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See detailPrevenção quaternária: primeiro não causar dano - Editorial
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

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See detailQuaternary prevention: first, do not harm - Editorial
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

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See detailManuels de langues et risques d'inégalités
Simons, Germain ULg; Delbrassine, Daniel ULg; Van Hoof, Florence ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2015), (1),

Dans cet article synthétique, les auteurs relèvent quelques caractéristiques de certains manuels de langues contemporains et démontrent en quoi celles-ci présentent des risques d'inégalités pour les ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article synthétique, les auteurs relèvent quelques caractéristiques de certains manuels de langues contemporains et démontrent en quoi celles-ci présentent des risques d'inégalités pour les apprenants [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial du n°1 de la revue "Didactiques en pratique"
Simons, Germain ULg; Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Poffé, Corentin ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2015)

Ce premier éditorial de la nouvelle revue du Cifen :"Didactique en pratique" présente le contenu de ce numéro et propose une mise en perspective théorique de la problématique abordée lors de l'Université ... [more ▼]

Ce premier éditorial de la nouvelle revue du Cifen :"Didactique en pratique" présente le contenu de ce numéro et propose une mise en perspective théorique de la problématique abordée lors de l'Université d'été 2014 : "Outils didactiques et (in)égalités". Ce premier numéro est principalement consacré à la publication des Actes de l'Université d'été 2014, mais il évoque aussi la première journée de rencontre officielle entre le Cifen et les maitres de stages. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Fish Migrate and so Must We': the Relationship between International and Internal Environmental Mobility in a Senegalese Fishing Community
Zickgraf, Caroline ULg

Conference (2015, April)

In 2008, the UN designated Saint-Louis “the city most threatened by rising sea levels in the whole of Africa”. The people of Guet Ndar, a densely populated fishing quarter, are coping with environmental ... [more ▼]

In 2008, the UN designated Saint-Louis “the city most threatened by rising sea levels in the whole of Africa”. The people of Guet Ndar, a densely populated fishing quarter, are coping with environmental challenges on two fronts: 1) coastal erosion and intensifying storms have destroyed sea-front homes, and, 2) overfishing and climate change’s maritime impacts are making local fishing less feasible as a livelihood strategy. Based on a local case study, this paper examines Guet Ndarian migration as an adaptive response to environmental risks and more specifically climate change: 1) through the intensification of fishing migration to Mauritania, and 2) through home construction on the mainland away from the encroaching sea. Although these population movements respond to different environmental challenges, this paper identifies their enmeshment as the former facilitates the latter. Furthermore, it embeds these migratory dynamics in their socio-economic context and applies mobility and transnational paradigms to environmentally vulnerable areas. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en perspective de l'après-midi de rencontre avec les maîtres de stages du Cifen
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en pratique (2015), 1

Ce texte est le discours du Président du Cifen qui a été prononcé à l'occasion de la première journée officielle de rencontre entre le Centre et les maitres de stages (5 novembre 2014). Ce discours ... [more ▼]

Ce texte est le discours du Président du Cifen qui a été prononcé à l'occasion de la première journée officielle de rencontre entre le Centre et les maitres de stages (5 novembre 2014). Ce discours succinct reprend la question qui a servi de fil rouge à cette journée : "Comment collaborer efficacement pour accompagner au mieux nos stagiaires ?" et en détaille chaque composante. [less ▲]

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See detailGAIMS: a tool specifically developed for the clinical gait analysis of patients with multiple sclerosis
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Phan-Ba, Rémy; Giet, Amaury et al

Poster (2015, April)

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See detailDoes the soil’s effective hydraulic conductivity adapt in order to obey the Maximum Entropy Production principle? A lab experiment
Westhoff, Martijn ULg; Zehe, Erwin; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2015, April)

The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle is a conjecture assuming that a medium is organized in such a way that maximum power is subtracted from a gradient driving a flux (with power being a flux ... [more ▼]

