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See detailEvaluation du décret du 30 avril 2009 relatif au développement des pratiques de lecture organisé par le réseau public de la lecture et les bibliothèques publiques. Troisième rapport : première partie : Enquête Delphi, analyse du deuxième tour
Fallon, Catherine ULg; Halin, Jordan ULg; Italiano, Patrick ULg et al

Report (2015)

This report presents results of a Delphi online (Mesydel software) survey about evaluation of "décret du 30 avril 2009 relatif au développement des pratiques de lecture organisé par le réseau public de la ... [more ▼]

This report presents results of a Delphi online (Mesydel software) survey about evaluation of "décret du 30 avril 2009 relatif au développement des pratiques de lecture organisé par le réseau public de la lecture et les bibliothèques publiques" in Wallonia-Brussel Federation. This survey in two rounds questionned a hundred public libraries about the implementation of the decret. [less ▲]

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See detailLes genres médiatiques de l’anticipation : des usages comiques du futur
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2015, June 10)

La petite presse multiplie volontiers les usages comiques de la prédiction, tantôt en empruntant ses effets à l’almanach, tantôt en traitant au second degré les marronniers trop familiers, tantôt encore ... [more ▼]

La petite presse multiplie volontiers les usages comiques de la prédiction, tantôt en empruntant ses effets à l’almanach, tantôt en traitant au second degré les marronniers trop familiers, tantôt encore en infléchissant vers la prospective le principe de la revue de fin d’année. Ainsi, il est fréquent que les petits journaux satiriques feignent d’imaginer les événements à venir sous la forme de « prédictions pour l’année » et de « coups d’œil prophétiques ». Après certaines pages du Charivari dans les années 1830 et 1840, l’humour d’un Albert Robida dans la Caricature a contribué à populariser ces procédés dans les années 1880. Si de telles éphémérides parodiques ne bénéficient pas de la stabilité d’une rubrique spécifique, elles sont toutefois appelées, au siècle suivant, à prendre l’ampleur de numéros complets qui témoignent d’une postérité intéressante (Illustration, Lectures pour tous, VU, Sciences et voyages) et d’une créativité iconotextuelle qui peut aller jusqu’au faux reportage photographique d’anticipation. Aussi fréquentes que polymorphes et éparpillées, ces prédictions comiques composent une microforme médiatique inhérente à la modernité de la petite presse, et ce par deux aspects au moins. D’une part, leur discursivité porte sur des données socioculturelles présentées comme remarquables et novatrices, censées incarner la quintessence de leur époque tout entière tendue vers l’avenir, ce qu’appuie encore l’intertextualité avec le merveilleux scientifique issu des pages de vulgarisation scientifique. D’autre part, leur poétique affiche une temporalité méta-médiatique renvoyant aux fonctions rituelles et référentielles du périodique, occasion de déployer une fiction publicitaire qui fait double office de support fantasmatique de projection et de vecteur autopromotionnel du journal. Cette communication a proposé une première recension et des éléments de poétique historique pour mieux cerner dans sa variété un sous-genre médiatique encore peu considéré. On a examiné, outre les procédés privilégiés (numéro circonstanciel d’étrennes, éphéméride parodique, revue de fin d’année détournée, billet d’humeur, recension culturelle, déclinaison médiatique de la féérie, etc.) et les transformations discursives que leur applique le second degré de la petite presse, les réalités socioculturelles sur lesquelles porte principalement l’anticipation (mode, progrès techniques, avancées sociales, produits de l’industrie), afin de définir quels objets médiatiques sont ainsi construits en discours et en représentations par le journal dans un commentaire qui veut cerner les promesses de modernité dans l’actualité. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying the great potential of cultivable bacteria associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Martin, Renée ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan et al

Poster (2015, June 09)

Bacteria associated with algae differ markedly from those living freely in seawater and represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds as they interact in multiple complex ... [more ▼]

