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See detailThe Gravity of International Crimes as a Challenge to the (Full) Protection of Human Rights before International Criminal Tribunals? A Strasbourg Perspective
Deprez, Christophe ULiege

in Nordic Journal of International Law (2017), 86

While it goes undisputed that international criminal tribunals (ICTs) are, in general terms, bound to respect human rights standards, there is no consensus on whether their obligations should be identical ... [more ▼]

While it goes undisputed that international criminal tribunals (ICTs) are, in general terms, bound to respect human rights standards, there is no consensus on whether their obligations should be identical in scope to those of national criminal tribunals. Most commentators seem to value the idea of equality in protection for international and domestic defendants alike. Yet, according to others, the human rights obligations of ICTs should be contextualised, that is, adapted to the specificities of international justice – and most critically to the gravity of international crimes. This article seeks to shed some light on this debate. It does so, in particular, by pointing out the intrinsic flexibility of human rights, and by drawing on the practice of the European Court of Human Rights with respect to gravity-based contextualism. [less ▲]

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See detailThrough the Wormhole: Tracking Invisible MPLS Tunnels
Vanaubel, Yves ULiege; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques et al

in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (2017, November)

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting ... [more ▼]

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting graphs contain a significant amount of nodes with a very large degree, often exceeding the actual number of interfaces of a router. Although this property may result from inaccurate alias resolution, we believe that opaque MPLS clouds made of invisible tunnels are the main cause. Using Layer-2 technologies such as MPLS, routers can be configured to hide internal IP hops from traceroute. Consequently, an entry point of an MPLS network appears as the neighbor of all exit points and the whole Layer-3 network turns into a dense mesh of high degree nodes. This paper tackles three problems: the revelation of IP hops hidden by MPLS tunnels, the MPLS deployment underestimation, and the overestimation of high degree nodes. We develop new measurement techniques able to reveal the presence and content of invisible MPLS tunnels. We assess them through emulation and cross-validation and perform a large-scale measurement campaign targeting suspicious networks on which we apply statistical analysis. Finally, based on our dataset, we look at basic graph properties impacted by invisible tunnels. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving QoE Prediction in Mobile Video through Machine Learning
Casas, Pedro; Wassermann, Sarah ULiege

in Proc. 8th International Conference on Network of the Future (2017, November)

Despite the massive adoption of HTTP adaptive streaming technology, buffering is still the most harmful event for QoE in video streaming. Previous studies have shown that buffering is not only detrimental ... [more ▼]

Despite the massive adoption of HTTP adaptive streaming technology, buffering is still the most harmful event for QoE in video streaming. Previous studies have shown that buffering is not only detrimental for the overall user experience, but is also highly correlated to viewer engagement. The occurrence of buffering is particularly critical in cellular networks and mobile video deployments, as network conditions are less stable and network resources more limited. In this context, monitoring and properly predicting the QoE of video streaming services becomes paramount to cellular network operators, who need to offer high quality levels to reduce the risks of customers churning for quality dissatisfaction. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-dimensional QoE prediction in mobile video using machine learning models. Contrary to previous models for QoE prediction in video streaming, which are generally uni- or low-dimensional and model the impact of single video descriptors independently, we use a high-dimensional input space to model the impact of buffering and initial delay on QoE.We train and test the proposed models on a publicly available mobile video dataset, generated from subjective QoE tests with real viewers. Besides improving prediction performance, the proposed models show that there is a clear influence of other buffering pattern descriptors generally neglected in previous models - in particular those linked to the occurrence of the last stalling event, shedding light on new KPIs to monitor for better QoE assessment in video streaming. [less ▲]

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See detailDemeter's Arrival at Eleusis on an Apulian Oinochoe kept in Foggia
Cuvelier, Graham ULiege

in Babesch : Bulletin Antieke Beschaving (2017), 92

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This ... [more ▼]

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This interpretation is based on the analysis of the iconographic language of the Apulian imagery as well as on the connexion in series of this scene with those appearing on contemporary vases produced in the same cultural community. This article is also accompanied by a set of previously unpublished colour pictures (of the entire vase and of several details) taken on site by the author. [less ▲]

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See detailL'expertise en procédure pénale
Michiels, Olivier ULiege

Learning material (2017)

Notes destinés à la formation des futurs experts judiciaires.

