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See detailLes pouvoirs publics et les édifices cultuels en Belgique
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Revue du Droit des Religions (2017), (3), 61-78

The Belgian regime of relations between the State and religious or philosophical communities results notably in financial supports for buildings used for worship and moral counselling. These interventions ... [more ▼]

The Belgian regime of relations between the State and religious or philosophical communities results notably in financial supports for buildings used for worship and moral counselling. These interventions are essentially a legacy of the French Concordat, largely unchallenged by the regionalization process. Today, it has to respond to contrasting situations between religions recognized in the 19th century – generally declining – and more recently recognized ones – generally expanding –. An additional complication originates in differences in ownership of the buildings or their classification as listed buildings. After presenting the situation by religious and philosophical community and level of power, this paper questions the equity of the system and addresses the possible developments. [less ▲]

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See detailFor a BRICS Agenda for Culture and the Creative Economy
Vlassis, Antonios ULg; Richieri-Hanania, Lilian

in Neuwirth, Rostam; Halis, Denis (Eds.) A BRICS-Lawyers' Guide to Global Cooperation (2017)

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See detailThe internet as a source of information used by women after childbirth to meet their need for information: A web-based survey.
Slomian, Justine ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Midwifery (2017), 48

OBJECTIVE: the aims of this survey were: (a) to evaluate the need of information after childbirth and what questions do 'new' mothers ask themselves; (b) to assess why and how women use the Internet to ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: the aims of this survey were: (a) to evaluate the need of information after childbirth and what questions do 'new' mothers ask themselves; (b) to assess why and how women use the Internet to meet their need of information; (c) to describe how the respondents evaluate the reliability of the information found; (d) to understand how the information found on the Internet affects women's decision-making; and (e) to appreciate how health professionals react to the information found by the women. DESIGN: this study used a large web-based survey that was widely broadcasted on various websites and social networks. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: belgian women who had a child under 2 years old and who agreed to participate were included in the study. FINDINGS: 349 questionnaires were valid for analyses. After childbirth, 90.5% of women admitted to using the Internet to seek information about themselves or about their baby, regardless of socioeconomic status or age. There were various reasons for seeking information on the Internet, but the most frequent reason the women expressed was to find information 'on their own' (88.1%). The most searched for topic was breastfeeding. The women believed that the information was quite useful (82.7%) but they assigned an average score of 5.3 out of 10 for the quality of the information they found on the Internet. Approximately 80% of the women felt that the Internet helped them control a decision that they made 'a little', 'often' or 'very often'. Professionals are not always willing to talk about information found on the Internet with mothers. Therefore, many women believed that health professionals should suggest reliable Internet websites for new mothers. CONCLUSIONS: the integration of the Internet and new technologies could be a useful tool during postpartum management. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic half-life and enrichment factor in two species of European freshwater fish larvae: an experimental approach
Latli, Adrien; Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Dujardin, Nelson et al

in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry (2017), 31(8), 685-692

RATIONALE: Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen are valuable tools for field ecologists to use to analyse animal diets. However, the application of these tools requires knowledge of the tissue ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen are valuable tools for field ecologists to use to analyse animal diets. However, the application of these tools requires knowledge of the tissue enrichment factor (TEF) and half-life (HL). We experimentally compared TEF and HL in two freshwater fish larvae. We hypothesised that chub had a better growth/tissue replacement ratio than roach, due to the use of a food closer to their natural diet. METHODS: We determined the isotopic HL, the TEF and the contribution of growth or metabolic tissue replacement to dynamic isotopic incorporation. After yolk sac resorption, larvae were fed for 5 weeks with prey similar to their natural diet (Artemia nauplii) up to the isotopic equilibrium followed by Chironomid larvae. Stable isotope measurements were carried out using a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to an elemental analyser. RESULTS: Changes in isotopic composition strongly followed the predictions of exponential growth and time-dependent models. The isotopic HL varied between 8.2 and 12.6 days and the TEF of nitrogen and carbon ranged from 1.7 to 2.1‰ and from –0.9 to 1.2 ‰, respectively. The incorporation of dietary 13C was due more to the production of new tissue (between 56 and 79%) than to the metabolic process. Chub allocated more energy to growth than roach and the Chironomidae diet contributed more to the consumers’ growth than the Artemia diet. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic rates seemed lower for chub than for roach, especially when they were fed with Chironomidae. A Chironomidae-based diet would be more profitable to chub, and the high associated growth rate could increase the development of the fish larvae. The HL and TEF were in the range of those reported in the literature. These results will be helpful for field-based studies, because they can help to increase the accuracy of models. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant : regards croisés
Scheepers, Caroline ULg; Outers, Pierre ULg; Werner, Anne-Catherine ULg

