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See detailTowards a Typology of Business Models in the Biotechnology Industry
Segers, Jean Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone business models opposed to open or networked business models. A number of illustrative case studies and good practices are presented to show that new biotechnology firms are gradually adopting a “best of both worlds” strategy, with both closed business models and open, networked models as a way for gaining access to the market, in close collaboration with large global pharmaceutical companies. The case firms and good practices are taken from a recent country study for Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Europe est-elle plus verte ?
Habran, Maxime ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Bilan de la politique environnementale et de la lutte contre le changement climatique au sein des politiques européennes

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See detailCaractérisation ontogénique, phénotypique et fonctionnelle des macrophages interstitiels pulmonaires après exposition à des composés bactériens
Sabatel, Catherine ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Respiratory mucosal surfaces are continuously exposed to harmless antigens and immunostimulatory molecules of microbial origin. According to the « self/non self » and « danger » theories, this should ... [more ▼]

Respiratory mucosal surfaces are continuously exposed to harmless antigens and immunostimulatory molecules of microbial origin. According to the « self/non self » and « danger » theories, this should normally result in the developpment of unwanted immune responses towards these inhaled antigens such as Th2-mediated allergic responses. This is however not the case in most people. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that living in an environment rich in microbial components paradoxically protects from airway allergy, implying the existence in the lung of suppressive mechanisms triggered by these immunogenic signals. In this study, we showed that synthetic bacterial DNA rich in unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG) has the unique ability to significantly increase the population of lung interstitial regulatory macrophages (IM) from CCR2-independent monocytes residing in the lung or mobilized from the spleen. Moreover these CpG-induced IM demonstrated a hypersuppressive profile as they produced more IL-10 than their steady state counterparts. Using mice models of airway allergy we showed that the transfert of IM isolated from CpG-treated mice recapitulated the protective effects of CpG when administered before allergen sensitization or challenge. This IM-mediated protection was dependant from IL-10 as CpG-induced Il10-/- IM had no protective effect. The expansion of pulmonary regulatory IM from CCR2-independent pulmonary and splenic monocytes upon CpG exposure could be a possible mechanism by which exposure to an environment rich in microbial products protects against asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels futurs pour la fabrication de pièces métalliques ?
Habraken, Anne ULiege; Delvenne, Pierre ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Les processus de fabrication des pièces métalliques sont au cœur de nombreux enjeux technologiques, sociopolitiques et économiques. Ces dernières années, des procédés tels le 3D Printing ou encore le ... [more ▼]