The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle is a conjecture assuming that a medium is organized in such a way that maximum power is subtracted from a gradient driving a flux (with power being a flux times its driving gradient). This maximum power is also known as the Carnot limit. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this Carnot limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state close to the Carnot limit, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells (e.g. wind). The aim of this study is to test if the soil’s effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts itself in such a way that it operates close to the Carnot limit. The big difference between atmosphere and soil is the way of adaptation of its resistance. The soil’s hydraulic conductivity is either changed by weathering processes, which is a very slow process, or by creation of preferential flow paths. In this study the latter process is simulated in a lab experiment, where we focus on the preferential flow paths created by piping. Piping is the process of backwards erosion of sand particles subject to a large pressure gradient. Since this is a relatively fast process, it is suitable for being tested in the lab. In the lab setup a horizontal sand bed connects two reservoirs that both drain freely at a level high enough to keep the sand bed always saturated. By adding water to only one reservoir, a horizontal pressure gradient is maintained. If the flow resistance is small, a large gradient develops, leading to the effect of piping. When pipes are being formed, the effective flow resistance decreases; the flow through the sand bed increases and the pressure gradient decreases. At a certain point, the flow velocity is small enough to stop the pipes from growing any further. In this steady state, the effective flow resistance of the sand bed will be compared with the theoretical optimal flow resistance obtained with the MEP principle. For this study, different magnitudes of the forcing will be tested, while also the effect of dry spells will be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching and learning Quaternary prevention
Gomes, Luis Enrique; Gusso, Gustavo; Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in ... [more ▼]

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in P4 for each level: novice, competent, proficient, and expert. This should be used as a step-wise roadmap for teachers in order to achieve high standard levels of performance. This is complemented by a list of methods used in teaching and assessment of learners’ performance and competence. By covering a range of learning and teaching issues, those who aim to teach quaternary prevention can explore the proposed framework. Quaternary prevention is a research and teaching fertile medical field that requires the integration of different areas such as health service organization, epidemiology, communication skills, and andragogy either at the macro or the micro levels health related activities. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatic risk assessment to improve nitrogen fertilisation recommendations : A strategic crop model-based approach
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2015), 65(10-17),

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the ... [more ▼]

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the yield potential. However, to prevent pollution of surface and groundwater induced by nitrates, The European Community launched The European Nitrates Directive 91/6/76/EEC. In 2002, in Wallonia (Belgium), the Nitrates Directive has been transposed under the Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Agriculture Program (PGDA), with the aim of maintaining productivity and revenue for the country’s farmers, while reducing the environmental impact of excessive N application. A feasible approach for addressing climatic uncertainty lies in the use of crop models such as the one commonly known as STICS (simulateur multidisciplinaire pour les cultures standard). These models allow the impact on crops of the interaction between cropping systems and climatic records to be assessed. Comprehensive historical climatic records are rare, however, and therefore the yield distribution values obtained using such an approach can be discontinuous. In order to obtain better and more detailed yield distribution information, the use of a high number of stochastically generated climate time series was proposed, relying on the LARS-Weather Generator. The study focused on the interactions between varying N practices and climatic conditions. Historically and currently, Belgian farmers apply 180 kg N ha−1, split into three equal fractions applied at the tillering, stem elongation and flag-leaf stages. This study analysed the effectiveness of this treatment in detail, comparing it to similar practices where only the N rates applied at the flag-leaf stage were modified. Three types of farmer decision-making were analysed. The first related to the choice of N strategy for maximising yield, the second to obtaining the highest net revenue, and the third to reduce the environmental impact of potential N leaching, which carries the likelihood of taxation if inappropriate N rates are applied. The results showed reduced discontinuity in the yield distribution values thus obtained. In general, the modulation of N levels to accord with current farmer practices showed considerable asymmetry. In other words, these practices maximised the probability of achieving yields that were at least superior to the mean of the distribution values, thus reducing risk for the farmers. The practice based on applying the highest amounts (60–60–100 kg N ha−1) produced the best yield distribution results. When simple economical criteria were computed, the 60–60–80 kg N ha−1 protocol was found to be optimal for 80–90% of the time. There were no statistical differences, however, between this practice and Belgian farmers’ current practice. When the taxation linked to a high level of potentially leachable N remaining in the soil after harvest was considered, this methodology clearly showed that, in 3 years out of 4, 30 kg N ha−1 could systematically be saved in comparison with the usual practice. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition?
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17(EGU2015-2110-1),