Bacteria associated with algae differ markedly from those living freely in seawater and represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds as they interact in multiple complex ways with their host. Here we identified new bacterial species, and their polysaccharolytic activities, associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. To isolate cultivable microorganisms, algal thalli of Ascophyllum nodosum were swabbed with sterile cotton tips and marine agar plates were inoculated. Three-hundred isolated bacteria were screened for agarase, kappa- or iota-carrageenase activities on specific marine media. Thirty-two bacteria with polysaccharolytic activities were isolated and a part of their 16S rDNA (8F-1492R) were amplified and sequenced. Twenty-seven were classified as Flavobacteriia and five as Gammaproteobacteria. Putative new strains and species of Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, Shewanella, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Colwellia were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Genomics libraries with their DNA were constructed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and are currently screened for diverse enzymatic activities (agarases, iota-and kappa-carrageenases, cellulases, beta-glucosidases, sulfatases and amylases). In an era where high throughput sequencing is mostly used to study bacterial communities, cultivation methods are underestimated. Here, we revealed that only ten percent of the cultivable bacteria on this brown alga could degrade algal polysaccharides, which lead to asking us; who and what are the 90 other percents doing there? Furthermore, by this cultivation method we could also identify putative new bacterial strains/species, which are screened for polysaccharidases. Novel glycoside hydrolases from unknown marine bacteria represent great biotechnological potential as they should have original industrial properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMesures de mémoire épisodique
Bastin, Christine ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 09)

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See detailTopology optimization of mechanical and aerospace components subject to fatigue stress constraints
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Collet, Maxime ULg; Bauduin, Simon ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 08)

While topology optimization has been based mostly on compliance type formulations, industrial applications call for more elaborated formulations including several restrictions on the local displacements ... [more ▼]

While topology optimization has been based mostly on compliance type formulations, industrial applications call for more elaborated formulations including several restrictions on the local displacements and the stress constraints in some critical zones. Topology optimization with stress constraints was initially considered in Duysinx & Bendsoe (1998). Later the stress constraint formulation was further extended to consider non equal stress constraints limits Bruggi & Duysinx (2012) and to improve the solution efficiency using different strategies such as global stress constraint formulations (Duysinx & Sigmund, 1998, Le et al. 2010). In the present work, the authors are investigating the formulations of stress constraint topology optimization to support the redesign of structural components that have to be fabricated using additive manufacturing. In this perspective, design problem requirements include tackling fatigue constraints during stress constrained topology optimization. The work investigates different formulations of fatigue resistance which could be appropriate in a topology approach. At first the classical approach of mechanical engineering based on SN curves and Goodman or Soderberg lines. The treatment of these fatigue restrictions can take advantage of former work developed for unequal stress constraints by considering mean and alternating components of the stress state. In a second step our research is now focussing on more complex situations (3D stress states) which require resorting to more advanced criteria. Dang Van fatigue theory (Dang Van, Griveau, Message, 1989) has been selected but calls for a more elaborated procedure that is currently validated. Topology optimized structural layouts predicted using classical stress criteria, Goodman and Dang Van theories are compared. [less ▲]

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See detailNouveaux modèles pour le calcul des roulements à billes cryotechniques
Servais, Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The behavior of cryogenic ball bearings, that is to say those included in several space rocket engines, is quite difficult to estimate. The high speed effects, heavy loads and lack of conventional ... [more ▼]

The behavior of cryogenic ball bearings, that is to say those included in several space rocket engines, is quite difficult to estimate. The high speed effects, heavy loads and lack of conventional lubrication are among the main concerns during the conception phase. This doctoral thesis proposes a new numerical method to evaluate the way solid lubricated ball bearings are working. The main originality of the survey is the determination of the link between the ball/ring contacts and the rolling elements kinematics, for any kind of bearing loading or rotational speed. Moreover, the dissertation includes a mathematical model of the cage dynamics. The result of the whole exposed method is a computer program, which allows to deal with critical aspects of cryogenic ball bearings. Indeed, a set of examples demonstrates the capabilities of the new method as a design tool and provides a deep understanding of the specific features of such ball bearings. [less ▲]

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See detailA level set approach for the structural optimization of flexible mechanisms
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Tortorelli, Daniel; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 08)

With the evolution of virtual prototyping, mechanical systems are commonly analyzed using a multibody system (MBS) approach to study the behavior of the entire system and notably the dynamic interactions ... [more ▼]