Les processus de fabrication des pièces métalliques sont au cœur de nombreux enjeux technologiques, sociopolitiques et économiques. Ces dernières années, des procédés tels le 3D Printing ou encore le formage incrémental ont apporté un renouveau possible face aux méthodes de fabrication traditionnelles. Si le premier est, à présent, bien connu du grand public, le formage incrémental mérite encore quelques explications. Ce procédé, relativement lent, est de mieux en mieux maîtrisé. Il permet de réaliser des pièces métalliques aussi diverses qu’une prothèse, un panneau de façade ou de porte de boeing, un évier de cuisine, ... Il comporte de multiples variantes et est progressivement exploité par l’industrie pour du prototypage de pièces uniques et des petites séries. A l’ère de la révolution numérique, où les Fablabs, Repair Cafés et autres Hackers Labs permettent aux citoyens de créer leurs propres pièces et de devenir acteurs de l’innovation, ce procédé ouvre ainsi de nouvelles portes pour la conception de pièces métalliques. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la transmission du gammaherpèsvirus murin 4: importance de la glycoprotéine gp150 et développement de stratégies antivirales basées sur l'utilisation du cidofovir
Zeippen, Caroline ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Gammaherpèsviruses are important pathogens in human medicine. Indeed, Epstein Barr virus and Kaposi Sarcoma associated herpesvirus are responsible for numerous lymphoproliferative diseases and cancers ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpèsviruses are important pathogens in human medicine. Indeed, Epstein Barr virus and Kaposi Sarcoma associated herpesvirus are responsible for numerous lymphoproliferative diseases and cancers. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is usually used as a model for human gammaherpèsviruses. Until now, the major limitation of this model was the absence of transmission in laboratory animals. Recently, a sexual transmission of MuHV-4 has been described in laboratory mice. This observation allows, on the one hand, to study mechanisms underlying natural transmission, such as cellular trospism, importance of viral proteins, or immunity response during this part of the cycle. On the other hand, this transmission model allows to test efficiency of measures to reduce transmission. Indeed, herpesvirus are archetype of persistant viruses as infection persists lifelong once established. Studying mechanisms underlying transmission and how to use these mechanisms to reduce it efficiently is therefore of primordial importance. In a first study, we focussed on the biological relevance of mechanisms described previously in vitro. Indeed, a MuHV-4 glycoprotein, gp150, has been shown to participate to the release of infectious particles from cells and to evasion of humoral immunity, two functions that could be important for the virus during transmission. Our results showed that gp150 is essential for an efficient sexual transmission of the MuHV-4. Indeed, gp150 promotes the release of infectious particles from infected vaginal epithelial cells. These results has been published in Journal of Virology in July 2017. In a second study, the same model was used to test efficiency of an antiviral molecule to reduce sexual transmission of the MuHV-4. A nucleotide analogue, the cidofovir, was administrated to mice according to different protocols. A daily administration of cidofovir reduced drastically genital shedding, but also prevent completely infection of naive mice after sexual contact. Finally, a single injection of cidofovir, administered 24 hours after sexual contact, reduced significantly transmission. Altogether, in this work, we used a transmission model of a gammaherpèsvirus in two differents studies: the first foccused on glycoprotein implicated during the transmission and established the importance of a single viral glycoprotein for an efficient transmission. The second study highlighted the efficiency of antiviral drugs to prevent infection by gammaherpesviruses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Physiology of The Thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, November 13)

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See detailRapid changes in preoptic estradiol concentration during male sexual behavior
de Bournonville, Marie-Pierre ULiege; de Bournonville, Catherine; Ball, Gregory et al

Poster (2017, November 11)

Estrogens such as estradiol (E2) exert pleiotropic effects on physiological and behavioral responses such as neuroprotection, aggression or reproduction. Estrogens derived from local brain synthesis ... [more ▼]

Estrogens such as estradiol (E2) exert pleiotropic effects on physiological and behavioral responses such as neuroprotection, aggression or reproduction. Estrogens derived from local brain synthesis (neuroestrogens) are critical for the regulation of different functions including the control of male sexual behavior. Classically, E2 acts through effects initiated in the nucleus to regulate male sexual function. Along with these long-term effects, E2 also acts rapidly (within minutes) via membrane-initiated events. These effects are thought to depend on short-term variations in the local production of estrogens, through rapid fluctuations of the enzymatic activity of brain aromatase. In Japanese quail, rapid modulations of brain aromatase activity (AA) have been reported after sexual interactions or exposure to an acute stress. These changes take place mainly in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), a sexually differentiated structure that plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior and where aromatase is densely expressed. Yet, it has recently been shown that, in the short term, AA does not always reflect local E2 concentration. This study was designed to determine by in vivo microdialysis whether local E2 concentrations fluctuate during sexual interactions and test whether these changes parallel the decrease in AA observed ex vivo after copulation. We first conducted a series of experiments to validate the microdialysis and E2 assay. When dialysis probes were placed in successive baths containing known increasing amounts of E2, proportional changes in E2 concentration were measured in the dialysate. Moreover, a rise in E2 concentration was detected after in vivo retrodialysis of testosterone only if the probe was located within the POM and, after a peripheral injection of E2, a sharp rise of E2 was detected regardless of the probe location. Together these results show that in vivo microdialysis is a valid method to assess endogenous fluctuations of brain E2 concentrations in behaving animals. Two independent experiments then identified a rise in E2 concentrations in POM during sexual interactions. This increase occurred within 10 min after the initiation of the sexual interaction and was specific to the POM as there was no increase in E2 concentrations in males that had their cannula outside of this area. Together these data confirm that rapid changes in AA measured ex vivo cannot be considered as a reliable proxy for E2 concentrations. The discrepancies could originate either from the different time resolution related to the two techniques or from differences in the microenvironment in which aromatase functions in vivo and during ex vivo assays. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars
De Becker, Michaël ULiege; del Valle, M.V.; Romero, G.E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 471(4), 4452-4464

