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See detailRecommandation pour le dépistage du mésusage d'alcool et de l'intervention brève subséquente par les médecins du travail
Godderis, Lode; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULiege et al

Report (2017)

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See detailL’événement énonciatif en sémiotique de l’image : de Roland Barthes à la sémiotique tensive
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULiege; Colas-Blaise, Marion

in La part de l'oeil (2017), 31

Dans cet article, nous visons à montrer que la sémiotique tensive développée par Zilberberg permet de revisiter utilement les notions barthésiennes de studium et de punctum et, leur permet de surcroît, de ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous visons à montrer que la sémiotique tensive développée par Zilberberg permet de revisiter utilement les notions barthésiennes de studium et de punctum et, leur permet de surcroît, de devenir un outil pour l’analyse de l’image. [less ▲]

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See detailThrough the Wormhole: Tracking Invisible MPLS Tunnels
Vanaubel, Yves ULiege; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques et al

in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (2017, November)

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting ... [more ▼]

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting graphs contain a significant amount of nodes with a very large degree, often exceeding the actual number of interfaces of a router. Although this property may result from inaccurate alias resolution, we believe that opaque MPLS clouds made of invisible tunnels are the main cause. Using Layer-2 technologies such as MPLS, routers can be configured to hide internal IP hops from traceroute. Consequently, an entry point of an MPLS network appears as the neighbor of all exit points and the whole Layer-3 network turns into a dense mesh of high degree nodes. This paper tackles three problems: the revelation of IP hops hidden by MPLS tunnels, the MPLS deployment underestimation, and the overestimation of high degree nodes. We develop new measurement techniques able to reveal the presence and content of invisible MPLS tunnels. We assess them through emulation and cross-validation and perform a large-scale measurement campaign targeting suspicious networks on which we apply statistical analysis. Finally, based on our dataset, we look at basic graph properties impacted by invisible tunnels. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of damage and residual load bearing capacity of a concrete slab after fire: Applied reliability-based methodology
Molkens, Tom; Van Coile, Ruben; Gernay, Thomas ULiege

in Engineering Structures (2017), 150

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can ... [more ▼]

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can nevertheless result in a permanent loss of strength and thus a post-fire evaluation of the residual load bearing capacity has to be made to inform decisions on continued use and the need for structural repairs. This evaluation is however particularly difficult due to the many uncertainties associated with both the fire exposure and the characteristics of the structural elements. These uncertainties cannot be neglected when determining the residual capacity since adequate safety is a major societal concern as indicated by the predominance of safety in current design standards and guidance documents. In this paper a comprehensive methodology is presented for the assessment of the residual capacity of concrete structures after exposure to fire. The methodology is introduced through application to a real-life case study of an apartment fire with a focus on the end-span of the affected continuous concrete slab. It results in a reliability-based evaluation of the maximum allowable characteristic value for the imposed load on the slab. The presented methodology is useful to make informed decision about continued use of structures after a fire event. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving QoE Prediction in Mobile Video through Machine Learning
Casas, Pedro; Wassermann, Sarah ULiege

in Proc. 8th International Conference on Network of the Future (2017, November)

Despite the massive adoption of HTTP adaptive streaming technology, buffering is still the most harmful event for QoE in video streaming. Previous studies have shown that buffering is not only detrimental ... [more ▼]

Despite the massive adoption of HTTP adaptive streaming technology, buffering is still the most harmful event for QoE in video streaming. Previous studies have shown that buffering is not only detrimental for the overall user experience, but is also highly correlated to viewer engagement. The occurrence of buffering is particularly critical in cellular networks and mobile video deployments, as network conditions are less stable and network resources more limited. In this context, monitoring and properly predicting the QoE of video streaming services becomes paramount to cellular network operators, who need to offer high quality levels to reduce the risks of customers churning for quality dissatisfaction. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-dimensional QoE prediction in mobile video using machine learning models. Contrary to previous models for QoE prediction in video streaming, which are generally uni- or low-dimensional and model the impact of single video descriptors independently, we use a high-dimensional input space to model the impact of buffering and initial delay on QoE.We train and test the proposed models on a publicly available mobile video dataset, generated from subjective QoE tests with real viewers. Besides improving prediction performance, the proposed models show that there is a clear influence of other buffering pattern descriptors generally neglected in previous models - in particular those linked to the occurrence of the last stalling event, shedding light on new KPIs to monitor for better QoE assessment in video streaming. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with positron emission tomography and [18F]UCB-H.
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege; Plenevaux, Alain ULiege; Aerts, Joël ULiege et al

in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions (2017), 4(4), 481-486

