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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant : regards croisés
Scheepers, Caroline ULg; Outers, Pierre ULg; Werner, Anne-Catherine ULg

Poster (2017, April 29)

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à ... [more ▼]

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à propos de leurs représentations relatives à l'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant. Pour l'heure, nous disposons des réponses apportées par 30 enseignants et par 450 élèves. A terme, cinquante enseignants et 1000 élèves sont concernés. [less ▲]

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See detailStreamlining NCA independence in reforming Regulation 1/2003: time to take incongruent accountability realities (more) seriously?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 28)

This presentation analyses argues that the Commission’s reform suggestions aimed at streamlining NCAs into independent administrative agencies appear to neglect this variety of accountability mechanisms ... [more ▼]

This presentation analyses argues that the Commission’s reform suggestions aimed at streamlining NCAs into independent administrative agencies appear to neglect this variety of accountability mechanisms underlying current NCA institutional organisation and functioning. Given that those mechanisms each harbour incongruent expectations regarding the organisation and functioning of independent NCAs, failure to acknowledge such incongruence may in practice lead to less effective competition law enforcement. Its purpose is therefore to uncover the different NCA independence perspectives underlying those accountability mechanisms and to look for legally sound ways to make them converge when designing or upgrading NCA independence in the context of the Regulation 1/2003 reform. [less ▲]

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See detailPraxis, besoins et impératifs affectifs : Réflexions sur la normativité de la conscience émue.
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment discutée par Sartre dans "Les Racines de l'éthique". Sur cette base, nous développerons une réflexion en trois temps. 1° Nous situerons tout d'abord les "Racines de l'éthique" dans la continuité des réflexions de "l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions". 2° Nous montrerons ensuite que l'analyse des impératifs affectifs enveloppe une critique du positivisme, qui est une approche massivement adoptée par nombre de philosophie des émotions. 3° Enfin, nous approfondirons la description sartrienne des impératifs affectifs à partir de "L'Émile" de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. L'association de l'un et l'autre texte nous permettra en effet de commenter la "seconde forme d'émotion" qui est très allusivement décrite par les dernières pages de l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions. Plus largement, ce détour par la philosophie politique des modernes permettra d'établir un dialogue entre la phénoménologie sartrienne de l'affectivité et l'approche de la normativité qui est proposée par la philosophie française des sciences sociales. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutus = καϑεστώς : un hellénisme de la langue juridique ?
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

Le participe parfait constitutus (ainsi que positus) a été vu comme une sorte de substitut destiné à pallier l’absence en latin de participe présent du verbe être (*ens, entis). Plusieurs auteurs ont ... [more ▼]