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently ... [more ▼]

Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of 5 bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailAction-Based Language Gestalts in Working Memory
Dumitru, Magdalena ULiege

Conference (2017, November 11)

While evidence is mounting that perceptual grouping cues bene t working memory performance, it is debatable whether this is the main purpose of Gestalt formation. Indeed, recent ndings by Dumitru and ... [more ▼]

While evidence is mounting that perceptual grouping cues bene t working memory performance, it is debatable whether this is the main purpose of Gestalt formation. Indeed, recent ndings by Dumitru and colleagues demonstrate that people build language Gestalts that encode basic action patterns when reasoning with the connectives ‘and’ and ‘or’. Here we present novel evidence from dual memory tasks that Gestalt formation and maintenance breaks down under high working memory load for two age groups (18 to 30 year olds and 60 to 80 year olds). More importantly, the number of Gestalts evoked by the connectives (one for conjunction and two for disjunction) as well as the age-speci c performance levels with visual Gestalts predict the observed e ects. Well-established mappings between language and action patterns are thus a driving factor of Gestalt building and management in working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection contre le licenciement en matière de harcèlement, charge de la preuve et notification du congé
Linguelet, Renaud ULiege

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2017)

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See detailInjection of spin-polarized current in a Ge-based magnetic device with coplanar contacts
Fourneau, Emile ULiege; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULiege; Silhanek, Alejandro ULiege et al

Poster (2017, November 09)

Electron spin injection and spin detection in magnetic materials are key features to the functionalization of electron spin polarization as a degree of freedom for both information processing and storage ... [more ▼]

Electron spin injection and spin detection in magnetic materials are key features to the functionalization of electron spin polarization as a degree of freedom for both information processing and storage. Currently, spin-dependent tunneling in magnetic junction devices is the most common approach to achieve efficient spin injection. However, many recent studies highlighted the interesting possibility to create spin-polarized currents in structures which combine a magnetic semiconductor, e.g. magnetic alloys based on group-IV semiconductors or diluted magnetic semiconductor compounds, forming a Schottky-like rectifying junction with a metallic ferromagnet. Although theoretical works have already addressed the performance of this structure by numerical simulations of the spin drift and spin diffusion equations, taking into account various characteristics of the ferromagnet (FM) / semiconductor (SC) interface such as barrier height and boundary roughness in 1D models, correlations with experimental results are scarce. This work aims at achieving spin injection with Ge-based magnetic structures using a rectifying junction in a coplanar architecture. We performed 2D numerical calculations of the spin drift and diffusion process in the direct neighborhood of a junction consisting of a Mn5Ge3 half-metallic ferromagnet acting as the injecting contact and an n-type Ge film, forming 3- and 4-terminal devices. Our results show that geometrical effects play a major role on the spin injection efficiency. Moreover, the simulations emphasize the asymmetry of spin accumulation at the FM/SC interface as well as a strong effect of the depletion layer caused by the Schottky contact junction. [less ▲]

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See detailLe corps, le territoire et le temps du sujet borderline
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2017, November 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (2 ULiège)
See detailLe jeu vidéo : pas si méchant. Des stéréotypes à la réalité
Krywicki, Boris ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailAvailable tools for the quantification of the evolution of future flood risk in Wallonia
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege; Dupraz, Christian et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2017)

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western ... [more ▼]