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic vesicle protein 2A distribution volume. Results: [18F]UCB-H uptake was ubiquitous in cortical and subcortical gray matter. Arterial input function and image-derived input function provided regional distribution volume with a high linear relationship. Discussion: The cerebral distribution of [18F]UCB-H is similar to that recently observed with carbon-11 UCB-J ([11C]UCB-J). An accurate [18F]UCB-H quantification can be performed without invasive arterial blood sampling when no suitable reference region is available, using dynamic PET carotid activity. Brain synaptic density can be studied in vivo in normal and pathological aging. [less ▲]

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See detailAnycast on the Move - A First Look at Mobile Anycast Performance
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Rula, John P.; Bustamante, Fabian

Poster (2017, November)

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used ... [more ▼]

Service providers rely on replication to improve service performance and reliability, placing instances in multiple locations and redirecting clients to nearby copies. Anycast is a common mechanism used for redirecting clients in a variety of domains from naming to CDNs and video streaming. IP anycast offers a method for making a service IP address available to a routing system from several locations at once, and clients' requests are directed based on BGP routing policies. For operators, IP anycast offers an economic, scalable, and simple approach to replicated services; BGP provides considerable robustness, adapting to changes in service and network availability. For clients, however, the mapping can be suboptimal, unstable, and seemingly chaotic, as routing policies have not only technical motivations, and routing changes can silently shift traffic from one site to another with a consequent loss of shared state and potential performance impact. Given its wide deployment and interesting tradeoffs, IP anycast has been the focus of much recent measurement work. All prior studies have, nevertheless, focused on wired networks despite the growing dominance of mobile Internet. Today, the number of mobile subscriptions is over 7.4~billion, and users spend over 2x times more hours browsing on their smartphones than on any other device, with the corresponding increase on cellular traffic. We present early results on the first study of anycast performance for mobile users. Our evaluation focuses on two distinct anycast services, K-and F-Root, each providing part the DNS Root zone. Both services are widely replicated with publicly available site locations and unicast IP addresses that allow us to evaluate the relative performance of anycast routing to its ``optimal'' (in terms of unicast) site location. We collected active measurements from geographically distributed clients on both cellular and WiFi networks from September 2016 until April 2017, using the Aqualab’s ALICE engine [1]. In each experiment clients launched ping and traceroute measurements towards the root servers’ anycast addresses, as well as to five chosen unicast addresses determined to be the closest to the client in terms of geographic distance, at an hourly rate. Clients also recorded their geographic location, anonymized to a 10 km² area. Our findings show that mobile clients are routed to suboptimal replicas in terms of geographical distance, more frequently while on a cellular connection than on WiFi, with a significant impact on perceived service performance. The phenomenon seems to be more pronounced for K-Root than for F-Root. A possible explanation for the long distances would be that our cellular clients are simply far away from all the available replicas. However, our investigations demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case. Finally, we start to explore the root causes for anycast anomalies in cellular networks. We reveal three classes of anomalies: distant client packet gateways, poor anycast routing within Tier-1 networks, and improper routing out of cellular networks. [1] http://aqualab.cs.northwestern.edu/projects/261-alice [less ▲]

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See detailBIGMOMAL - Big Data Analytics for Mobile Malware Detection
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro

Poster (2017, November)

Mobile malware is on the rise. Due to their popularity, smartphones represent an attractive target for cybercriminals, especially regarding unauthorized access to private user data; smartphones ... [more ▼]