Poster (2017, April 29)

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à ... [more ▼]

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à propos de leurs représentations relatives à l'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant. Pour l'heure, nous disposons des réponses apportées par 30 enseignants et par 450 élèves. A terme, cinquante enseignants et 1000 élèves sont concernés. [less ▲]

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See detailDes preuves : où, quand, comment ?
Rigo, Michel ULg

Speech/Talk (2017)

Expliquer une démonstration, prouver un résultat, énoncer une conjecture sont des activités qui font partie intégrante du quotidien du mathématicien. Dans ce court exposé, je passerai en revue quelques ... [more ▼]

Expliquer une démonstration, prouver un résultat, énoncer une conjecture sont des activités qui font partie intégrante du quotidien du mathématicien. Dans ce court exposé, je passerai en revue quelques exemples de preuves. Certaines sont classiques ou historiques, d'autres sont peut-être moins connues : des preuves à la Ramanujan, des preuves sans mots, le théorème des quatre couleurs, la conjecture de Klepler sur l'empilement de sphères,... Le but est de partager mes réflexions comme chercheur « professionnel » et enseignant. [less ▲]

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See detailStreamlining NCA independence in reforming Regulation 1/2003: time to take incongruent accountability realities (more) seriously?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 28)

This presentation analyses argues that the Commission’s reform suggestions aimed at streamlining NCAs into independent administrative agencies appear to neglect this variety of accountability mechanisms ... [more ▼]

This presentation analyses argues that the Commission’s reform suggestions aimed at streamlining NCAs into independent administrative agencies appear to neglect this variety of accountability mechanisms underlying current NCA institutional organisation and functioning. Given that those mechanisms each harbour incongruent expectations regarding the organisation and functioning of independent NCAs, failure to acknowledge such incongruence may in practice lead to less effective competition law enforcement. Its purpose is therefore to uncover the different NCA independence perspectives underlying those accountability mechanisms and to look for legally sound ways to make them converge when designing or upgrading NCA independence in the context of the Regulation 1/2003 reform. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters
Borges, Alberto ULg; Bouilon, S

Conference (2017, April 28)

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See detailPhotosensitive polydimethylsiloxane networks for adjustable-patterned films
Jellali, Rachid; Alexandre, Michaël; Jérôme, Christine ULg

in Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(16), 2499-2508

Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) bearing photoreactive coumarin groups have been synthesized by amida- tion of a coumarin acid chloride derivative with various amine-functionalized PDMSs. Upon exposure to UV ... [more ▼]

Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) bearing photoreactive coumarin groups have been synthesized by amida- tion of a coumarin acid chloride derivative with various amine-functionalized PDMSs. Upon exposure to UV light having a wavelength of above 300 nm, multifunctional coumarin-PDMSs are transformed into covalent networks via [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of two coumarin moieties forming a cyclobutane ring. Taking advantage of the possible localized irradiation through a photomask, a novel concept to generate patterned PDMS films with various surface topologies was demonstrated. This concept is based on the combination of a low molar mass difunctional PDMS with a multifunctional PDMS of a high molar mass forming a photoreversible network allowing osmotic diffusion of a linear PDMS-coumarin of low mole- cular weight in a loosely crosslinked network. Advantageously, illumination by a light source at 254 nm induces the photocleavage of the cyclobutane cross-links offering some photo-induced reversibility to the PDMS network. These novel photo-responsive networks are interesting for several applications, in photo-adaptable biomedical implants (particularly photo-adjustable intra-ocular lenses), photo-tuneable patterned microsystems (e.g. for microfluidics) and photo-switchable controlled release systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Prediction-Focused Approach: An opportunity for hydrogeophysical data integration and interpretation
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Klepikova, Maria et al

Conference (2017, April 28)

Hydrogeophysics is an interdisciplinary field of sciences aiming at a better understanding of subsurface hydrological processes. If geophysical surveys have been successfully used to qualitatively ... [more ▼]