With the evolution of virtual prototyping, mechanical systems are commonly analyzed using a multibody system (MBS) approach to study the behavior of the entire system and notably the dynamic interactions between the components. Modern structural optimization of mechanical systems considers the dynamic loading exerted on the individual flexible components. The consideration is an essential feature and can be implemented in two ways. Firstly, one can consider a strong coupling wherein the component’s optimization is performed using the time dependent loading conditions coming directly from the MBS simulation. Secondly, one can consider a weak coupling wherein the component’s optimization is performed using a series of static load cases that do not fully account for the interactions between the components of the MBS. Rather this approach performs a MBS simulation to evaluate the loads for the initial design and then optimizes the component assuming the loads do not change. The process of evaluating the loads and then performing the optimization is repeated until suitable convergence criteria is satisfied, assuming convergence is possible. The present paper focuses on the strong coupling method wherein the flexible MBS dynamic analysis is based on a nonlinear finite element formalism [1]. A level set (LS) description of the component geometry is used to enable a generalized shape optimization. The LS approach combines the advantages of shape and topology optimizations. Moreover, since the component boundaries are defined by CAD features, the manufacturing process is facilitated as no post-processing step of a rasterized design is required. The design sensitivity analysis for MBS is revisited in order to facilitate its implementation. The optimization of a slider-crank mechanism and a 2-dof robot is provided to exemplify the procedure. [1] Géradin M., Cardona A. (2001) Flexible Multibody Dynamics: A Finite Element Approach. John Wiley & Sons, New York. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and synthesis of PET-probes targeting AMPA-subtype receptors
Deverdenne, François ULg; Claes, Giselle ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 05)

The AMPA subtype of glutamatergic receptors is the main actor in the excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are involved in the expression and the ... [more ▼]

The AMPA subtype of glutamatergic receptors is the main actor in the excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are involved in the expression and the maintenance of the long-term potentiation, a phenomenon closely linked to cognitive and memorization processes. Based on experimental data collected in recent years, the use of AMPA potentiators seems to be an interesting approach in the treatment of cognitive deficits (e.g. Alzheimer disease), schizophrenia or depression. Such AMPA signal potentiation could be mediated by positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the AMPA receptors, a class of compounds able to produce a fine signal tuning in the presence of the endogenous ligand in the synapse, providing less toxicity than direct agonists. With this approach, the laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry of Liège university developed many series of AMPA potentiators , among which 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides (BTDs). In order to better understand the in vivo mapping of AMPA receptors and its evolution in neurological diseases, the present work aims at developing the design and the synthesis of BTDs positive allosteric modulators radiolabeled with a fluorine-18 atom. Based on previously synthesized series in this field, we investigate the synthesis of a new class of high-affinity AMPA potentiators characterized by the presence of a fluorine atom at selected positions on the structure of the AMPA potentiators. Thanks to in vitro pharmacological evaluations, we will further determine the best candidates for their fluorine-18 radiolabeling. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailStrategy for financing foundations: how do they create value?
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

Traditionally, the research on strategy has rather focused on profit-seeking organizations whose primary objective is to generate revenues through the price mechanism. Nevertheless, all organizations ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, the research on strategy has rather focused on profit-seeking organizations whose primary objective is to generate revenues through the price mechanism. Nevertheless, all organizations benefit from developing a strategic approach (Moore 2000). This paper focuses on financing foundations, non-profit organizations that are private, non-membership based, self-governing and serving a public purpose (Anheier 2001) and that make grants, give loans or hold equity. The core activity of a financing foundation is to finance operating intermediaries, for example non-profit association, NGOs or social enterprises, which will then implement projects and programs directly in line with the mission of the financing foundation. During the last decades, these organizations have made a breakthrough by establishing themselves as private actors that will look after the public interest. For long, strategic thinking has been impeded in foundations because the essence of the philanthropic action was giving without any expectation in terms of social impact. Today, the legitimacy of these organizations is challenged and there is a stronger demand for efficiency reinforced by the emergence of a new philanthropy inspired by corporate management principles (e.g. venture philanthropy considered as the more advocated strategic approach (Gautier et Pache 2014) ) and the question of strategy really matters. This paper aims at designing a conceptual strategic framework for financing foundations whose ultimate goal is to create value for society. To justify the development of a specific strategic framework for financing foundations, I first compare financing foundations with other financing organization according to six dimensions: ultimate goal, sources of resources, nature of the contribution, means, logic of action and accountability. Then, I review the academic literature in the field of philanthropy having a strategy focus in order to highlight the current gaps in the literature. Only few authors give a comprehensive view of the strategic question for this type of organization. Existing papers focus only on fragments of strategy and tackle two strategic issues: the mission statement and the evaluation. The decision-making processes by which the initial objectives are achieved are ignored; the strategic choices which philanthropic organizations make to fulfill their mission have not yet been identified. Based on the identification of key strategic commitments (in terms of scope and mechanisms) underlying the implementation of the predefined social mission and two crucial trade-offs (impact expectation and level of mission objectivity), the strategic dimensions of a financing foundations, leading to value creation for the society, are conceptualized. Two processes of value creation are distinguished: direct and indirect value creation. The course of actions chosen by a financing foundation is closely connected to its ultimate goal that is, increase the utility of a target group of beneficiaries (i.e. direct value creation). In addition, even if the very objective of the financing foundation is not to increase the utility of its donors and founders, it is effectively what happens (i.e. indirect value creation). The empirical research that will be conducted based on the strategic conceptual framework is then described and additional research questions are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailReflections on tangs and other morphological adaptations that may be hafting-related
Tomasso, Sonja ULg; Taipale, Noora ULg