Le participe parfait constitutus (ainsi que positus) a été vu comme une sorte de substitut destiné à pallier l’absence en latin de participe présent du verbe être (*ens, entis). Plusieurs auteurs ont considéré cet emploi comme un hellénisme propre à la langue juridique en soulignant que, dans les Novellae de Justinien, constitutus est une traduction du grec καϑεστώς, qui a un sens actif. On en a déduit qu’il pourrait s’agir d’une particularité de la langue des juristes qui apparaît pour la première fois chez Julianus [4], Scaevola [6], Papinien [5] et Ulpien [8]. Cet emploi, qui ne semble pas antérieur à Sénèque [7], n’est toutefois pas spécifique aux juristes. On le rencontre dans le latin de l’Empire, spécialement chez des auteurs africains chrétiens et païens, comme Apulée [2] et Cyprien de Carthage [3], et surtout dans la langue tardive (Ammien Marcellin [1]). Cet usage pose la question de la spécificité de la langue des juristes et de l’influence éventuelle du grec sur cette langue technique. Une étude plus systématique des prétendus hellénismes chez le juriste Gaius, peut-être d’origine orientale, montre que l’influence du grec sur son latin, si elle a existé, est assez réduite. Un grand nombre de particularités qui ont été considérées comme des hellénismes sont en réalité des spécificités du latin tardif et connaissent des parallèles chez des auteurs comme Apulée, Tertullien, Augustin, Ammien Marcellin. J’étudie ici les emplois de constitutus comme prétendu substitut du participe présent de esse dans un corpus assez large de textes : Arnobe, Firmicus Maternus, Lactance, Hilaire, Lucifer, Ambroise, Jérôme, Sulpice Sévère, Cassien, Orose… jusqu’à Cassiodore. On trouve aussi cette tournure assez souvent dans la Vulgate. Pour expliquer cette spécificité, l’influence du grec n’est pas une donnée nécessaire. Il s’agit essentiellement, comme d’autres phénomènes, d’une évolution du latin, qui a sans doute éprouvé le besoin de combler la lacune de l’absence du participe présent du verbe « être », ce qui arrivera au Moyen Âge avec la création de *ens, entis, déjà proposé par Jules César. Exemples [1] Ammien Marcellin, XX, 3, 12 : eodem adhuc constituto [2] Apulée, Mét., IV, 11 : Tunc nos in ancipiti periculo constituti uel op primendi nostri uel deserendi socii remedium e re nata ualidum eo uolente comminiscimus. [3] Cyprien, Ep., 1, 1 : in clerico ministerio constituti [4] Julianus Dig. 24, 2, 6 : in captiuitate constitutus [5] Papinien Dig. 35, 1, 77, 3 : impubere filia constituta [6] Scaevola Dig. 4, 4, 39, 1 : curatoribus eius idoneis constitutis [7] Sénèque, NQ, III, 10, 3 : natura partes suas velut in ponderribus constitutas exanimat [8] Ulpien Dig. 3, 5, 19 : Ulpianus libro decimo ad edictum. sin autem apud hostes constitutus decessit, et successori et aduersus successorem eius negotiorum gestorum directa et contraria competit. Bibliographie GARCEA A., Caesar’s De analogia. Edition, Translation, and Commentary, Oxford, 2012. KALB W., Das Juristenlatein. Versuch einer Charakteristik auf Grundlage der Digesten, Nürnberg 1888 [Aalen 1961] --, Roms Juristen nach ihrer Sprache dargestellt, Leipzig 1890 [Aalen 1975]. LÖFSTEDT E., Zur Frage der Gräzismen, dans Syntactica. Studien und Beiträge zur historischen Syntax des Lateins II, Lund 1933, 406-457 NELSON H.L.W., Überlieferung, Aufbau und Stil von Gai Institutiones (Studia Gaiana, 6), Leiden 1981, ROSÉN H.-D. SHLEV, QUASI: Its Grecizing [?] syntactic patterns, Colloque de Linguistique latine de Toulouse (sous presse). SCHRIJNEN J.-CHR. MOHRMANN, Studien zur Sprache der Briefe des hl. Cyprian, 2 vol., Nijmegen 1934 [less ▲]

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See detailPour une psychopathologie éthologique et criminologique : l’apport croisé de Debuyst et Demaret
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Christophe

Conference (2017, April 20)

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See detailUse of end-of-waste foamed fibers and aggregates into a cementitious mortar
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Durability and sustainability of cementitious materials are two important issues in the field of construction materials. Durability is defined as the ability of cementitious materials to resist weathering ... [more ▼]

