Last 7 days
Bookmark and Share    
See detailServitude et grandeur pédagogiques. Les nouvelles circonstances et exigences du métier de professeur de français langue étrangère.
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, July 19)

Les circonstances ne sont guère favorables aux professeurs de français, ni aux professeurs de langues et de cultures d’une manière générale, qui traversent des temps aussi difficiles que cruciaux dans ... [more ▼]

Les circonstances ne sont guère favorables aux professeurs de français, ni aux professeurs de langues et de cultures d’une manière générale, qui traversent des temps aussi difficiles que cruciaux dans chacun de leur pays, chacune de leur institution et chacune de leur classe. Face à l’uniformisation linguistique et culturelle, aux restrictions budgétaires, à l’instrumentalisation de l’enseignement, c’est presque devenu un sacerdoce que de promouvoir la diversité non intéressée, les échanges non commerciaux, les valeurs non marchandes, bref l’humanisme. En ce qui concerne la langue française, partant les cultures francophones, le défi n’est pas seulement – par leur enseignement – de les maintenir vivantes et attrayantes dans des pays où elles sont étrangères ou secondes, mais aussi résistantes et entreprenantes dans les pays francophones où leur échappent des domaines d’activités aussi fondamentaux que l’économie, la diplomatie, la science, voire l’enseignement supérieur. Un défi encore plus important est de replacer la culture, les cultures, que la langue, que les langues, véhiculent, associent, enrichissent, au centre du vivre-ensemble sous peine de voir s’aggraver les replis et les conflits identitaires. C’est précisément en refusant de servir une conception étroite et stérile de la mondialisation qu’acquièrent leur grandeur les projets des professeurs de français dans le monde, de leurs associations, de la FIPF. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOpen source programming: a new hope for psychometric research
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore ... [more ▼]

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore require accurate, fast and stable implementation. To this regards, open source programming (such as in the R language) is a promising approach allowing for flexible implementation, data generation, replication of studies, and worldwide dissemination. The purpose of this talk is to illustrate how psychometrics and open source programming (with special emphasis on the R language) can interact and contribute to each other, by means of some selected examples. Several topics will be illustrated, among others: why open source programming is (to my opinion) as important as psychometric research; why we need for stable and complete implementation of psychometric and statistical routines for research purposes (for e.g., CAT); how accurate implementation of IRT routines can lead to unexpected theoretical results; why (and how) open source software can be valued as research output. Most examples will arise from the CAT framework and the R package catR for simulating CAT patterns. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn the use of ROC curves in DIF simulation studies
Magis, David ULg; Tuerlinckx, Francis

Conference (2016, July 14)

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF ... [more ▼]

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF items relies on statistics based on pre-defined significance level or on pre-established cutoff values. DIF methods based on conceptually different approaches may therefore become incomparable in terms of summary DIF statistics such as false alarm rate or hit rate. The purpose of this talk is to overcome this analytic issue by introducing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in this context. ROC curves allow for global comparison of methods’ performances by computing pairs of (false alarm, hit) rates and representing them on a common scatter plot. Several summary ROC statistics can be considered for further analysis. The application of the ROC curve methodology, together with its limitation and possible extensions, is illustrated by a simple simulation study that compares three score-based DIF methods (Mantel-Haenszel, standardization and Delta plot). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailExamine the effects of two adjustments to the lz statistic
Riley, Barth; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two ... [more ▼]