Conference (2015, June 03)

Tanged tools have always attracted archaeologists’ attention, and have often been considered to mark the beginnings of stone tool hafting. Very little is known, however, of the specifics of hafting these ... [more ▼]

Tanged tools have always attracted archaeologists’ attention, and have often been considered to mark the beginnings of stone tool hafting. Very little is known, however, of the specifics of hafting these tools. Also the role of tanged tools in toolkits and lithic assemblages, as well as their significance in terms of technological evolution and human behaviour, are still largely under debate. We are presenting here some of our first observations and ideas of hafting and use of tanged tools building on our ongoing PhD research on the Mousterian/Aterian cave site Ifri n’Ammar (Morocco) and the Gravettian open-air site Maisières-Canal (Belgium). Our experimental and analytical work aims at reconstructing plausible methods of hafting and using tanged tools, and contributing to a better understanding of the role of tangs in the assemblages under study. Our preliminary results suggest that several hafting modes are possible for tools of similar morphology, and that tanged and non-tanged tools can in some cases be hafted using the same logic. We therefore argue that more detailed functional data on both tanged and non-tanged tools is needed before we can meaningfully assess the importance of the presence of tanged tools in various archaeological contexts. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailModélisation mathématique des risques d’inondation dans le bassin liégeois suivant différents scénarios de changements climatiques et d’aménagement du territoire
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 03)

Dans une ancienne région minière, affectée par des affaissements significatifs de surface, la ville de Liège est actuellement efficacement protégée contre les crues par débordement de la Meuse grâce ... [more ▼]

Dans une ancienne région minière, affectée par des affaissements significatifs de surface, la ville de Liège est actuellement efficacement protégée contre les crues par débordement de la Meuse grâce essentiellement à une canalisation du fleuve. Une analyse prospective a été entamée, visant à évaluer la pérennité de la protection actuelle de la ville sous différents scénarios d’évolutions climatiques et d’aménagement du territoire. Prenant sa source en France et traversant la Belgique pour rejoindre son embouchure aux Pays-Bas, la Meuse ne peut être étudiée qu’en tenant compte de ce contexte transnational. C’est pourquoi, l’analyse prospective menée a été concertée à toutes les étapes non seulement avec les acteurs scientifiques et les gestionnaires de l’eau dans les régions limitrophes concernées, mais également avec des organisations représentatives de la société civile. En particulier, les scénarios climatiques retenus ainsi que les modélisations hydrauliques et hydro-économiques effectuées ont systématiquement été coordonnés, voire harmonisés, à l’échelle du bassin versant international du fleuve. Les résultats de l’analyse mettent en évidence un accroissement significatif de l’aléa inondation dans la ville de Liège à l’échéance de la fin du siècle. Ils permettent également de circonscrire le potentiel d’adaptation de la ville pour atténuer l’impact d’inondations, tant par des mesures techniques locales qu’à plus grande échelle. La portée de diverses politiques d’aménagement du territoire à Liège et au-delà a également pu être évaluée et l’analyse révèle un degré d’efficacité très contrasté selon les communes concernées. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (13 ULg)
See detailHubble spectral observations of the Jovian aurora: precipitated flux and electron mean energy
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 02)

The FUV Jovian aurora is excited by collisions of energetic electrons accelerated along the magnetic field lines with the ambient upper atmosphere. The emission is dominated by the H2 Lyman and Werner ... [more ▼]