Durability and sustainability of cementitious materials are two important issues in the field of construction materials. Durability is defined as the ability of cementitious materials to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion or any other process of deterioration. The use of fibers is a viable solution to partially overcome the brittle behavior of such materials. At the same time it is demonstrated that fibers, by reducing cracking phenomena, allow to face the durability related issues. Different fibers have been used according to the aims of composite materials: high strength fibers are generally used for structural purposes (toughness increase) while low modulus synthetic fibers are mainly used to avoid plastic shrinkage cracking. The effectiveness of fibers reinforcing action lies mainly on the fiber/matrix interactions. Three types of interactions can be recognized: i) physical and/or chemical adhesion; ii) friction and iii) mechanical anchorage induced by deformations on the fiber surface (e.g. crimps, hooks, twisted or deformed fibers in general). Sustainability can be identified according to the definition of sustainable development stated in 1987 by Brundtland et al.: “the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable development should take into account economic growth, social equality and environmental protection. The construction industry involves all these fields: the main concerns are raw materials consumption and CO2 emissions during cement production. Moreover, also the plastic production and disposal present several environmental issues. Once again, raw materials consumption and the speed with which these materials became waste. Thus, seen the aforementioned drawbacks related to cementitious materials, this Ph.D. was aimed to study the possibility of using end-ofwaste materials (i.e when waste ceases to be waste and becomes a secondary raw material) for the production of synthetic fibers and aggregates characterized by improved mechanical interactions with the cementitious matrix. To this extent, fibers and aggregates with a rough and porous surface, able to offer interlocking positions for the cementitious matrix, were produced in laboratory by melt extrusion-foaming process. Moreover, some chemical treatments (alkaline hydrolysis and sol-gel deposition of nanosilica) were performed on fibers, to improve chemical adhesion with the cement paste. Finally, taking into account the need for reducing the consumption of raw materials, foamed fibers and aggregates were produced starting from a polymeric end-of-waste material made of a polyolefins blend (HDPE, LDPE and PP). Alkaline hydrolysis promoted the creation of interlocking positions on fiber surface but the best behavior was recognized for fibers with nano-silica particles on the surface. In this case, a denser ITZ and a great amount of hydration products were observed by SEM investigations. Pull-out tests confirmed the better performances of treated fibers: a higher pull-out peak load was achieved and an increase of pull-out energy was evident. Subsequently, a foam extrusion process was used to manufacture polymeric fibers (both virgin and recycled) with a rough surface, to improve mechanical friction with the cementitious matrix. Optimizing foaming agent quantity and processing parameters was possible to produce fibers having adequate surface texture and diameter to be used in fiber reinforced mortars. Although fiber reinforced mortars workability decreases at increasing fiber volume fraction, the results demonstrated that this happens to a lower extent for mortars containing foamed fibers. Fibers mechanical properties decreased at increasing fibers porosity but fiber reinforced mortars mechanical properties, flexural and compressive strength, were not influenced by fibers addition nor their morphology. The rougher surface gives rise to a better fiber/matrix adhesion, as confirmed by pull-out tests. Durability investigations on the fiber reinforced mortars reported good results for capillary water absorption, sulfate attack and plastic shrinkage cracking. In particular, fibers length and volume fraction are key parameters in controlling plastic shrinkage cracking. Moreover, mortar samples containing foamed fibers displayed a better control of shrinkage cracking: cracks opening was delayed and the improved fiber/matrix bond was able to reduce crack width, compared to mortars containing smooth fibers. Finally, lightweight artificial aggregates (LWAs) were produced, starting from foamed strands. At increasing LWAs substitution, a sharp decrease of density was achieved. Also workability and mechanical properties decreased, but a more ductile behaviour was recognizable. Thermal conductivity and water vapor resistance were proportional to mortars density which obviously decreased at increasing natural sand substitutions. Moreover, the use of aggregates porosity as reservoir of internal curing water showed promising preliminary results. In brief, the results of this study demonstrate that engineered fibers with improved fiber/matrix bond allow to optimize (i.e. to reduce) fibers volume fraction in cementitious mortars. Foamed fibers characteristics can be in turn optimized by changing the manufacturing process conditions. Benefits could be not only in the control of plastic shrinkage cracking but also in the workability of fresh mortars, mechanical strength and durability of the hardened composite. In addition, using end-of-waste materials a more sustainable product can be obtained. In particular, replacing natural aggregates with plastic aggregates, is possible to reduce raw materials consumption and improve mortar properties (mainly unit weight, thermal conductivity and water vapor permeability). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des traits psychopathiques dans une population de sujets schizophrènes : Les limites de la PCL-R
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Matteucci, Marie; De Page, Louis et al

Poster (2017, April 19)

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués ... [more ▼]

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués schizophrènes. Notre hypothèse principale est que plusieurs items de l’échelle peuvent être côtés avec le même score et pourtant exprimer une manière d’être et d’agir différente si le sujet est réellement psychopathe ou s’il est schizophrène. Afin d’éprouver notre hypothèse, nous avons sélectionné sept patients présentant soit une schizophrénie, soit une personnalité psychopathiques, soit considérés comme potentiels « héboïdophrènes » (schizophrénie pseudo-psychopathique) à qui nous avons administré la PCL-R. À partir d’analyses qualitatives, nous avons ensuite établi une liste d’items de la PCL-R sensibles à la psychose. Nous observons que 45% des items se révèlent positivement ou négativement influencés par la psychose au-delà de tout trait psychopathique. Sémiologiquement, c’est la présence de la dynamique paranoïde de la schizophrénie qui influence principalement les scores attribués aux items de la PCL-R. Cette recherche suggère des hypothèses concernant l’interaction psychose-psychopathie et son rapport avec des actes de violence. La conclusion de l’étude est que la PCL-R connait des limitations importantes en ce qui concerne son application à une population de sujets schizophrènes. [less ▲]