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See detailRespuesta transnacional frente a catástrofes naturales: mexicanos reaccionando desde Bélgica como resultado de los terremotos
Lara Guerrero, Larisa Viridiana ULiege

in La Clé des Langues (2017)

El transnacionalismo es un fenómeno ampliamente estudiado entre los científicos sociales para definir los lazos que mantienen las comunidades migrantes entre su lugar de origen y su lugar de residencia ... [more ▼]

El transnacionalismo es un fenómeno ampliamente estudiado entre los científicos sociales para definir los lazos que mantienen las comunidades migrantes entre su lugar de origen y su lugar de residencia. En este artículo se postula que, en tiempo de crisis, las comunidades migrantes explotan las redes transnacionales sociales, políticas y económicas que han construido y mantenido como resultado de su experiencia migratoria. Asimismo, se sugiere que el flujo de información e intercambios entre las comunidades migrantes y sus países de origen se intensifican en situaciones de emergencia. Este artículo presenta evidencia empírica recolectada con la comunidad migrante mexicana en Bélgica después de los devastadores terremotos que ocurrieron el 7 y 19 de septiembre del 2017 en México. [less ▲]

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See detailChine-Costa Rica : la projection des normes chinoises en Amérique centrale
Wintgens, Sophie ULiege

in Cahiers du Cevipol (2017), 3

The People’s Republic of China (China) has now become an obvious trading partner, a major provider of foreign direct investment, and a large financial loans provider to an increasing number of South ... [more ▼]

The People’s Republic of China (China) has now become an obvious trading partner, a major provider of foreign direct investment, and a large financial loans provider to an increasing number of South American countries. This trend is now being seen in Central America. The increase in economic and trade exchanges with Costa Rica, the first Centro-American country to establish diplomatic relations and to sign a free trade agreement with Beijing, goes along with the projection of Chinese economic and political standards of international trade policy. This paper analyses the strategic issues of the Chinese presence in Costa Rica to assess the scope of the influence of China’s political and economic project in Central America. [less ▲]

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See detailMères à temps partiel, fratries à temps complet
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailL'enfant parentifié, lorsque les rôles s'inversent dans la famille
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailDetermining the metallicity of the solar envelope using seismic inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472(1), 751-764

The solar metallicity issue is a long-lasting problem of astrophysics, impacting multi- ple fields and still subject to debate and uncertainties. While spectroscopy has mostly been used to determine the ... [more ▼]

The solar metallicity issue is a long-lasting problem of astrophysics, impacting multi- ple fields and still subject to debate and uncertainties. While spectroscopy has mostly been used to determine the solar heavy elements abundance, helioseismologists at- tempted providing a seismic determination of the metallicity in the solar convective enveloppe. However, the puzzle remains since two independent groups prodived two radically different values for this crucial astrophysical parameter. We aim at provid- ing an independent seismic measurement of the solar metallicity in the convective enveloppe. Our main goal is to help provide new information to break the current stalemate amongst seismic determinations of the solar heavy element abundance. We start by presenting the kernels, the inversion technique and the target function of the inversion we have developed. We then test our approach in multiple hare-and-hounds exercises to assess its reliability and accuracy. We then apply our technique to solar data using calibrated solar models and determine an interval of seismic measurements for the solar metallicity. We show that our inversion can indeed be used to estimate the solar metallicity thanks to our hare-and-hounds exercises. However, we also show that further dependencies in the physical ingredients of solar models lead to a low accuracy. Nevertheless, using various physical ingredients for our solar models, we determine metallicity values between 0.008 and 0.014. [less ▲]

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See detailInversions of the Ledoux discriminant: a closer look at the tachocline
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Godart, Mélanie ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society : Letters (2017), 472(1), 70-74

Modelling the base of the solar convective envelope is a tedious problem. Since the first rotation inversions, solar modellers are confronted with the fact that a region of very limited extent has an ... [more ▼]

Modelling the base of the solar convective envelope is a tedious problem. Since the first rotation inversions, solar modellers are confronted with the fact that a region of very limited extent has an enormous physical impact on the Sun. Indeed, it is the transition region from differential to solid body rotation, the tachocline, which furthermore is influenced by turbulence and is also supposed to be the seat of the solar magnetic dynamo. Moreover, solar models show significant disagreement with the sound speed profile in this region. In this paper, we show how helioseismology can provide further constraints on this region by carrying out an inversion of the Ledoux discriminant. We compare these inversions for Standard Solar Models built using various opacity tables and chemical abundances and discuss the origins of the discrepancies between Solar Models and the Sun. [less ▲]