Mobile malware is on the rise. Due to their popularity, smartphones represent an attractive target for cybercriminals, especially regarding unauthorized access to private user data; smartphones incorporate a lot of sensitive information about users, even more than a personal computer. Indeed, besides personal information such as documents, accounts, passwords, contacts, etc., smartphone sensors centralize other sensitive data such as user location, physical activities, etc. In this paper, we study the problem of malware detection in smartphones, using supervised machine learning models and big data analytics frameworks. Using a publicly available dataset for smartphone data analysis (the SherLock data collection, see http://bigdata.ise.bgu.ac.il/sherlock/), we train and benchmark different supervised machine learning models to detect malware apps activity.The Sherlock data collection is a crowdsourcing-based smartphone dataset in which hundreds of features from many different "sensors" or vantage points within the device are monitored, using a tailored smartphone agent. The collection is done during a long-term - 2 years (2015/16), field trial on 50 smartphones used as primary device for 50 different participants. The monitoring agent collects a wide variety of network, software and sensor data at a high sample rate (as low as 5 seconds); in addition, participant devices include a sandbox-like smartphone agent which runs controlled malware apps, perpetrating attacks on the user's device (such as contacts theft, spyware, phishing, etc.), while creating labels for the SherLock dataset. The complete labeled dataset contains more than 10 billion data records, with a total of about 4 TB of data. We additionally complement the labels for malicious apps which might have been installed by participants by analyzing the installed apps' hashes in Virus Total (https://www.virustotal.com), a well-known multi antivirus online scanning system. From the complete dataset, we keep two specific feature categories: all those features related to the network traffic generated by the apps, and all those features corresponding to the footprint of the app on the CPU and internal running processes (e.g., statistics on CPUs, memory usage, linux-level processes information, etc.). The rationale is that some malware activity would be more visible at the network traffic level, whereas some others would be better identified at the local processes level. Using this dataset, we train different machine learning models (e.g., decision trees, neural networks, SVMs, etc.) and verify their accuracy to automatically spot out malicious apps running on the users’ devices. We also apply feature selection strategies to improve results and reduce computational times. Given the size of the dataset, we rely on big data platforms (such as Spark) to perform the analysis, complementing the machine learning based analysis with scikit-learn like pipelines. We evaluate three different concepts, including (i) overall model performance (using multi-fold cross validation on the complete dataset), (ii) generalization of the learned models across different users (train in N-1 users, and test in the remaining user), and (iii) detection accuracy drift along time (train during first month, test the resulting model in the subsequent months). Initial results are very promising, especially regarding overall model performance for decision tree based models. [less ▲]

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See detailPoésie et cosmologie
Delville, Michel ULiege; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre ULiege

Conference (2017, October 25)

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See detailIndexing grey multilingual literature in General Practice in the era of Semantic Web
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege; Resnick, Melissa; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege et al

in The Grey Journal (2017, October 23)

voir abstract ci-dessous

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See detailUpscaling winter wheat above-ground biomass measurements using multispectral imagery and 3D data from unmanned aerial vehicle
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2017, October 20)

Field measurements in the ICOS program are spatially limited whereas the monitored gas fluxes may have a large footprint. Aerial remote sensing has the advantage to monitor large areas. The main goal of ... [more ▼]

Field measurements in the ICOS program are spatially limited whereas the monitored gas fluxes may have a large footprint. Aerial remote sensing has the advantage to monitor large areas. The main goal of our research was to test the potential of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to upscale parameters monitored through the ICOS program. In this study, we specifically focus on above-ground biomass (AGB) monitoring in a winter wheat crop. We used a octocopter drone (X frame type) to acquire a time series over the crop growing season (8 flights from the 14th of February 2017 to the 7th of July 2017) of multispectral imagery covering the ICOS candidate station of Lonzée (Wallonia, Belgium) and the surrounding field crop areas (ca. 0.25 km² per flight). The multispectral camera provides spectral information on the green (550 +/- 50 nm), red (660 +/- 50 nm), near infrared (735 +/- 50 nm) and red-edge (790 +/- 10 nm) wavelengths bands. The UAV also brought an off-the-shelf high resolution (20 Mpx) RGB camera to derive accurate 3D data. We performed a photogrammetric 3D reconstruction of the acquired imagery for every flight survey. The images provided by the RGB sensor (Sony RX100) were used to produce a high spatial resolution Digital Surface Model (0.05 m) and the images acquired by the multispectral sensor were used to derive reflectance maps (0.1 m) in the four wavelengths bands. The four reflectance layers were combined to produce two straight-forward vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Green NDVI). The photogrammetric DSM’s were combined to a LiDAR Digital Terrain Model (public database, survey in winter 2013) to produce Crop Height Models (CHM) of the study area. We used multiple linear regressions modelling in order to predict the AGB of the field crop monitored by the ICOS station of Lonzée with UAV imagery. AGB=a+b*GNDVI+c*NDVI+d *CHM The field crop data were provided by the ICOS program and by field research conducted in experimental field crops close to the flux tower. The field sampling consisted in destructive samples of the crop which were weighted after drying. For each field sample, an associated area was computed based on the outdistance sowing and the number of sampled crops in order to compute an AGB per area unit (t / Ha). Each AGB field estimation was associated to the closest flight date to build a multi date model presenting good performances (r² = 0.85, RMSE = 2.3 t/Ha). We used the same modelling approach to adjust a single date model to derive a predicted AGB map for the 7th of July. The performance of the single date model is lower but still highlights the biomass variation within the crop (r² = 0.71, RMSE = 1.9 t/Ha). The predicted AGB map displays a high spatial heterogeneity with some spatial patterns. Locally low AGB values are found along two old pedestrian whereas higher AGB values can be associated to areas which were sprayed twice (in-between two tractor tracks). Our results highlight the potential of UAV multispectral imagery to monitor the AGB variation within the footprint of the flux tower and highlight the need for repeated field sampling with a precise geolocation to improve the matching between the flight and the field surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for Smaug and the golden mountain. Are fictional objects Kripkean or Meinongian?
Leclercq, Bruno ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