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See detailCritique clinique et phénoménologique de l’objectivation diagnostique : réflexions sur la personnalité antisociale et la psychopathie
Adam, Christophe; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2017, April 19)

L’atelier propose une réflexion épistémologique sur les outils nosographiques dominants le champ de la psychologie clinique et de la psychiatrie. Notre propos se centrera sur une analyse critique de la ... [more ▼]

L’atelier propose une réflexion épistémologique sur les outils nosographiques dominants le champ de la psychologie clinique et de la psychiatrie. Notre propos se centrera sur une analyse critique de la personnalité antisociale selon les DSM-IV et -5 et du diagnostic de psychopathie selon la PCL-R. Inscrit dans le champ de la phénoménologie clinique et d’une lecture dynamique de la psychopathologie, notre propos s’appuiera sur plusieurs situations cliniques. [less ▲]

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See detailVortex Lattice simulations of attached and separated flows around flapping wings
Lambert, Thomas ULg; Abdul Razak, Norizham; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Aerospace (2017), 4(2), 22

Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads ... [more ▼]

Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimising thrust production. In this work, the unsteady Vortex Lattice method is used in conjunction with three load estimation techniques in order to predict the aerodynamic lift and drag time histories produced by flapping rectangular wings. The load estimation approaches are the Katz, Joukowski and simplified Leishman-Beddoes techniques. The simulations' predictions are compared to experimental measurements from a flapping and pitching wing presented by Razak and Dimitriadis [1]. Three types of kinematics are investigated, pitch-leading, pure flapping and pitch lagging. It is found that pitch-leading tests can be simulated quite accurately using either the Katz or Joukowski approaches as no measurable flow separation occurs. For the pure flapping tests, the Katz and Joukowski techniques are accurate as long as the static pitch angle is greater than zero. For zero or negative static pitch angles these methods underestimate the amplitude of the drag. The Leishman-Beddoes approach yields better drag amplitudes but can introduce a constant negative drag offset. Finally, for the pitch-lagging tests the Leishman-Beddoes technique is again more representative of the experimental results, as long as flow separation is not too extensive. Considering the complexity of the phenomena involved, in the vast majority of cases the lift time history is predicted with reasonable accuracy. The drag (or thrust) time history is more challenging. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a metagenetic approach to monitor the bacterial microbiota of “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese during the ripening process
Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Coucheney, Françoise et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2017), 247

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade ... [more ▼]

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21 days of ripening process. In addition to the classical microbiota found in cheese, various strains likely from environmental origin were identified. A large difference between the surface and the core content was observed within samples withdrawn during the ripening process. The main species encountered in the core of the cheese were Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp., with an inversion of this ratio during the ripening process. Less than 2.5% of the whole population was composed of strains issued from environmental origin, as Lactobacillales, Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium. In the core, about 85% of the microbiota was attributed to the starters used for the cheese making. In turn, the microbiota of the surface contained less than 30% of these starters and interestingly displayed more diversity. The predominant genus was Corynebacterium sp., likely originating from the environment. The less abundant microbiota of the surface was composed of Bifidobacteria, Brevibacterium and Micrococcales. To summarize, the “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese displayed a high diversity of bacterial species, especially on the surface, and this diversity is assumed to arise from the production environment and subsequent ripening process. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hupperts, Caroline et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2017), 247

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one “legal” zone of 1,600 cm2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200 cm2). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87 log CFU/100 cm2 and 0.49 and 1.94 log CFU/100 cm2, for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the “legal” swabbing zone in “Halal” samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in “Halal” samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis of taxonomy at the genus level taxonomy highlights differences between swabbing areas. Although not clearly proven in this study, differences in hygiene practices used during both slaughtering protocols could explain the differences in contamination between carcasses from both slaughtering groups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of non-invasive electrical techniques for agricultural  experiments
Garré, Sarah ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 06)

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See detailConclusion
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Marganne, Marie-Hélène; Ricciardetto, Antonio (Eds.) En marge du Serment hippocratique : contrats et serments dans le monde gréco-romain. Actes de la Journée d’étude internationale (Liège, 29 octobre 2014) (2017)

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See detailLes diagrammes syntaxiques du grammairien américain S. W. Clark (1847)
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 06)

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