In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation phenomenon in real environmental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Middlebox Policy Taxonomy: Path Impairments
Edeline, Korian ULg; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in International Workshop on Network Science for Communication Networks (NetSciCom): Hong Kong April 27 2015 (2015, April)

Recent years have seen the rise of middleboxes, such as firewalls, NATs, proxies, or Deep Packet Inspectors. Those middleboxes play an important role in today's Internet, including enterprise networks and ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen the rise of middleboxes, such as firewalls, NATs, proxies, or Deep Packet Inspectors. Those middleboxes play an important role in today's Internet, including enterprise networks and cellular networks. However, despite their huge success in modern network architecture, they have a negative impact on the Internet evolution as they can slow down the TCP protocol evolution and its extensions. Making available a summary of the potential middlebox network interferences is of the highest importance as it could allow researchers to confront their new transport protocol to potential issues caused by middleboxes. And, consequently, allowing again innovation in the Internet. This is exactly what we tackle in this paper. We propose a path impairment oriented middlebox taxonomy that aims at categorizing the initial purpose of a middlebox policy as well as its potential unexpected complications. Based on a measurement campaign on IPv4 and IPv6 networks, we confront our taxonomy to the real world. Our dataset is freely available. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes over a degraded Woodland under a Sudanian climate in Northern Benin (West Africa)
Ago, Expédit Evariste; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17

Turbulent CO2 exchanges over a degraded woodland were measured during 17 months (from November 2005 to March 2007) by an eddy-covariance system at Nangatchori in the northern part of Benin, West Africa ... [more ▼]

Turbulent CO2 exchanges over a degraded woodland were measured during 17 months (from November 2005 to March 2007) by an eddy-covariance system at Nangatchori in the northern part of Benin, West Africa. The site (Lat 9.65°N, Long 1.74°E, Alt: 432 m), under a Sudanian climate, is one of the sites that were equipped in the framework of the international AMMA-CATH program. The site was highly disturbed during preceding years by illegal tree logging, agricultural activities, cattle pasture, and bushfire. The footprint area is mainly formed by herbs and crops with some sparse shrubs and trees. Fluxes data were completed during the same period by meteorological measurements made at the Nalohou site located approximately 20 km from Nangatchori, and by an inventory of dominating species on 1km2 area around the tower during the wet season. Fluxes response to climatic variables was analyzed. The annual drought and moisture cycle was found to be the main controlling factor of the ecosystem dynamics. A very clear response of CO2 fluxes to PPFD appears, but is different according to seasons. During wet season, CO2 uptake increases with increasing PPFD following a typical curvilinear function and saturates for high PPFD (PPFD > 1000 µmol m-2 s-1), while during dry season, a very weak linear response of CO2 fluxes was observed. No clear dependency of the total ecosystem respiration on temperature was observed. At an annual scale (from November 1st 2005 to October 31st 2006), net carbon sequestered by the ecosystem was 18 +- 5 g C m-2. Finally, with respect to the water use the ecosystem appeared to be more efficient during morning and wet season than during afternoon and dry period. [less ▲]

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See detailJean-François Tielemans (1831-1832)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Raxhon, Philippe (Ed.) Les Gouverneurs de la province de Liège. Histoire d’une fonction, mémoire d’une action (2015)

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See detailGaston Grégoire (1919-1927)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Raxhon, Philippe (Ed.) Les Gouverneurs de la province de Liège. Histoire d’une fonction, mémoire d’une action (2015)

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See detailL’Affaire Édouard Descamps à la Cour de La Haye en 1921. Un recul international de la Belgique ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Générale (2015), 3/4(mars-avril), 35-42

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