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See detailOf trees and men: new insights into man-environment relationships in the moist forests of central Africa during the late Holocene
Morin, Julie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In central Africa, vegetation history has been documented by paleoenvironmental studies (especially palynology), which mainly concerned the way climate has shaped the forest landscapes. Human impacts in ... [more ▼]

In central Africa, vegetation history has been documented by paleoenvironmental studies (especially palynology), which mainly concerned the way climate has shaped the forest landscapes. Human impacts in this region have hardly been studied so far, especially at local scale. The main objective of this PhD is to propose an approach based on archaeology and the use of charred botanical remains found in soils, either wood charcoal or seeds, in order to document the Holocene anthropogenic impacts on the forest structure and composition. When coupled with the diachronic analysis of human activities, these land-use biomarkers can allow a better understanding of the relationship between man and his environment in central Africa during this period. Thereby, the first part of this PhD introduces the conceptual framework and the materials and methods used during the research. Then, the second part constitutes the core of the work, and presents the chronology of human activities in the northern Congo Basin, the use of biomarkers to discrimate between these activities, either domestic or agricultural, and the effect of the recent anthropogenic activities in the dynamic of several light-demanding tree populations. Finally, the third part draws the main recommendations of the work, and formulates potential for additional research. [less ▲]

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See detailRuralité et mondialisation dans l'oeuvre de Josef Winkler
Neelsen, Sarah ULg

Conference (2017, September 15)

Une œuvre à ce point enracinée dans le paysage, la culture et la langue de l’Autriche semblait peu propice à intégrer les bouleversements de l’ordre mondial après 1989 et son auteur bel et bien enfermé ... [more ▼]

Une œuvre à ce point enracinée dans le paysage, la culture et la langue de l’Autriche semblait peu propice à intégrer les bouleversements de l’ordre mondial après 1989 et son auteur bel et bien enfermé dans une certaine tradition nationale. Pourtant à partir de 1996, les récits de voyage, journaux intimes et romans sur l'Inde se multiplient. La mondialisation semble donc bien avoir eu un impact profond sur son travail et l'étude approfondie du roman Roppongi montre comment se construisent des effets de résonance entre rituels funéraires hindous et catholiques. Cette communication analyse les différences entre interculturalité et mondialisation, lieux et non-lieux et conclut sur la tension entre la mobilité des corps et l'obsession de l'image fixe. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysics at the Ultra-high Energies
Bhattacharya, Atri ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

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See detailThe Einstein Telescope
Cudell, Jean-René ULg

Speech/Talk (2017)

Brief description of the Einstein Telescope project.

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See detailDark matter
Laletin, Maxim ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

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See detailSharing good practices in physical education to promote physical activity, wellness and health
Bonni, Jérémy ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

Poster (2017, September 15)

The Wallonia-Brussels Federation is about to overhaul its education system, which will directly affect teacher training. Under the “Pact for Excellence in Education”, a group of experts – the Consortium ... [more ▼]

The Wallonia-Brussels Federation is about to overhaul its education system, which will directly affect teacher training. Under the “Pact for Excellence in Education”, a group of experts – the Consortium “Physical Activities, Well-Being and Health” – drawn from the 12 French-speaking institutions training PE teachers (universities and colleges) has been mandated by the Ministry of Education to design devices and tools aiming at implementing the new common core curriculum that is under construction. Good practices have been identified then described in information sheets common to the different consortiums of the PEE and listed in a table that cross-references the 6 dimensions of physical activity at school (Snyers et al., 2014) and the 20 objects of teaching-learning in health education (Turcotte et al., 2011). These good practices are meant to be shared later within a community of practice. This paper provides a description of one of these information sheets in order to illustrate the methodology applied in this project. [less ▲]

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See detailCoronagraphy and Interferometry: Imaging the sky at high contrast and high-angular resolution
Defrere, Denis ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Short overview of the main activities related to exoplanet imaging at the STAR Institute

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See detailPresentation of thermo-mechanical laboratory of CSL
Plesseria, Jean-Yves ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of the Thermo-machanical group of CSL

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See detailExoplanetary Transits
Gillon, Michaël ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Exoplanetary Transits

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See detailPresentation of CSL's Laboratory of Electronics at the First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017
Graas, Estelle ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of CSL's Laboratory of Electronics at the First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017

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See detailQuasars and Gravitational lenses in STAR: Selected highlights
Sluse, Dominique ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Quasars and Gravitational Lenses in STAR: Selected highlights

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See detailDesign, assembly and test of a near-infrared spectrograph for the TIGRE telescope
Kintziger, Christian ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

The presentation introduces the different major steps of the design of a near-infrared spectrograph that will be installed at the TIGRE telescope, Mexico.

