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See detailVoyage[s] through the thymus, the small central 'brain' of the adaptive immune system
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 24)

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However ... [more ▼]

Our studies have demonstrated that the thymus programs central self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions through transcription of neuroendocrine-related genes in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, thymic neuroendocrine precursors are not secreted but processed as the source of neuroendocrine self-antigens that are presented by thymic proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This process, highly specific of the thymus, has allowed an integrated and harmonious coevolution of the neuroendocrine and immune systems when recombination-activating genes and the subsequent adaptive immune response have emerged in cartilaginous fishes some 450-500 millions years ago. All the members of the insulin gene family are expressed in murine TECs under the control of AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) according a precise hierarchy: Igf2 >Igf1>Ins2>Ins1. Igf2 transcription is defective in TECs of autoimmune diabetes-prone BB rats, and tolerance to insulin is severely impaired in Igf2-/- mice as well as in Igf2-loxP/Foxn1-cre mice with Igf2 deletion targeted in TECs. In addition, the diabetogenic coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) is able to persistently infect human and murine TECs and to inhibit Igf2 transcription and IGF-2 synthesis in a murine medullary TEC line (coolaboration with D. Hober, Laboratory of Virology, CHRU and University of Lille 2, France). These studies show that: 1° IGF-2 is the dominant tolerogenic precursor of the family and mediates cross-tolerance to insulin; 2° a thymus dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of the diabetogenic autoimmune response; and 3° a thymic infection by CV-B4 is implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Most probably due to its very low level of expression in the thymus, the protein insulin is highly immunogenic and is the primary autoantigen tackled in T1D. On the basis of the tolerogenic properties of IGF-2, we are currently working on the development of a negative/tolerogenic self-vaccine against T1D. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Islamic coinage of Barqa from the conquest up to the advent of the Fatimids
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2016, March 19)

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See detailDepressive symptomatology and the influence of the behavioral avoidance and activation: A gender-specific investigation
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Baeyens, Céline; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2016), 193

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the behavioral avoidance in the maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the specific impact of the behavioral avoidance and activation on each depressive symptom as well as on gender differences on the behavioral features of depression. METHODS: This study’s aim was two-fold: (1) to assess the presence of gender differences on the BDI-II; (2) to investigate the respective predictive value of behavioral avoidance and of behavioral activation on each depressive symptom assessed by the BDI-II depending on gender. Community adults and adults attending mental healthcare composed the sample. RESULTS: Results showed differences in symptomatology profiles depending on gender (e.g. higher scores of sadness, self-criticalness in women, higher scores of past failure and loss of pleasure in men). Behavioral avoidance positively predicted almost all depressive symptoms in women and in men while behavioral activation negatively predicted almost all symptoms in both gender. Nevertheless, the strengths of these relationships were different for some symptoms (e.g. pessimism). LIMITATIONS: The use of self-report instruments; the lack of assessment of causal or precipitating factors of the depressive symptomatology; the higher number of women in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed with respect to previous findings and present clinical implications: (1) to underline the relevance of the combination of gender-specific assessment tools; (2) to highlight the need of tailored psychological intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailSaint Genet et le dépassement de la situation : Création d’une clinique sartrienne
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 09)

Nous proposons de partir de Saint Genet : Comédien et Martyr (1952), monumentale psychobiographie de Sartre, pour évoquer une première lecture de la temporalité sartrienne et particulièrement des notions ... [more ▼]

Nous proposons de partir de Saint Genet : Comédien et Martyr (1952), monumentale psychobiographie de Sartre, pour évoquer une première lecture de la temporalité sartrienne et particulièrement des notions d’« instant » et de « conversion ». Le sujet clinique sur lequel s’appuiera notre propos et qui retiendra notre attention est l’incendiaire (dont on rappellera la différence avec le pyromane). Ensuite, nous convoquerons, et confondrons, L’esquisse d’une théorie des émotions (1933) et les Questions de Méthodes (1957). Ces deux points de repère nous permettront de reprendre le cas Genet et sa réaction à la lecture du volume que Sartre lui a consacré. D’importantes questions méthodologiques en psychologie clinique naîtront de ce développement et feront émerger une perspective « en double spirale » et la décisive question du corps. [less ▲]

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See detailThe compositional evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON) from ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign
Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R. J.; Kawakita, H. et al

in Icarus (2016), 266

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP ... [more ▼]

