrélations entre le nombre d’oscillations journalier et les auto-évaluations montrent que la quantité de voix utilisée a un impact sur le ressenti des participants. De plus, l’élévation du bruit est corrélée à une augmentation des paramètres de charge vocale. Bibliographie 1. Remacle, A., Petitfils, C., Lejeune, L., Finck, C., & Morsomme, D. (2015, April 10). What is the professional profile of patients in phoniatrics? Oral communication presented at the 4th International Occupational Voice Symposium, London, UK. 2. Remacle, A., Morsomme, D., & Finck, C. (2014). Comparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57, 406-415. 3. Inserm. (2006). La voix : Ses troubles chez les enseignants (Expertise collective). Paris : Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche médicale. 4. Ternström, S., Södersten, M., & Bohman, M. (2002). Correlation of simulated environmental noise as a tool for measuring vocal performance during noise exposure. Journal of Voice, 16(2), 195-206. [less ▲]

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