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See detailAn agent-based framework for modeling travel behavior under disrupted networks
Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Worldwide, floods are the most frequent natural disasters and cause over one third of overall economic losses due to natural hazards. In addition, studies show that flood risk will further increase during ... [more ▼]

Worldwide, floods are the most frequent natural disasters and cause over one third of overall economic losses due to natural hazards. In addition, studies show that flood risk will further increase during the 21st century as a result of climate change. In this context, the objective of this thesis is to implement a methodological framework for modeling the impact of disrupted networks caused by river floods on travel demand. The manuscript is divided into four chapters. In the first chapter, this thesis contributes to the state-of-the-art by presenting an integrated multidisciplinary framework capable of making long-term projections (time horizon 2050 and 2100) with the objective of mitigating future flood risk. Various aspects of modeling are discussed with a focus on the interactions between the different model components. The second chapter is dedicated to multi-source data fusion in transportation research. Indeed, conducting large scale data collection is difficult and requires substantial financial resources. In practice, micro-samples with small sampling rates are generally used for synthesizing populations of households and individuals. Unfortunately, they present important limitations from a qualitative point of view, i.e. lack of representativeness. In this regard, a full population synthesis procedure based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been designed to enable multi-source data fusion and incorporate more heterogeneity into eventual poor data-sets. Our research revealed that HMM outperforms IPF for all the sampling rates smaller than 25% regardless the scalability, while the amount of input data used by HMM is lower compared with IPF. The characterization of activity-travel patterns is described in the third chapter. Indeed, to enable a better understanding of travel behavior, a simulation-based approach for population synthesis has been coupled with a profile Hidden Markov Model (pHMM) in laying the foundation for an innovative activity-based model. There have been several key issues that deserved special attention, in particular the influence of socio-demographics on the activity-travel patterns. We also proposed new perspectives of validation techniques. The simulated and observed activity-travel patterns have been systematically compared on the basis of the emission and transition probabilities. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the case study. The synthesized population is used to calibrate a large scale scenario based on the agent-based framework MATSim to investigate the short-term impact of river floods on travel demand. The model has been tested for Liège, Belgium with multiple flood risk scenarios. Results reveal that the impact in terms of travel times is particularly significant when the network is operating at capacities lower than 50%. [less ▲]

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See detailÉléments de méthodologie de la recherche documentaire en droit fiscal
Desseilles, François ULiege

Learning material (2017)

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See detailComment peut-on (encore) être persan ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

L'article esquisse brièvement l'argument que lorsque le discours public oppose "nos valeurs" (celles des sociétés occidentales) aux "valeurs" musulmanes, ce discours, le plus souvent "distord" ou "réécrit ... [more ▼]

L'article esquisse brièvement l'argument que lorsque le discours public oppose "nos valeurs" (celles des sociétés occidentales) aux "valeurs" musulmanes, ce discours, le plus souvent "distord" ou "réécrit" nos propres valeurs pour les rendre difficilement inaccessibles aux musulmans. On prend trois exemples : l'enseignement de l'évolution, la mixité dans l'espace public, le choix d'un médecin en fonction de son sexe. On montre brièvement que sur ces trois questions, le discours public déforme ce qui constitue historiquement les "valeurs de nos sociétés" dans un but de stigmatisation de la minorité musulmane. [less ▲]

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See detailNe pas confondre diversité et lutte contre les inégalités
Martiniello, Marco ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailValidation of SAFIR through DIN EN 1992-1-2 NA: Comparison of the results for the examples presented in Annex CC
Romeiro Ferreira, Joao Daniel ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege; Gernay, Thomas ULiege et al

Report (2017)

Annex CC of DIN EN 1992-1-2 NA presents a series of cases that allow benchmarking software tools aimed at the design of structures in a fire situation. With the goal of providing a validation document for ... [more ▼]