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP]) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W.M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H[SUB]2[/SUB]O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing markedly from (8.7 ± 1.5) × 10[SUP]27[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on October 26 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.12 AU) to (3.7 ± 0.4) × 10[SUP]29[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on November 20 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production is also seen as observations on November 19 show an increase in H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production rate of nearly a factor of two over a period of about 6 h. C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] abundances in ISON are slightly depleted relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O when compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], HCN and OCS abundances relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O appear to be within the range of mean values, whereas H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] were significantly enhanced. There is evidence that the abundances with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O increased for some species but not others between October 28 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.07 AU) and November 19 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.46 AU). The high mixing ratios of H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO/CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB]/C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB] on November 19, and changes in the mixing ratios of some species with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O between October 28 to November 19, indicates compositional changes that may be the result of a transition from sampling radiation-processed outer layers in this dynamically new comet to sampling more pristine natal material as the outer processed layer was increasingly eroded and the thermal wave propagated into the nucleus as the comet approached perihelion for the first time. On November 19 and 20, the spatial distribution for dust appears asymmetric and enhanced in the antisolar direction, whereas spatial distributions for volatiles (excepting CN) appear symmetric with their peaks slightly offset in the sunward direction compared to the dust. Spatial distributions for H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], and H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO on November 19 show no definitive evidence for significant contributions from extended sources; however, broader spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and OCS may be consistent with extended sources for these species. Abundances of HCN and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 are insufficient to account for reported abundances of CN and C[SUB]2[/SUB] in ISON near this time. Differences in HCN and CN spatial distributions are also consistent with HCN as only a minor source of CN in ISON on November 19 as the spatial distribution of CN in the coma suggests a dominant distributed source that is correlated with dust and not volatile release. The spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and NH[SUB]2[/SUB] are similar, suggesting that NH[SUB]3[/SUB] is the primary source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] with no evidence of a significant dust source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB]; however, the higher production rates derived for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] compared to NH[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 remain unexplained. This suggests a more complete analysis that treats NH[SUB]2[/SUB] as a distributed source and accounts for its emission mechanism is needed for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Order Model for Accounting for High Frequency Effects in Power Electronic Components
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Hasan, Md. Rokibul et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016)

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See detailLike a bridge over troubled water – opening pathways for integrating social sciences and humanities into nuclear research
Turcanu, Catrinel; Schröder, Jantine; Meskens, Gaston et al

in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (2016), 153

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear ... [more ▼]

Research on nuclear technologies has been largely driven by a detachment of the 'technical content' from the 'social context'. However, social studies of science and technology - also for the nuclear domain – emphasize that 'the social' and 'the technical' dimensions of technology development are inter-related and co-produced. In an effort to create links between nuclear research and innovation and society in mutually beneficial ways, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre started fifteen years ago a ‘Programme of Integration of Social Aspects into nuclear research’ (PISA). In line with broader science-policy agendas (responsible research and innovation and technology assessment), this paper argues that the importance of such programmes is threefold. First, their multi-disciplinary basis and participatory character contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between science, technology and society, in general, and the complexity of nuclear technology assessment in particular. Second, their functioning as (self )critical policy supportive research with outreach to society is an essential prerequisite for policies aiming at generating societal trust in the context of controversial issues related to nuclear technologies and exposure to ionising radiation. Third, such programmes create an enriching dynamic in the organisation itself, stimulating collective learning and transdisciplinarity. The paper illustrates with concrete examples these claims and concludes by discussing some key challenges that researchers face while engaging in work of this kind. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Interpolation on Manifold of Reduced Order Models in Magnetodynamic Problems
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016), 52(3), 1-4

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See detailLe sensible chez Franz Brentano
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2016, March)

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See detailDecoding intracranial EEG data with multiple kernel learning method
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 261

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced ... [more ▼]

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced the field of neuroimaging, their application to electrophysiological data has been less common especially in the analysis of human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG, also known as electrocorticography or ECoG) data, which contains a rich spectrum of signals recorded from a relatively high number of recording sites. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach to determine the contribution of different bandwidths of EEG signal in different recording sites across different experimental conditions using the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) method. To validate and compare the usefulness of our approach, we applied this method to an ECoG dataset that was previously analysed and published with univariate methods. Our findings proved the usefulness of the MKL method in detecting changes in the power of various frequency bands during a given task and selecting automatically the most contributory signal in the most contributory site(s) of recording. With a single computation, the contribution of each frequency band in each recording site in the estimated multivariate model can be highlighted, which then allows formulation of hypotheses that can be tested a posteriori with univariate methods if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a translation stage for in situ non-invasive analysis and high resolution imaging
Strivay, David ULg; Clar, Mathieu ULg; Rakkaa, Saïd ULg et al

Poster (2016, March)

Non-invasive imaging techniques and analytical instrumentation for cultural heritage object studies have undergone a tremendous development over the last years. Many new miniature and/or handheld systems ... [more ▼]