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See detailFeasibility study of a UV Photometer on-board a 3U Cubesat for the study of bright massive stars
Desselle, Richard ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Feasibility study of a UV Photometer on-board a 3U Cubesat for the study of bright massive stars

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See detailASTA -- Theoretical Stellar Astrophysics and Asteroseismology
Godart, Mélanie ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Theoretical Stellar Physics and Asteroseismology

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See detailPresentation of CSL Signal Processing Laboratory - First STAR Workshop on 15/09/2017
Orban, Anne ULg

Scientific conference (2017, September 15)

Presentation of the Signal Processing laboratory of the Centre Spatial de Liège

Peer Reviewed
See detailExecutive functions in normal aging: the mediating effect of processing speed and attentional system
Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2017, September 14)

Objective The normal aging is associated with decrease in executive functioning efficiency. However, the source of these cognitive difficulties could reside in some factors that are not executive per se ... [more ▼]

Objective The normal aging is associated with decrease in executive functioning efficiency. However, the source of these cognitive difficulties could reside in some factors that are not executive per se. Therefore, this present study is aimed at determining whether speed of processing and attentional variables would mediate the effect of age on the executive functioning. Participants and Methods Young (n = 104) and old (n = 63) participants were enrolled and carried out a large battery made of 21 executive (inhibition, shifting, working memory updating, and double task coordination), attentional (phasic alertness, selective attention, and sustained attention), and processing speed tasks. Based on Baron & Kenny’s recommendations (1986), mediation models of the age effect on the executive functioning were carried out with processing speed and attentional system taken as mediators. Results Selective attention significantly mediated the effect of age on working memory updating [􀇻R2 = 7%, p < .001]. Moreover, processing speed significantly mediated the effect of age on shifting [􀇻R2 = 7%, p < .001], working memory updating [􀇻R2 = 5%, p < .001], and double task coordination [􀇻R2 = 14%, p < .001]. Conclusions The mediating effect of age on most of the executive functions by measures of processing speed is in agreement with the literature showing a major influence of the slowdown of the processing speed on cognition (Salthouse, 1992; 2000; 2005). The age effect on inhibition did not seem to be mediated neither by the attentional variables nor the speed variables, which is in accordance with Zacks & Hasher’s hypothesis (1988). According to these authors, inhibition would be the first cognitive function to decline with age. [less ▲]

Peer Reviewed
See detailThe artistic patronage of Cardinal Charles II de Bourbon (1433-1488)
Laruelle, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2017, September 14)

As one of the most important political and religious figures of the mid-fifteenth century, Charles II de Bourbon (1433-1488) has not received the attention he deserves. Charles, archbishop of Lyon (1446 ... [more ▼]