Annex CC of DIN EN 1992-1-2 NA presents a series of cases that allow benchmarking software tools aimed at the design of structures in a fire situation. With the goal of providing a validation document for the finite element code SAFIR [1], a comparison of the reference results for the cases presented in the Annex CC with the results obtained by SAFIR has been carried out and is presented in this document. The validation typically consists in a comparison between the value of a result (temperature, displacement or others) obtained by SAFIR and the value given as a reference and supposed to be the « true » result. The value obtained must fall in the interval stipulated by the document. [less ▲]

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See detailBIGMOMAL - Big Data Analytics for Mobile Malware Detection
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro

Poster (2017, November)

Mobile malware is on the rise. Due to their popularity, smartphones represent an attractive target for cybercriminals, especially regarding unauthorized access to private user data; smartphones ... [more ▼]

Mobile malware is on the rise. Due to their popularity, smartphones represent an attractive target for cybercriminals, especially regarding unauthorized access to private user data; smartphones incorporate a lot of sensitive information about users, even more than a personal computer. Indeed, besides personal information such as documents, accounts, passwords, contacts, etc., smartphone sensors centralize other sensitive data such as user location, physical activities, etc. In this paper, we study the problem of malware detection in smartphones, using supervised machine learning models and big data analytics frameworks. Using a publicly available dataset for smartphone data analysis (the SherLock data collection, see http://bigdata.ise.bgu.ac.il/sherlock/), we train and benchmark different supervised machine learning models to detect malware apps activity.The Sherlock data collection is a crowdsourcing-based smartphone dataset in which hundreds of features from many different "sensors" or vantage points within the device are monitored, using a tailored smartphone agent. The collection is done during a long-term - 2 years (2015/16), field trial on 50 smartphones used as primary device for 50 different participants. The monitoring agent collects a wide variety of network, software and sensor data at a high sample rate (as low as 5 seconds); in addition, participant devices include a sandbox-like smartphone agent which runs controlled malware apps, perpetrating attacks on the user's device (such as contacts theft, spyware, phishing, etc.), while creating labels for the SherLock dataset. The complete labeled dataset contains more than 10 billion data records, with a total of about 4 TB of data. We additionally complement the labels for malicious apps which might have been installed by participants by analyzing the installed apps' hashes in Virus Total (https://www.virustotal.com), a well-known multi antivirus online scanning system. From the complete dataset, we keep two specific feature categories: all those features related to the network traffic generated by the apps, and all those features corresponding to the footprint of the app on the CPU and internal running processes (e.g., statistics on CPUs, memory usage, linux-level processes information, etc.). The rationale is that some malware activity would be more visible at the network traffic level, whereas some others would be better identified at the local processes level. Using this dataset, we train different machine learning models (e.g., decision trees, neural networks, SVMs, etc.) and verify their accuracy to automatically spot out malicious apps running on the users’ devices. We also apply feature selection strategies to improve results and reduce computational times. Given the size of the dataset, we rely on big data platforms (such as Spark) to perform the analysis, complementing the machine learning based analysis with scikit-learn like pipelines. We evaluate three different concepts, including (i) overall model performance (using multi-fold cross validation on the complete dataset), (ii) generalization of the learned models across different users (train in N-1 users, and test in the remaining user), and (iii) detection accuracy drift along time (train during first month/week, test the resulting model in the subsequent months/weeks). Initial results are very promising, especially regarding overall model performance for decision tree based models. [less ▲]

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See detailAnycast on the Move - A First Look at Mobile Anycast Performance
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Rula, John P.; Bustamante, Fabian

Poster (2017, November)

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used ... [more ▼]