Non-invasive imaging techniques and analytical instrumentation for cultural heritage object studies have undergone a tremendous development over the last years. Many new miniature and/or handheld systems have been developed and optimized. Nonetheless, these instruments are usually used with a tripod or a manual position system. This is very time consuming when performing point analysis or 2D scanning of a surface. The Centre Européen d’Archéométrie (CEA) has build a translation system made of pluggable rails of 1 m long with a maximum length and height of 3 m. Three motors embedded in the system allow the platform to be moved along these axis, toward and backward from the sample. The rails hold a displacement system, providing a continuous movement. Any position can be reached with a reproducibility of 0.1 mm. The displacements are controlled by an Ethernet connection through a laptop computer running a multiplatform homemade software written in JAVA. This software allows a complete control over the positioning using a simple, unique, and concise interface. Automatic scanning can be performed over a large surface of 3 meters on 3 meters. The Ethernet wires provide also the power for the different motors and, if necessary the detection head. The platform has been originally designed for a XRF detection head (with its full power alimentation) but now can accommodate many different systems like IR reflectography, digital camera, hyperspectral camera, Raman probes, etc. The positioning system can be modified to combine the acquisition software of the imaging or analytical techniques and the positioning software. [less ▲]

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See detail“Color is a kind of holy substance for me”: analytical study of the Sam Francis’ palette from the 1940’s to the 1990’s
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta et al

Poster (2016, March)

The Sam Francis’s colors, literally described as vivid, saturated, pure, vibrant intense and rich, largely contribute to the unique character of his work. This idiosyncrasy explains the interest in ... [more ▼]

The Sam Francis’s colors, literally described as vivid, saturated, pure, vibrant intense and rich, largely contribute to the unique character of his work. This idiosyncrasy explains the interest in conducting an extended study on the Francis’ painting materials through analytical techniques. On the other hand, many Francis’ paintings display colored surfaces that exhibit bronzing, fluorescent or opalescent effects. As a consequence, retouching paint losses from Sam Francis works may become a challenging task for the involved conservators, the degree of the color matching required in the imitative technique being particularly difficult to attain, in the presence of such surfaces. Furthermore, the attained degree of the color match has to be conserved in all conditions of illumination and observation. The use of pigments chemically similar to the original ones is often necessary for matching highly chromatic pigments. Though, many modern synthetic organic pigments (SOPs) possess high color strength. That is why the characterization of the Francis palette would provide helpful information to the conservators, which have to deal with this type of issue. The upcoming Getty publication Sam Francis: The Artist’s Materials, planned for 2016, offered the opportunity for in-depth analyses of hundreds paint samples. Almost three hundreds of paint fragments supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation have been investigated at the GCI laboratory, by using three complementary analytical techniques, Py-GC-MS, Raman and FTIR spectroscopies. The Raman spectroscopy is one of the most efficient techniques for identifying SOPs in paint systems, while the Py-GC-MS and FTIR methods provide essential information concerning the binding media. The analyzed paint fragments were sampled from twenty-nine canvases and works on paper, made between 1946 and 1992. Although, primary established in Southern California, Sam Francis spent numerous long journeys in different places around the world, including Paris, Bern, Mexico City, New York and Tokyo. However, the material study has outlined the uninterrupted use of` certain classes of SOPs in specific colors. For example, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) pigments were systematically detected in the blue and green samples, while azo pigments have been identified in most of the yellow areas sampled from post 1940s works. Regardless of the support and the paint technique, the Francis’ blues primary contain Ultramarine and/or CuPc blue pigments. And, it has been shown that the bronzing blue surfaces noticed for some of the investigated artworks correspond to PB15-based paint films. The present study has also underlined the recurrent use of perinone orange and dioxazine violet in fluorescent orange and purple area. Despite the early introduction of SOPs, on the Francis’ palette, the works dating from the 1940’s remained mainly composed of traditional inorganic pigments, for instance lead white and red, chrome yellow, viridian and iron oxides. Interestingly, various binding media, i.e. Shellac gum, modified and unmodified oils, PVA, alkyd resins and acrylic copolymers have been identified. Actually, the investigated samples have pointed out the frequent combination of more than three types of binders on a same painting. Through the identification of the various SOPs used by Francis over fifty years, this research provide helpful information for selecting the most appropriate retouching pigments. [less ▲]

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See detailMobiliser la culture du pays d’origine, un défi pour l’intégration des migrants?
Mescoli, Elsa ULg; Gsir, Sonia ULg

Conference (2016, March)

La culture constitue pour les migrants et leurs pays d’origine un moyen de maintenir des liens réciproques après la migration. Mais quels sont les enjeux de la mobilisation de la culture d’origine pour ... [more ▼]