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two adjustments to the standardized log-likelihood statistic (lz): (1) correction of the negatively skewed distribution of lz (Snijders, 2001), and (2) improving the sensitivity of the statistic by employing more accurate estimates of item response probability using symmetric functions (Dimitrov and Smith, 2006). Data were simulated using three test lengths (10, 20, 30 items). Data containing misfitting response patterns were simulated using three aberrant response patterns (cheating, guessing, and inattentiveness), and three levels of aberrance (i.e., proportion of item responses affected by misfit; 10%, 30% and 50%). Data containing no simulated misfitting response patterns were also generated for each test length. Non-misfitting responses were generated using the dichotomous Rasch measurement model. For each combination of independent variables, a dataset was generated consisting of 5,000 simulees. Four fit statistics were compared: lz, lz* (Snijders adjustment), lzSYM (Dimitrov and Smith adjustment), and lzSYM* (both adjustments). Mean Type I error rates were ≤ 0.1 across all conditions. The lz* statistic produced the best control of Type I error, which was often below the nominal Type I error rate, whereas the empirical Type I error rate for the unadjusted lz statistic most closely approximated the nominal rate. In contrast, lzSYM and lzSYM* yielded empirical Type I error rates larger than the nominal rate, with the discrepancy being particularly pronounced as the length of the test decreased. As might be expected, power to detect misfitting response patterns increased with test length and with the percentage of misfitting response patterns in the sample. Both lzSYM and lzSYM* evidenced improved power in detecting misfitting response patterns compared to lz and lz*, particularly for guessing response patterns and/or on shorter (i.e., 10 item) tests. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailShaping (im)mobility in border camps: a case study of the transformation of Calais camps and its actors
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Conference (2016, July 13)

This paper explores the transition of informal temporary camps on the French border to a sustainable state, and discusses how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together for the ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the transition of informal temporary camps on the French border to a sustainable state, and discusses how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together for the implementation of a semi-permanent exclusion system based on the refugee crisis. I observe this issue as a result of a securitization process. The securitization apparatus (speech acts and policies), produced the immobility of a group. In the other hand actors will emerge to produce mobility. When a situation is defined as a crisis, atypical actions can be employed to protect the «political community». I started from the assumption that dialectic relation between securitization and camps actors had a high impact on the projects of refugees, and so long in their mobility. This is a question of integration policies at the local level. I aim to highlight the local level relevance, where the integration is primarily implemented, and therefore local and regional context should matter as much as the national model for integration (Martiniello, 2013). In Calais, due to the lack of immigrants policies, civilians associations started to react and build informal camps, but due to recent "crisis" the Stat concentrated all refugees in a single camp, 6 kilometers from the city center, called bidonville. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Novel Methodology for Hybrid Fire Testing
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Robert, Fabienne et al

in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Structural Control (2016, July 11)

This paper describes a novel methodology for conducting stable hybrid fire testing (HTF). During hybrid fire testing, only a part of the structure is tested in a furnace while the reminded structure is ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a novel methodology for conducting stable hybrid fire testing (HTF). During hybrid fire testing, only a part of the structure is tested in a furnace while the reminded structure is calculated separately, here by means of a predetermined matrix. Equilibrium and compatibility at the interface between the tested “physical substructure” and the “numerical substructure” is maintained throughout the test using a dedicated algorithm. The procedures developed so far are sensitive to the stiffness ratio between the physical and the numerical substructure and therefore they can be applied only in some cases. In fire field, the stiffness of the heated physical substructure may change dramatically and the resulting change in stiffness ratio can lead to instability during the test. To overcome this drawback, a methodology independent of the stiffness ratio has been developed, inspired from the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) method, which has been originally developed for substructuring in numerical analyses. The novel methodology has been successfully applied to a hybrid fire test in a purely numerical environment, i.e. the physical substructure was also modelled numerically. It is shown that stability does not depend on the stiffness ratio and that equilibrium and compatibility can be consistently maintained at the interface during the fire. Finally, the ongoing experimental program aimed at employing and experimentally validating this methodology is described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (19 ULg)
See detailComputerized adaptive testing and multistage testing with R
Magis, David ULg; Yan, Duanli; von Davier, Alina

Scientific conference (2016, July 11)

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and ... [more ▼]

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and applications using R open source language and several data examples. The implementations rely on the R packages catR and mstR that have been already or are being developed and include some of the newest research algorithms developed by the authors. This workshop will cover several topics: the basics of R, theoretical overview of CAT and MST, CAT and MST designs, assembly methodologies, catR and mstR packages, simulations and applications. The intended audience for the workshop is undergraduate/graduate students, faculty, researchers, practitioners at testing institutions, and anyone in psychometrics, measurement, education, psychology and other fields who is interested in computerized adaptive and multistage testing, especially in practical implementations of simulation using R. [less ▲]