Hydrogeophysics is an interdisciplinary field of sciences aiming at a better understanding of subsurface hydrological processes. If geophysical surveys have been successfully used to qualitatively characterize the subsurface, two important challenges remain for a better quantification of hydrological processes: (1) the inversion of geophysical data and (2) their integration in hydrological subsurface models. The classical inversion approach using regularization suffers from spatially and temporally varying resolution and yields geologically unrealistic solutions without uncertainty quantification, making their utilization for hydrogeological calibration less consistent. More advanced techniques such as coupled inversion allow for a direct use of geophysical data for conditioning groundwater and solute transport model calibration. However, the technique is difficult to apply in complex cases and remains computationally demanding to estimate uncertainty. In a recent study, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) to directly estimate subsurface physical properties from geophysical data, circumventing the need for classic inversions. In PFA, we seek a direct relationship between the data and the subsurface variables we want to predict (the forecast). This relationship is obtained through a prior set of subsurface models for which both data and forecast are computed. A direct relationship can often be derived through dimension reduction techniques. PFA offers a framework for both hydrogeophysical “inversion” and hydrogeophysical data integration. For hydrogeophysical “inversion”, the considered forecast variable is the subsurface variable, such as the salinity. An ensemble of possible solutions is generated, allowing uncertainty quantification. For hydrogeophysical data integration, the forecast variable becomes the prediction we want to make with our subsurface models, such as the concentration of contaminant in a drinking water production well. Geophysical and hydrological data are combined to derive a direct relationship between data and forecast. We illustrate the process for the design of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. An ATES system can theoretically recover in winter the heat stored in the aquifer during summer. In practice, the energy efficiency is often lower than expected due to spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic properties combined to a non-favorable hydrogeological gradient. A proper design of ATES systems should consider the uncertainty of the prediction related to those parameters. With a global sensitivity analysis, we identify sensitive parameters for heat storage prediction and validate the use of a short term heat tracing experiment monitored with geophysics to generate informative data. First, we illustrate how PFA can be used to successfully derive the distribution of temperature in the aquifer from ERT during the heat tracing experiment. Then, we successfully integrate the geophysical data to predict medium-term heat storage in the aquifer using PFA. The result is a full quantification of the posterior distribution of the prediction conditioned to observed data in a relatively limited time budget. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen expertise isn't enough for making policy: illustrations from the university field
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 28)

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See detailHedge fund trading strategies and performance: theory and practice
Lambert, Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 28)

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See detailCaractérisation et élaboration d'un outil de surveillance des cuvettes oasiennes et de leurs alentours par télédétection et système d'information
Karimou Barké, Mahamadou Salifou ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Situées en zone semi-aride, les cuvettes oasiennes du centre-est du Niger sont des agro-écosystèmes à hautes potentialités. C’est seulement à l’intérieur de ces dernières que l’agriculture est possible ... [more ▼]