The FUV Jovian aurora is excited by collisions of energetic electrons accelerated along the magnetic field lines with the ambient upper atmosphere. The emission is dominated by the H2 Lyman and Werner bands extending from the extreme ultraviolet to about 170 nm. The wavelengths below about 135 nm are partly absorbed by the methane layer overlying the auroral emission layer. The long wavelength intensity is proportional to the precipitated energy flux carried by the auroral electrons. Spectral observations with the Hubble Space Telescope were made in 2014 using the long slit of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in the timetag mode. During these observations, the slit projection scanned the polar region down to mid-latitudes. The combination of spectral and temporal measurements was used to build up the first spectral maps of the FUV Jovian aurora. The two-dimensional distribution of the intensity ratio of the two spectral regions has been obtained by combining spectral emissions in these wavelength ranges. They show that the amount of absorption by methane varies significantly between the different components of the aurora and in the polar region. Outputs from an electron transport model are used to create maps of the distribution of the characteristic electron energies. Using model atmospheres adapted to auroral conditions, we conclude that electron energies generally range between a few tens to several hundred keV. In this presentation, we analyze the relationship between the precipitated electron energy flux and the mean electron energy derived from these observations. Although globally, no correlation can be found, we show that the two quantities co-vary in some auroral components such as in the morning sector or in the striations observed along the main emission. By contrast, the auroral input in some high-latitude regions show no correlation with the electron characteristic energy. These aspects will be quantitatively discussed and possible processes explaining this dichotomy will be proposed. Comparisons of derived energies are in general agreement with those calculated from magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling models, but they locally exceed current model predictions. These results provide a basis for three-dimensional modeling of the distribution of particle heat sources into the high-latitude Jovian upper atmosphere. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg)
See detailModèle du comportement mécanique pour les argiles naturelles
Ahayan, Sanae ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

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See detailProtocols for extracting residues from stone tools
Cnuts, Dries ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (10 ULg)
See detailL’histoire et ses marges : les récits photographiques d’Arlette Farge
Servais, Amandine ULg

Scientific conference (2015, June 02)

Au départ de l’analyse de La chambre à deux lits, un essai de l’historienne Arlette Farge, j’observe comment la discipline historique peut faire usage de la photographie et, surtout, quels sont les effets ... [more ▼]

Au départ de l’analyse de La chambre à deux lits, un essai de l’historienne Arlette Farge, j’observe comment la discipline historique peut faire usage de la photographie et, surtout, quels sont les effets, sur le savoir historien, d’un recours à la photographie. Cette communication montre que, parfois, le voir précède, initie et détermine le savoir historien.
Dans ce cadre, la question du temps est essentielle : l’image est l’opérateur d’un brouillage heureux des temporalités linéaires, fussent-elles multiples, en lesquelles s’inscrit encore très généralement le récit historien. On est là confronté à des notions telles que l’anachronisme, les causalités multiples, la coprésence des temporalités et des significations. Nous voyons, grâce aux travaux d’Arlette Farge, que tous ces éléments, loin d’être des obstacles insurmontables ou des apories méthodologiques pour l’historien, peuvent devenir de véritables outils à l’élaboration d’un récit de connaissance en histoire, certes marginal mais néanmoins puissamment porteur de sens. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical approach for the characterization of loess deposits from the CBR’s Romont quarry (Eben-Emael, Belgium) and correlations with loess stratigraphy
Delvoie, Simon ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 01)

Aeolian silts (loess) are near surface deposits covering about 10% of the continent surfaces . Therefore a good knowledge of their mechanical behavior is an issue for designing subsurface engineering ... [more ▼]

Aeolian silts (loess) are near surface deposits covering about 10% of the continent surfaces . Therefore a good knowledge of their mechanical behavior is an issue for designing subsurface engineering structures. Usually this material is considered as homogeneous for an engineering point of view. Aeolian silt deposits are continuously well developed in Hesbaye Region (Belgium) reaching locally 20m thick (see document in attachment). They are mainly related to the last interglacial (Eemian) and glacial (Weichselian) periods . Nevertheless the pedostratigraphical, chronostratigraphical and paleoclimatic approaches have shown these silt deposits are usually composed of a series of paleosoils (i.e. Rocourt soil, Humiferous Complex of Remicourt, Harmignies Soil, Nagelbeek Tongued Horizon) interbedded with stratified or homogeneous aeolian silt layers. This study aims to characterize the variability of the in situ mechanical characteristics of the loess deposits from Hesbaye Region at the site scale and at the laboratory scale. Cone penetration tests (CPT), electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) and drillings have been performed through a 10m thick loess layer in an investigation site located close to the CBR’s Romont quarry (Eben-Emael, Belgium) . Continuous undisturbed silt samples from drillings have been physically (granulometry, Atterberg limits, water content, organic matter content, carbonate content) and mechanically (oedometer test, triaxial test) characterized at the laboratory. Mechanical behavior and physical characteristics have underlined a series of layers with variable mechanical properties through depth. Some of these layers correlated with a detailed stratigraphy cross-section close to the investigation site could correspond to well-known paleosoils. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (10 ULg)