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See detailLieu de vie, lieu de travail. L'institution et le bien-être
Nisen, Laurent ULiege

Conference (2017, October 20)

Présentation de la session Braises consacrée au bien-être (des travailleurs, des résidents) en institution

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See detailLes risques toxicologiques liés aux médicaments de qualité inférieure
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULiege; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème ULiege; Ciza Hamuli, Patient ULiege et al

Conference (2017, October 19)

Objective: Poor quality medicines regrouping counterfeit/falsified, sub-standards and degraded are a scourge for developing countries (1). Their public health consequences are often observed for cases of ... [more ▼]

Objective: Poor quality medicines regrouping counterfeit/falsified, sub-standards and degraded are a scourge for developing countries (1). Their public health consequences are often observed for cases of low dosage of active ingredients and sometimes for the absence of these. On the basis of the observed facts as well as suspected reported cases, we were interested in deepening the information through laboratory tests. Methods: Liquid chromatography (LC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), Raman imagery (Rim) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used as targeted analytical techniques in this study, associated with the principal component analysis (PCA), while the suspect samples were obtained via the public health authorities of the DR Congo, Benin and Rwanda after their seizure. Results: The observed cases are presented by therapeutic class, namely: - analgesics: (1) cases of tablets supposed to contain paracetamol and which have caused abnormal adverse effects in patients who have consumed it, namely sedative effects, polyuria and hypotension. Using LC and complementary surveys by people interview, we were able to demonstrate the presence of a benzodiazepine and at very high doses. (2) Cases of paracetamol syrup whose excipient (glycerol) was substituted by diethylene glycol and which had caused the death of a hundred babies. Using the NIR and the PCA, we were able to elucidate this substitution. - antimalarials: (case 1) cases of arthemether-lumefantrine tablets which had no therapeutic effect. By means of TLC and LC, the absence of these two active ingredients was clearly demonstrated, but the presence of starch was revealed by Rim. (Case 2) case of quinine tablets that had no expected pharmacological effect. The use of several combined techniques (TLC, LC-MS, NMR and Rim) made it possible to demonstrate the presence of a substance with an imidazole structure (antamoeba). - antibiotics: (1) amoxicillin powder which after reconstitution in hospital caused poisoning of the babies until death for some. The reconstitution of the suspension had revealed the misuse of hydrogen peroxide instead of distilled water. (2) Finally a large-scale study (80 samples of amoxicillin powder) showed that 8% of the samples were above the claimed dosage. Conclusion: The cases presented indicate that there are effectively poor quality medicines and that they are responsible of public health problems and in particular of toxicity. Appropriate measures should be taken to protect users. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the Xpert®GBS LB test (Cepheid) performed on antenatal screening LIM enrichment broth for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, compared to the reference culture method.
MEEX, Cécile ULiege; DUPONT, Audrey; SACHELI, Rosalie ULiege et al

Conference (2017, October 19)

PCR, performed on LIM enrichment broth compared wit the reference method, that is subculture on selective differential agar performed from the same incubated Lim broth inoculated with a vagino-rectal swab ... [more ▼]

PCR, performed on LIM enrichment broth compared wit the reference method, that is subculture on selective differential agar performed from the same incubated Lim broth inoculated with a vagino-rectal swab collected at 35-37 weeks’ gestation. Material/methods: During an 8-months period in 2015-2016, series of consecutive vagino/rectal swabs collected for antenatal GBS screening (at the university hospital of Liege, Belgium) were plated first on Granada agar and then inoculated in selective enrichment LIM broth. The incubated broth was further sub-cultured on Granada and Biorad StrepBselect agars. Moreover, a sterile swab immersed in the same incubated broth was further analyzed by a real-time PCR targeting GBS using the Xpert®GBS LB test on the GeneXpert® system (Cepheid). Results: Among the 288 antenatal screenings included in the study, 48 (16.7%) were positive for GBS using the culture reference method and 51 Xpert®GBS LB test were positive (17.7%), includin the 48 samples positive in culture and 3 additional specimens for witch culture remained negative. Considering the enriched culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert®GBS LB test were 100% and 98.8% respectively. Conclusions: The Xpert®GBS LB test performed on incubated LIM broth is at least as efficient as selective enriched culture for antenatal screening of GBS. The turnaround-time and hands-on-ti are much shorter for the Xpert® GBS LB but it is more expensive than culture method, which may limit its use. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividuality Through Relatedness: A Leibnizian Framework for Quantum Mechanics
Dony, Arthur ULiege