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western Europe, light is likely to be the principal limiting resource for understorey crops, and most agronomic studies show a systematic reduction of final yield as shade increases. However the intensity of the crop response depends on both the environmental conditions and the shade characteristics. This study addressed the issue by monitoring winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, productivity and quality under artificial shade provided by military camouflage shade-netting, and using the Hi-sAFe model to relate the artificial shade conditions to those applying in agroforestry systems. The field experiment was carried out over two consecutive years (2013–14 and 2014–15) on the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium. The shade structures recreated two shade conditions: periodic shade (PS) and continuous shade (CS), with the former using overlapping military camouflage netting to provide discontinuous light through the day, and the latter using conventional shade cloth. The experiment simulated shading from a canopy of late-flushing hybrid walnut leaves above winter wheat. Shading was imposed 16 (2013–14) and 10 (2014–15) days before flowering and retained until harvest. The crop experienced full light conditions until the maximum leaf area index stage (LAImax) had been reached. In both years, LAI followed the same dynamics between the different treatments, but in 2013–2014 an attack of the take-all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) reduced yields overall and prevented significant treatment effects. In season 2014–15 the decrease in global radiation reaching the crop during a period of 66 days (CS: – 61% and PS: – 43%) significantly affected final yield (CS: – 45% and PS: – 25%), mainly through a reduction of the average grain weight and the number of grain per m2. Grain protein content increased by up to 45% under the CS treatment in 2015. Nevertheless, at the plot scale, protein yield (t/ha) did not compensate for the final grain yield decrease. The Hi-sAFe model was used to simulate an agroforestry plot with two lines of walnut trees running either north-south or east-west. The levels of artificial shade levels applied in this experiment were compared to those predicted beneath trees growing with similar climatic conditions in Belgium. The levels used in the CS treatment are only likely to occur real agroforestry conditions on 10% of the cropped area until the trees are 30 years old and only with east-west tree row orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe métier d'enseignant : de plus en plus pénible ?
Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Quittre, Valérie ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège)
See detailSocio-historique de la protection sociale en Belgique
Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULiège)
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See detailGeneration of open foam RVEs with sharp edges using Distance fields and Level sets
Kilingar, Nanda Gopala ULiege; Noels, Ludovic ULiege; Massart, Thierry Jacques et al

Conference (2017, November 07)

A methodology to generate Representative Volume Elements for open foam cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is explained. The main focus of this work is to properly represent the ... [more ▼]

A methodology to generate Representative Volume Elements for open foam cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is explained. The main focus of this work is to properly represent the geometry of the sharp edges of the foam struts that are resulting from the solidification phase during manufacturing. An approach to generate RVEs for open-cell foams is described in [1], where arbitrary shaped tessellations are produced and specific combination of distance functions are used to generate open foam RVEs. Steep discontinuities in the distance functions derivatives result in the generation of jagged sharp edges, due to the use of discrete level set functions. The procedure to extract geometries from multiple level set functions to reproduce such sharp edges of the struts proposed in [1] has been incorporated in the current work. The individual cells are extracted as inclusion surfaces based on distance functions. The inclusion surfaces are then modified using multiple level set functions, and the sharp edges are computed from the intersection of these inclusions. The resulting geometry can then be meshed using size functions based on curvature and narrowness and a mesh optimization inspired from [2]. The methodology to produce high quality meshes based on [3] will be outlined (Figure 2). The resulting FE models will be then used in simulations to assess the practical applications of these models by comparing with experimental data of physical samples. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of unidirectional composite stochastic volume elements from micro-structural statistical information
Wu, Ling ULiege; Bidaine, Benoit; Major, Zoltan et al

Conference (2017, November 07)