As one of the most important political and religious figures of the mid-fifteenth century, Charles II de Bourbon (1433-1488) has not received the attention he deserves. Charles, archbishop of Lyon (1446), was made cardinal by the pope Sixtus IV in 1476. He was also an important courtier, and a confidant of King Louis XI of France, to whom he was related by marriage. Charles was present at the interview of Kings Louis XI and Edward IV of England in 1475 and in the signature of the peace treaty concluded between them, which formally ended the Hundred Years’ War. Among other posts, Charles held the governorship of Paris and was the head of the King’s Council. Grandson of John the Fearless and cousin to Charles the Bold, he also bore numerous connections with the Burgundian Court and the Southern Netherlands. This paper aims at re-appreciating the artistic patronage of the wealthy cardinal, in spite of the difficulties raised by the paucity of surviving artworks he commissioned. Charles was indeed an important patron, who founded a splendid funerary chapel in Lyon Cathedral, and had the archiepiscopal palace of Lyon built. The cardinal owned a lot of exceptional manuscripts, sculptures and tapestries. Due to his position, Charles may have influenced tastes of Louis XI for the arts, but also the future king Charles VIII’s (Charles de Bourbon was, along with Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon and Edward of Westminster, godparent of the dauphin in 1470).Particular attention will be paid to his collection of tapestries, which have never received detailed analysis. Charles II de Bourbon’s arms (motto, initials, and his device of a flaming sword) appear on only three pieces today: “The Adoration of the Magi”, “The Three Coronations” (both preserved in Sens cathedral), and a scene from the “Story of Hercules” (Mobilier National, Paris). Woven with extremely high quality, probably in the Southern Netherlands, the cardinal’s tapestries are undoubtedly among the finest and most expensive pieces of the 15th century. [less ▲]

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See detailPush-Pull strategy to control aphids in Belgium and China
Xu, Qingxuan ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human health ... [more ▼]

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human health, alternative practices such as intercropping have been studied for their potential to promote biological control. Fifty original research papers were obtained from a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature. Results from a vote-counting analysis indicated that, in the majority of studies, pest abundance was significantly reduced in intercropping systems compared with pure stands. However, the occurrence of their natural enemies as well as predation and parasitism rates were not significantly increased. Nevertheless, other practices could be combined with intercropping to favour natural enemies and enhance pest control. Dispersal of viruses is intimately tied to their vectors. Aphids are known to invest in costly antipredator behavior when perceiving cues of predators. Before presenting the results and the answers to the previous questions, a brief research was conducted in order to have an overview of the intercropping on the spread of aphids, to assess the potential impact of intercropping systems attracting natural enemies on the virus transmission. We studied aphid antipredator behavior in intercropping with wheat-broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as a model. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus, is an important vector of the barley yellow dwarf virus. The effects of two natural aphid enemies, adult and larvae of the seven-spot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linneaus, on R. padi dispersion was studied under laboratory conditions. Results show that the total number of aphids was higher in intercropping than monoculture in treatments without ladybeetles, while the contrary was observed in the presence of ladybeetle larvae. These results might be explained by the non-host plant chemical cues and the physical barrier that was broad-bean plants confusing R. padi when searching for their host plants after being dropped from wheat by predators (i.e. associational resistance). After make sure that the intercropping can reduce the dispersal of aphids in the presence of predators, in fine potentially limiting virus dispersal, especially shortly after aphids colonize plants. Next step will be to solve how to increase the number of natural enemies of intercropping in Belgium and China. Semiochemical substances have been tested to enhance biological control, with inconsistent results. Combining semiochemical and intercropping can be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In Belgium, a two-year setup involving wheat–pea strip intercropping combined with the release of E-β-farnesene (EBF) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) was tested as a push–pull strategy to simultaneously repell aphids and attract beneficials. Two types of slow-release formulation (i.e., oil and alginate beads) containing EBF or MeSA were deployed with intercropping. The abundance of aphids was significantly decreased, hoverfly larvae and mummified aphids increased on both pea plants and wheat tillers by the release of oil-formulated EBF and MeSA. The proportion parasitism of aphids-parasitism rate was also increased by treating both crops in both years. Releasing EBF through oil rather than alginate beads proved significantly better for attracting natural enemies and reducing aphids. Aphids were negatively correlated with the density of hoverflies (both adults and larvae) and numbers of mummies. We also tested the combining in China and the experiments were set-up: wheat-pea strip intercropping solely, intercropping combined with the release of EBF, and intercropping combined with the release of MeSA, each treatment repeated three times. The total number of aphids throughout the growing season was significantly decreased in treatments with releases of semiochemicals compared to intercropping solely. The effect was stronger with MeSA than with EBF on the control of R. padi, and hoverflies and lacewings were twice more numerous in MeSA. All these results showed that combining intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA formulated in oil can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies. Therefore, the combination of both strategies could help farmers reduce the use of insecticides. [less ▲]

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