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used for redirecting clients in a variety of domains from naming to CDNs and video streaming. IP anycast offers a method for making a service IP address available to a routing system from several locations at once, and clients' requests are directed based on BGP routing policies. For operators, IP anycast offers an economic, scalable, and simple approach to replicated services; BGP provides considerable robustness, adapting to changes in service and network availability. For clients, however, the mapping can be suboptimal, unstable, and seemingly chaotic, as routing policies have not only technical motivations, and routing changes can silently shift traffic from one site to another with a consequent loss of shared state and potential performance impact. Given its wide deployment and interesting tradeoffs, IP anycast has been the focus of much recent measurement work. All prior studies have, nevertheless, focused on wired networks despite the growing dominance of mobile Internet. Today, the number of mobile subscriptions is over 7.4 billion, and users spend over 2x times more hours browsing on their smartphones than on any other device, with the corresponding increase on cellular traffic. We present early results on the first study of anycast performance for mobile users. Our evaluation focuses on two distinct anycast services, K-and F-Root, each providing part the DNS Root zone. Both services are widely replicated with publicly available site locations and unicast IP addresses that allow us to evaluate the relative performance of anycast routing to its "optimal" (in terms of unicast) site location. We collected active measurements from geographically distributed clients on both cellular and WiFi networks from September 2016 until April 2017, using the Aqualab’s ALICE engine [1]. In each experiment clients launched ping and traceroute measurements towards the root servers’ anycast addresses, as well as to five chosen unicast addresses determined to be the closest to the client in terms of geographic distance, at an hourly rate. Clients also recorded their geographic location, anonymized to a 10 km² area. Our findings show that mobile clients are routed to suboptimal replicas in terms of geographical distance, more frequently while on a cellular connection than on WiFi, with a significant impact on perceived service performance. The phenomenon seems to be more pronounced for K-Root than for F-Root. A possible explanation for the long distances would be that our cellular clients are simply far away from all the available replicas. However, our investigations demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case. Finally, we start to explore the root causes for anycast anomalies in cellular networks. We reveal three classes of anomalies: distant client packet gateways, poor anycast routing within Tier-1 networks, and improper routing out of cellular networks. [1] http://aqualab.cs.northwestern.edu/projects/261-alice [less ▲]

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See detailVelléités d’indépendance, remise en question par les armes, guerres civiles : l’État semble de plus en plus contesté et menacé. Qu’en est-il vraiment ?
Wintgens, Sophie ULiege; Weerts, Audrey ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Dans un grand nombre d’études menées depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, la question de la place et du contrôle de l’État est formulée en termes de « crise ». Comment l’État du XXIe siècle fait-il face ... [more ▼]

Dans un grand nombre d’études menées depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, la question de la place et du contrôle de l’État est formulée en termes de « crise ». Comment l’État du XXIe siècle fait-il face aux pressions internationales (terrorisme, mondialisation, flux migratoires) et aux menaces internes (référendums d’indépendance, guerres civiles, ingérence étrangère)? "L’État dans tous ses états", un ouvrage collectif (publié chez Peter Lang en Belgique) dirigé par deux chercheuses belges, Sophie Wintgens et Audrey Weerts, essaie de répondre aux questions soulevées par l’actualité par des réflexions théoriques et des études de cas. Sophie Wintgens est chargée de recherches du Fonds de la recherche scientifique (FRS-FNRS) au Centre d’étude de la vie politique (CEVIPOL) de l’Université libre de Bruxelles, maître de conférences au département de science politique de l’Université de Liège et chercheuse associée au Center for International Relations Studies (CEFIR). Audrey Weerts est assistante et chargée de recherches au sein de la Cellule d’appui politologique Afrique-Caraïbes et de l’unité d’étude des systèmes politiques belges à l’Université de Liège. Toutes les deux expliquent à Middle East Eye que loin d’être une entité statique et figée, l’État se développe et se transforme, et reste encore pour l’instant un acteur central du système international. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vache Montbéliarde emportée par la génomique
Gaillard, Claire; Mougenot, Catherine ULiege; Petit, Sandrine

in Sesame Sciences et Société Alimentation Mondes agricoles et Environnement (2017), 2

La mise en œuvre de la sélection génomique basée sur une simple prise de sang constitue une étape majeure dans l’histoire de l’élevage bovin. C’est une véritable révolution qui s’accompagne de nombreux ... [more ▼]

La mise en œuvre de la sélection génomique basée sur une simple prise de sang constitue une étape majeure dans l’histoire de l’élevage bovin. C’est une véritable révolution qui s’accompagne de nombreux changements, qu’il s’agisse de la multiplicité des informations liées aux nouveaux outils, de la rapidité de leur renouvellement, de l’élargissement de l’offre génétique.Pour comprendre comment les outils génomiques s’imposent dans les pratiques de sélection et avec quelles implications, nous menons une recherche sur le terrain de la race Montbéliarde en Franche-Comté auprès d’éleveurs, d’inséminateurs et de techniciens-cadres des entreprises de sélection. [less ▲]

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