The purpose of this work is to generate Stochastic Volume Element (SVE) of unidirectional composites using statistical information obtained from imaging technique in order to study the effect of the micro ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work is to generate Stochastic Volume Element (SVE) of unidirectional composites using statistical information obtained from imaging technique in order to study the effect of the micro-structure uncertainty on the meso-scale behavior. When considering a homogenization-based multiscale approach, the material properties are obtained at each integration point of a macro-structure from the resolution of a micro-scale boundary value problem. When the separation of scales holds, the macro-point is viewed at the micro-level as the center of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). However, for composite materials which suffer from a large scatter in their constituent properties and microstructure, the separation of scales does not always hold, in particular at the onset of failure, and structural properties exhibit a scatter. In order to predict this scatter, Stochastic Volume Elements (SVE) [1, 2] of unidirectional fiber composite materials should be built from experimental measurements, see Fig. 1(a). Toward this end, statistical functions of the fibers features such as radius, the closest neighboring distance etc. [3] are extracted from several SEM images to generate statistical functions of the micro-structure. The dependent variables are then represented using the copula framework, allowing generating micro-structures, see Fig. 1(b), using an inclusions additive process. Simulations on the generated SVEs are then used to extract the probabilistic meso-scale stochastic behavior. In the future the extracted behaviors will be used to build a stochastic model of homogenized properties based on Mean-Field-Homogenization in order to predict statistical macro-scale behaviors and in particular the failure onset. References [1] Ostoja-Starzewski, M., Wang, X. Stochastic finite elements as a bridge between random material microstructure and global response. Comput. Meth. in Appl. Mech. and Eng. (1999) 168: 35-49. [2] Lucas, V., Golinval, J.-C., Paquay, S., Nguyen, V.-D., Noels, L., Wu, L. A stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators. Comput. Meth. in Appl. Mech. and Eng. (2015) 294, 141-167. [3] Vaughan, T.J., McCarthy C.T. A combined experimentalnumerical approach for generating statistically equivalent fibre distributions for high strength laminated composite materials. Compos. Sci. and Tech. (2010) 70, 291-297. [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic 3-scale method to predict the thermo-elastic behaviors of polycrystalline structures
Wu, Ling ULiege; Lucas, Vincent; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

Conference (2017, November 07)

The purpose of this work is to upscale material uncertainties in the context of thermo-elastic response of polycrystalline structures. The probabilistic behavior of micro-resonators made of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work is to upscale material uncertainties in the context of thermo-elastic response of polycrystalline structures. The probabilistic behavior of micro-resonators made of polycrystalline materials is evaluated using a stochastic multi-scale approach defined using the following methodology. 1. Stochastic volume elements (SVEs) [1] are defined from Voronoi tessellations using experimental measurements of the grain size, orientation, and surface roughness [2]; 2. Mesoscopic apparent thermo-elastic properties such as elasticity tensor, thermal conductivity tensor, and thermal dilatation tensor are extracted using a coupled homogenization theory [3, 4] applied on the SVE realizations; 3. A stochastic model of the homogenized properties extracted from Voronoi tessellations using a moving window technique is then constructed in order to be able to generate spatially correlated meso-scale random fields; 4. These meso-scale random fields are then used as input for stochastic finite element simulations. As a result, the probabilistic distribution of micro-resonator properties can be extracted. The applications are two-fold: 1. A stochastic thermo-elastic homogenization, see Fig. 1(a), is coupled to thermoelastic 3D models of the micro-resonator in order to extract the probabilistic distribution of the quality factor of micro-resonators [5]; 2. A stochastic second-order mechanical homogenization, see Fig. 1(b), is coupled to a plate model of the micro-resonator in order to extract the effect of the uncertainties related to the surface roughness of the polycrystalline structures [2]. References [1] Ostoja-Starzewski, M., Wang, X. Stochastic finite elements as a bridge between random material microstructure and global response. Comput. Meth. in Appl. Mech. and Eng. (1999) 168: 35-49. [2] Lucas, V., Golinval, J.-C., Voicu, R., Danila, M., Gravila, R., Muller, R., Dinescu, A., Noels, L., Wu, L. Propagation of material and surface profile uncertainties on MEMS micro-resonators using a stochastic second-order computational multi-scale approach. Int. J. for Num. Meth. in Eng. (2017). [3] Temizer, I., Wriggers, P. Homogenization in finite thermoelasticity.J. of the Mech. and Phys. of Sol. (2011) 59, 344-372. [4] Nguyen, V. D., Wu, L., Noels, L. Unified treatment of boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method. Computat. Mech. (2017) 59, 483-505. [5] Wu, L., Lucas, V., Nguyen, V. D., Golinval, J.-C., Paquay, S., Noels, L. A Stochastic Multi-Scale Approach for the Modeling of Thermo-Elastic Damping in Micro-Resonators. Comput. Meth. in Appl. Mech. and Eng. (2016) 310, 802-839. [less ▲]

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