La culture constitue pour les migrants et leurs pays d’origine un moyen de maintenir des liens réciproques après la migration. Mais quels sont les enjeux de la mobilisation de la culture d’origine pour l’intégration des migrants dans leurs nouveaux pays de résidence ? Cette présentation analyse le déploiement de la culture du pays d’origine à trois niveaux : celui des pratiques quotidiennes des migrants, des politiques d’intégration et de diaspora et enfin, le niveau des associations, en particulier les centres culturels établis en Europe par les pays d’origine des migrants. Les pratiques culturelles des migrants et les actions et institutions culturelles mises en place par les pays d’origine sont confrontées au cadre légal européen en matière de diversité culturelle mais aussi aux politiques et discours sur l’intégration des migrants. La perspective à la fois anthropologique et sociologique adoptée révèle les processus de domination culturelle qui sont à l’œuvre. Elle permet aussi de questionner l’idée d’identité culturelle en montrant le dynamisme qui caractérise les cultures mais aussi la créativité des communautés locales dans un environnement globalisé. Finalement, on constate qu’une variété de facteurs est en jeu dans les processus d’intégration des migrants, que les dynamiques de la culture elle-même déterminent des appartenances multiples et aussi que les identités se développent au sein des interactions entre cultures. Si on ne peut établir de lien causal et univoque entre les pratiques culturelles liées au pays d’origine et l’intégration des migrants dans le pays de résidence, on peut par contre se référer à la notion d’ethnicité et à sa fonction politique (Comaroff et Comaroff, 2009). [less ▲]

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See detail2nd International Conference, Architecture & Philosophy: AT THE TURN OF THE EXPERIENCE, questioning what we build, sharing what we face
YOUNES, Chris; BONNAUD, Xavier; Bodart, Céline ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, March)

The conference is an initiative of the GERPHAU lab, research group for Philosophy, Architecture, Urban (Architecture School of Paris La Villette, UMR 7218 CNRS-Lavue), in partnership with Cité de l ... [more ▼]

The conference is an initiative of the GERPHAU lab, research group for Philosophy, Architecture, Urban (Architecture School of Paris La Villette, UMR 7218 CNRS-Lavue), in partnership with Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine and philAU (a scientific thematic network : Philosophy, Architecture, Urban). This conference is also supported by ARENA(Architectural Research in Europe Network Association), a shared platform that aims to promote, support, develop and disseminate high-quality research in all fields of architecture in the widest sense. The proposal of the conference AT THE TURN OF THE EXPERIENCE is to start with the hypothesis that the architecture could be conceive as a way of enquiring on this new experience of the world. Because it provides precisely access to the experience modalities of the building world, we argue that it could in return reveal such a processing paradigm shift in the making of human settlements. We invite to re-invest and re-question its representation apparatus that it used to deploy on territories in order to translate in fictions and projects what these ones could become. To discuss about these apparatus just as such these possible translations, the conference is addressed to all researchers and practitioners, architects and creators, the experienced ones and the experiencing ones as well, whose works attempt to question what we build and to share what we face. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. Ethique et politique de la recherche
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 25)

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See detailEsquisse d'une méthode et questions émotionnelles
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

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See detail"Témoigner-pour-mourir" : notes sur Sartre, Bourdieu et le passage par la biographie
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

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See detailComputerized adaptive and multi-stage testing with R
Yan, Duanli; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, February 19)

Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) has greatly improved the accuracy and efficiency of psychological testing for decades. Multistage Testing (MST) has received much of attention recently. MST is similar ... [more ▼]

Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) has greatly improved the accuracy and efficiency of psychological testing for decades. Multistage Testing (MST) has received much of attention recently. MST is similar to CAT such that it allows the adaptation of the difficulty of the test to the level of ability of a test taker. Specifically, in MST, items are interactively selected for each test taker, but rather than selecting individual items, groups of items are selected and the test is built in stages. Over the last decade, researchers have investigated ways for an MST to incorporate most of the advantages from CAT and linear testing, while minimize their disadvantages. These features include testing efficiency and accuracy, greater control of test content, more robust item review, as well as simplified test assembly and administration. Therefore, MST can be an effective compromise between CAT and linear testing, embedding features and benefits from both designs. Thus, MST becomes of more and more interest to researchers and practitioners as technology advances. This presentation will first provide a general overview of a multistage test (MST) design and its important concepts and processes. It will then present the latest development on CAT and MST using R, the mstR package. The presentation will also illustrate how to simulate MST administrations using mstR package, and discuss some practical issues and considerations for MST from design to applications. [less ▲]

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