Conference (2017, October 18)

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See detailThe quality of artemether-lumefantrine combination and characteristics of pharmacies in the periurban areas of kinshasa
Mavungu Landu, Don Jethro ULiege; Liégeois, Sophie; Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULiege et al

Conference (2017, October 18)

QUALITÉ DE LA COMBINAISON THERAPEUTIQUE ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE ET CARACTÉRISTIQUES DES PHARMACIES EN TERRITOIRES PÉRIURBAINS DE KINSHASA Mavungu Landu DJ.1,2, Liégeois S., Manzambi Kuwekita J.3,4, Mbinze ... [more ▼]

QUALITÉ DE LA COMBINAISON THERAPEUTIQUE ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE ET CARACTÉRISTIQUES DES PHARMACIES EN TERRITOIRES PÉRIURBAINS DE KINSHASA Mavungu Landu DJ.1,2, Liégeois S., Manzambi Kuwekita J.3,4, Mbinze J.5, Mavungu Nsiona J.6,Hubert P.1, Michel B.2,7, Gretry L.8, Minga Kwete M.9, Reginster J-Y.3, Frédérich M.1, Marini Djang'Eing'A R.1 1 Département de Pharmacie, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique; 2 Ecole Régionale Postuniversitaire d’Aménagement et de Gestion intégrés des Forêts et Territoires tropicaux, Kinshasa, RDC; 3 Département des Sciences de la Santé Publique, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique; 4 Section de Santé Communautaire, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, RDC; 5 Département de Galénique et d’Analyse des Médicaments, Université de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, RDC; 6 Division Provinciale de la Santé, Kinshasa, RDC; 7 Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Université de Liège, Gembloux, Belgique; 8 Plateforme Afrique Centrale, PACODEL, Kinshasa, RDC; 9 Secure drug, Kinshasa, RDC. Introduction: Le paludisme causé par le Plasmodium falciparum demeure un problème majeur de santé publique. Le traitement avec des antipaludiques de bonne qualité est une composante importante dans le contrôle de cette maladie. Cependant en Afrique centrale, plus de 25% des médicaments serait contrefaits ou de qualité inférieure, situation qui serait encore plus dramatique dans les territoires périurbains. Objectif: Afin de permettre une sensibilisation des populations vivant dans ces milieux, une étude a été menée dans le but d’évaluer l’existant au niveau sanitaire pharmaceutique. Méthodes: Dans le contexte ci-mentionné, une étude préliminaire et prospective a été menée dans la zone de santé de Mont Ngafula 1 située dans les territoires périurbains de la Ville de Kinshasa durant la période allant du 22 février au 10 décembre 2016. Trente échantillons de poudre pour suspension d’artéméther et de luméfantrine ont été collectés. L’analyse de la qualité de ces médicaments a été réalisée au moyen de méthodes séparatives génériques utilisant la technique de chromatographie liquide à haute performance couplé à un détecteur à barrettes de diodes. Une caractérisation a été également effectuée dans 127 établissements pharmaceutiques sur base des normes édictées par le Ministère de la Santé Publique congolais. Résultats: Le résultat des analyses des échantillons d’antimalariques (ou antipaludéens) montre qu’une poudre pour suspension d’artéméther et de luméfantrine sur trois (33,3%) ne contenait pas la concentration prévue en artéméther et/ou en luméfantrine. Par ailleurs, le résultat des observations évoque qu’aucun établissement pharmaceutique ne respectait l’ensemble des normes du Ministère de la Santé Publique. Conclusion: Cette étude nous apprend qu’en territoires périurbains de Kinshasa, un échantillon sur trois (33,3%) de la combinaison Artéméther-Luméfantrine est non conforme, les suspensions sont sous-dosées. Quant aux pharmacies existantes, aucune d’entre elles ne respecte l’ensemble des normes minimales édictées par le Ministère de la Santé Publique de la RDC. [less ▲]

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