Full Text
See detailFiniteness of the weighted likelihood estimator and applications to CAT
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to usual maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators. However, the uestion of providing finite ability estimates was left unsolved and led to some controversy. Recently, Magis and Verhelst (in press) established that the WLE always returns finite values, independently of the IRT model, the number of items, and the item responses. This general result will be briefly outlined. The finiteness of the WLE has straightforward impact within the field of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). One technical and crucial issue in CAT is to accurately estimate the latent ability at the early stages of the adaptive process, when only a few items are available. Currently heuristic adjustments are adviced to avoid infinite estimates with only a few item responses. In this talk it will be highlighted how the use of the WLE throughout the CAT can be a promising and performant approach to solve this issue. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
See detailDiversity and evolution of transposable elements in the Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri genomes
Caron, Thibault; Legrand, Sylvain; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 07)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe economic effectiveness of economic land supply
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline

Conference (2016, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh-temperature and quantitative XRD study of typical Westerwald clays (Germany)
Fontaine, François ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

Poster (2016, July 05)

The Westerwald is one of the largest and oldest clay mining area of Germany. Those deposits were formed during the Eocene and Oligocene as a result of the weathering, erosion and redeposition of Devonian ... [more ▼]

The Westerwald is one of the largest and oldest clay mining area of Germany. Those deposits were formed during the Eocene and Oligocene as a result of the weathering, erosion and redeposition of Devonian rocks. During the Miocene, intense volcanic activities led to a large basalt cover, protecting the clays from the erosion. The fine fraction is mainly composed of kaolinite and illite, with the possible presence of interstratified I S. Other minerals such as quartz, feldspars, hematite, goethite or anatase are present in variable concentrations. Four typical Westerwald clays were chosen for this study: kaolinite-rich clay, kaolinite-illite clay, a red and a yellow firing clays. The first goal is to perform quantitative XRD using two different methods and to compare them: reference intensity ratio (RIR) and Rietveld (using Topas and BGMN). The second goal is the study of those samples using high-temperature XRD (HTXRD). The samples were heated up to 1250°C and a XRD pattern was obtained in situ every 100°C. The results show the temperatures of vitrification and formation of mullite and cristobalite varying from one sample to another, which is mainly linked to their flux concentration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detail"Saisir l'État". Les conflits d’héritage, la justice et la place du droit à Cotonou.
Andreetta, Sophie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Tout comme de nombreux autres États sur le continent africain, le Bénin a entrepris, à partir des années 1990, une large réforme de ses services publics dans laquelle la justice occupe une place centrale ... [more ▼]

Tout comme de nombreux autres États sur le continent africain, le Bénin a entrepris, à partir des années 1990, une large réforme de ses services publics dans laquelle la justice occupe une place centrale. Parmi les premiers textes à faire l’objet d’une révision figure le Code des personnes et de la famille, censé promouvoir l’égalité des sexes, contrairement au droit « coutumier » jusque-là applicable à la majorité des familles. Avec les conflits d’héritage comme porte d’entrée, cette recherche avait pour objectif de réfléchir à l’appropriation de ce nouveau texte par différents types d’acteurs. En effet, les questions liées à la gestion et à la répartition de l’héritage sont fréquemment source de conflits à Cotonou et dans les localités voisines. De nombreuses familles saisissent les cours et tribunaux. Dans un contexte où les services publics sont souvent associés à la corruption et aux pratiques informelles, cette thèse envisage les spécificités du système judicaire béninois, la question de la place du droit pour les citoyens, dans le travail des juges et le fonctionnement des tribunaux, démontrant ainsi que les règles officielles sont loin d’être systématiquement contournées dans les administrations africaines. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAsymptotic properties of free monoid morphisms
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Leroy, Julien ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Linear Algebra & its Applications (2016), 500

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPerformance et Innovation en PME: une relation à questionner
Ajzen, Michel; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg et al

in Revue Internationale P.M.E. (2016), 29(2),

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this ... [more ▼]