Situées en zone semi-aride, les cuvettes oasiennes du centre-est du Niger sont des agro-écosystèmes à hautes potentialités. C’est seulement à l’intérieur de ces dernières que l’agriculture est possible durant toute l’année. Ces cuvettes oasiennes ont connu de nombreux investissements de la part de plusieurs ONGs et projets au cours des dernières années. Cependant, elles sont souvent peu connues par ces acteurs du développement du fait de leur grand nombre et de leur extrême diversité. Cette thèse cherche à réduire cette méconnaissance à travers les activités suivantes: • évaluer les performances de trois méthodes de classification d’images appliquées à la détection de ces cuvettes oasiennes dans le Département de Gouré. Ces méthodes sont l’analyse pixellaire, l’analyse texturale et l’analyse par objet. Elles sont appliquées à des images SPOT 5-THX de 2.5 m de résolution ; • caractériser la forme des cuvettes oasiennes avec deux indices morphologiques (l’indice de compacité de Gravelius et l’indice fractale de leurs contours) ainsi que leurs orientations en utilisant les secteurs de la rose de vent comme repères ; • évaluer les contraintes et potentialités liées aux unités de paysage des cuvettes et de leurs alentours pour l’ensemble des cuvettes oasiennes à partir des extensions de ces unités de paysage, élaborer des indicateurs spatiaux de caractérisation des cuvettes ; • analyser la dynamique de l’occupation des sols de cuvettes oasiennes et de leurs alentours en utilisant les images Landsat 5-TM de 1984, les images SPOT 3 de 1996 et les images SPOT 5-THX de 2013. • proposer un outil de monitoring et une esquisse de système expert orienté à partir des données récoltées par ce biais sur l’ensemble des cuvettes de la zone d’étude. L’évaluation des résultats montre que l’approche par objet (précision globale égale à 97.12%, coefficient Kappa égal à 0.97) est plus performante que celles utilisant la texture (précision globale égale à 89.61%, coefficient Kappa égal à 0,90) et l’analyse par pixel (précision globale égale à 80.58 %, coefficient Kappa égal à 0.80). Une première information originale, à savoir le nombre, la position et la surface de l’ensemble des cuvettes sur la zone d’étude est fournie. Le nombre total de cuvettes oasiennes dans le Département de Gouré est ainsi estimé à 10717. Cet inventaire de ces lieux stocks de ressources est une première étape obligatoire pour leur caractérisation morphologique et pour l’évaluation de leurs potentialités agricoles. L’indice de forme de Gravelius met en évidence une certaine diversité de leurs contours : des cuvettes circulaires (9%), ovales (47%), amiboïdes (11%), étirées (18%) et très étirées ou étirées-amiboïdes (16%). La dimension fractale permet de distinguer trois classes de cuvette selon le degré de lissage de ces contours : très lissées (39%), lissées (50%) et moyennement lissées (10%). Le lissage est interprété ici comme un indicateur d’éolisation des pourtours des cuvettes. Enfin la détermination de l’orientation des grands axes des cuvettes a permis d’identifier quatre secteurs majeurs : E-W (23%), N-S (21%), NE-SW (22%) et SE-NW (34%). Ces analyses morphologiques et d’orientation appliquées pour la première fois à l’ensemble des cuvettes oasiennes du Département de Gouré offrent des éléments permettant de comprendre les processus d’ensablement des cuvettes oasiennes dans cette zone. L’analyse des indicateurs des potentialités naturelles à la mise en valeur agricole montre que les cuvettes oasiennes sont des espaces multi-usages, avec des aptitudes en arboriculture, maraîchage, en natron et en foresterie selon les unités géomorphologiques. Le pourcentage des surfaces cultivables est faible pour 45.8% des cuvettes et fort à très fort pour seulement 3.9 %. Celui des surfaces boisées est très fort sur 61.6 % des cuvettes soit 51.4 % en superficie. Les cuvettes possédant un sol nu à natron et/ou une nappe d’eau affleurante représentent 17.6 % des cuvettes. Quant aux indicateurs de risque de dégradation, ils montrent que 3.3 % et 0.5 % des cuvettes ont respectivement une menace d’ensablement fort et très fort à moyen terme. Alors qu’à terme immédiat, c’est respectivement 3% et 0.8 % des cuvettes dont la menace d’ensablement est fort et très fort. Concernant l’évolution récente de ces milieux, les superficies des cuvettes oasiennes ont régressé de 46783 ha en 1984, à 40831 ha en 1996 et 34553 ha en 2013. Inversement, leur nombre a augmenté de 1984 (8911) à 2013 (10717). Ceci s’explique certes pour partie par les résolutions différentes des images satellitaires utilisées, mais surtout par la fragmentation de certaines cuvettes du fait de leur dégradation et la création de nouvelles cuvettes par l’érosion éolienne. Cette dynamique est accentuée par celle de l’occupation humaine des paysages. Les abords des cuvettes et des vallées sèches constitués souvent d’édifices dunaires sont de plus en plus occupés par les cultures pluviales qui les exposent davantage à l’érosion. En 1984, les édifices dunaires et vallées sèches à culture pluviale représentent 295697 ha alors, qu’en 1996 et 2013, elles occupent respectivement 368153 ha et 423876 ha. Les systèmes d’information à référence spatiale esquissés permettent d’observer et de suivre la totalité des cuvettes oasiennes. Ce système, conçu en utilisant le langage UML, a permis non seulement d’établir des relations entre les indicateurs de potentiel valorisable et de dégradation mais aussi des informations supplémentaires récoltées sur le terrain (village, marché, zone de fixation biologique et mécanique des dunes). Ils offrent un accès aisé à ces indicateurs grâce à une interface informatique. À travers des requêtes sur cette base de données, les cuvettes à menace très forte nécessitant une intervention urgente pour leur conservation ont été mises en évidence ainsi que les variables explicatives du niveau d’exploitation des cuvettes. [less ▲]

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See detailHighlights from two years of remote sensing at Mars with MAVEN’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph
Chaffin; Schneider; Deighan et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) observes Mars in the far and mid ultraviolet (110-340 nm), investigating lower and upper atmospheric ... [more ▼]

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) observes Mars in the far and mid ultraviolet (110-340 nm), investigating lower and upper atmospheric structure and indirectly probing neutral atmospheric escape. After two Earth years in orbit (one Mars year), IUVS has assembled a large quantity of data and made many discoveries, some of which we report here. Among the key results obtained by IUVS are: (1) discovery of the widespread occurrence of a diffuse proton aurora, representing a newly discovered means of energy deposition into the atmospheres of unmagnetized planets; (2) continued investigation of time-variability in H and O escape, which have dessicated the planet over its history; and (3) synoptic characterization of thermospheric variability and response to solar input. We will present an overview of these results and a discussion of their implications for the state of the atmosphere and its evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailReinventing chemical manufacturing: toward a compact and mobile factory?
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 27)

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