Noting that in management science, management policies would have all, the ultimate ambition of contributing to company performance and the innovative capacity of a company would be a sine qua non of this performance, this article shows that (if) these two concepts refer to disparate content; (ii) the performance is primarily measured by distanced indicators (financial); (iii) the nature of the interdependence between innovation and performance is not unequivocal. Considering the weight of contextual variables, we show the interest to adopt a broader vision of concepts of innovation and performance in SMEs, capitalizing on the diversity of performance and innovation characterizations, and adopting an agnostic approach establishing no a priori link between them. This article proposes to broaden the concepts of innovation and performance by mobilizing indicators specific to SMEs and outlines a methodology to measure and weigh them as well as to provide researchers with tools to better understand the interactions between these variables. In doing so, we contribute to a critical approach of de-naturalization to emancipate SMEs and, more broadly, public and regulatory authorities, from narrow performative standards. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMulti-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition r 1 eveal the spatial constraints and 2 biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system
Wells, Naomi S.; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

in Water Research (2016), 98

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological ... [more ▼]

Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg Nl-1 ammonium (NH4 +) and 300 mg N l-1 nitrate (NO3-), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ~1 mg l-1 DIN ([DIN] = [NH4+-N] + [NO3--N] + [NO2--N]). Mean δ1534 N-DIN increased from ~2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4+ sources (δ15N-NH4+ from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ15 N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ18O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ15N-NO2- values were 50‰ to 20‰ less than δ15N-NH4+ values in 40 the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ15N-NO2- was greater than δ15N-NH4+ in wells with the highest [NH4+] shows that an autotrophic NO2- reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4+ oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA simple calibration approach based on film-casting for confocal Raman microscopy to support the development of a Hot-Melt Extrusion process
Netchacovitch, Lauranne ULg; Thiry, Justine ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg et al

in Talanta (2016), 154

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must ... [more ▼]

When developing a new formulation, the development, calibration and validation steps of analytical methods based on vibrational spectroscopy are time-consuming. For each new formulation, real samples must be produced and a “reference method” must be used in order to determine the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) content of each sample. To circumvent this issue, the paper presents a simple approach based on the film-casting technique used as a calibration tool in the framework of hot-melt extrusion process. Confocal Raman microscopic method was successfully validated for the determination of itraconazole content in film-casting samples. Then, hot-melt extrusion was carried out to produce real samples in order to confront the results obtained with confocal Raman microscopy and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). The agreement between both methods was demonstrated using a comparison study based on the Bland and Altman’s plot. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (16 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailIs there an alphabet of Moroccan cuisine? Notes on the materiality of cooking and eating.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. Long Abstract Inspired by the work of Lévi-Strauss (1964) aimed at identifying the relationships of mutual intelligibility underlying some social and cultural facts such as the treatment of food, this paper will focus on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. The ethnographic data collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group of Moroccan women in Milan to study their cooking and eating habits will be analysed by paying particular attention to the practices and elements that made the "alphabet" of Moroccan cuisine. This means that, if we considered dishes as complex sentences which can be deciphered by people that share a same language, we could try to identify the littlest components that made them happen. Which norms regulated the combination of ingredients? Which ways of cooking described this food culture? Which gestures and embodied knowledge seemed essential to give an intelligible cultural connotation to the cooking and eating of food? Which variations were admitted? The analysis of the actors' discourses and practices will show how Lévi-Strauss approach and model to the study of foodways can meet a material culture approach and still be relevant nowadays. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFrom nature to culture? Lévi-Strauss' legacy and the study of contemporary foodways
Mescoli, Elsa ULg; Graf, Katharina

Conference (2016, July)

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss ... [more ▼]

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss, the so-called culinary triangle of the raw, the rotten and the cooked represents a semantic field within which the various forms of transformation of food from nature into culture play a key role. Since Lévi-Strauss, following extensive changes to food production, preparation and consumption, the notion of cooking has become ever more diversified, and became increasingly contentious. Yet, the multiple ways of combining and processing ingredients still give social and cultural meanings to food and trigger the creation of sociabilities and belongings through its own destruction (Gell 1986). This panel aims to explore Levi-Strauss' legacy and evaluate its usefulness in today's context from different angles, ranging from domestic food preparation to industrial production and global circulations of food. To what extent can this concept still provide an interpretative framework of topical food issues? Which contemporary myths does it shed light on? How could it be deployed to read the history of food and link it to contemporary questions? This panel welcomes papers on the history of food preparation, contemporary food preparation, including debates in professional and multimedia circles, various forms of food production and the possible transformation of food within globalised food markets. Although mobilizing a classic anthropological theory, this panel aims to be interdisciplinary and to present a diverse range of analytical perspectives. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 ULg)