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See detailMécanismes moléculaires associés à l’induction de la pathogénicité chez Streptomyces scabies
Jourdan, Samuel ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Streptomyces are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria that actively participate in the mineralization of dead organic matter. Members of this bacterial genus are commonly known for the plethora of secondary ... [more ▼]

Streptomyces are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria that actively participate in the mineralization of dead organic matter. Members of this bacterial genus are commonly known for the plethora of secondary metabolites of interest they secrete. Predominantly saprophytes, some Streptomyces species have been proved to be phytopathogenic. The most widespread and best characterized of these species is Streptomyces scabies which is the causative agent of the common scab disease that affects the underground organs of many plants with a preference for storage organs such as potato tubers or pivot roots (beet, turnip, carrot, etc.). Common scab is characterized by brown and corky lesions on the infected organs and causes significant economic losses around the world. The pathogenicity of S. scabies is directly related to its ability to produce the phytotoxin thaxtomin. Unveiling when, how and why S. scabies triggers the production of its phytotoxin is therefore of major interest to understand phytopathogenicity and the virulence associated with this bacteria. Previous works identified cellobiose as the main elicitor of thaxtomin production. However, no signaling pathway from the sensing of the eliciting signal to the biosynthesis of thaxtomin has been proposed so far. The aim of this work is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset of thaxtomin production in the model species S. scabies. In this work we highlighted the central role of the cellulose utilization transcriptional repressor CebR in S. scabies pathogenicity. Indeed, we showed that this regulator directly controls the expression of thaxtomin biosynthesis genes, but also the expression of genes involved in sensing, transport and catabolism of cellooligosaccharides. Together, our results allow to propose a first signaling pathway from cellooligosaccharide transport to the production of thaxtomin in S. scabies, with each step of the cascade controlled by CebR. The results obtained in the course of this thesis extended well beyond the fundamental research scope of elucidating the mechanisms associated with the onset of virulence of S. scabies. Indeed, assessed if/how our findings could propose solutions to current industrial biotechnology iapplications, i.e. i) to provide a mutant that constitutively produce thaxtomine could improve the production yields of this promising bioherbicide, and ii) to assess the enzymatic characteristics of a Beta-glucosidase of S. scabies as possible candidate in lignocellulose saccharification processes. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestir ou mourir, il faut choisir…
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg

Book published by Amazon, Kindle Edition (2016)

Investir : c’est croire en l’avenir. C’est renoncer en partie au présent pour donner vie au futur. C’est tourner le dos aux « bouffeurs d’espoir » et à l’illusoire confort du statu quo. Enfin, et surtout ... [more ▼]

Investir : c’est croire en l’avenir. C’est renoncer en partie au présent pour donner vie au futur. C’est tourner le dos aux « bouffeurs d’espoir » et à l’illusoire confort du statu quo. Enfin, et surtout, c’est oser « oser » ! La distance séparant le discours public de la performance économique avérée suffit à démontrer l’incompréhension des mécanismes de création de richesse de ceux qui sont censés en avoir la maîtrise et/ou les mettre en œuvre. Il est peu de domaines où les illusions, et autres idées fausses, ont un succès tel qu’elles amènent à s’interroger sur le profit que d’aucuns pourraient en tirer… L’objet de cet ouvrage est de partager le fruit d’une réflexion menée sur le thème de l’investissement, forme proéminente et condition première de l’activité économique, au moment où certains s’interrogent sur son encadrement et cherchent à en limiter la liberté. Il aborde les bouleversements technologiques les plus significatifs ; l’art et la science d’investir avec Internet ; la recherche d’opportunités nouvelles ; et, se termine par quelques observations et souhaits quant à « l’état » du monde ! [less ▲]

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See detailOn the GMP production of [18]FUCB-H : Imaging neurotransmission
Warnier, Corentin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We herein describe the straightforward synthesis of a stable pyridyl(aryl)iodonium salt and its [18F]radiolabelling within a one-step, fully automated and cGMP compliant radi-osynthesis of [18F]UCB-H, a ... [more ▼]

We herein describe the straightforward synthesis of a stable pyridyl(aryl)iodonium salt and its [18F]radiolabelling within a one-step, fully automated and cGMP compliant radi-osynthesis of [18F]UCB-H, a PET tracer for the imaging of Synaptic Vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A). Over the course of one year, 40 automated productions provided 34±2% of injectable [18F]UCB-H from up to 7.7 Ci of [18F]fluoride in 50 minutes (uncorrected radiochemical yield. Specific Activity = 22±5 Ci/µmol). The successful implementation of our synthetic strategy within routine, high-activity and cGMP productions attests to its practicality and reliability for the production of large doses of [18F]UCB-H. In addition to enabling efficient and cost-effective clinical research on a range of neurological pathologies through the imaging of SV2A, this work further demonstrates the real value of iodonium salts in the cGMP 18F-PET tracer manufacturing industry and their ability to fulfill practical and regulatory requirements in that field. [less ▲]

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See detailRelectures de La Misère du monde: Bourdieu, Sartre, Enzensberger
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

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See detailL'imagination au travail : Sartre, Marcuse, Negt
Hervy, Alievtina ULg

Scientific conference (2016, September 26)

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See detailMUCOADHESIVE SPONGES WITH PEGYLATED LIPOPLEXES: TOWARDS A SUSTAINED VAGINAL DELIVERY OF siRNA
Furst, Tania ULg; Dakwar, Georges; zagato, Elisa et al

Poster (2016, September 26)

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See detailLaboratory diagnosis of syphilis
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

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See detailReprise et renouvellement de la philosophie sartrienne dans le champ des sciences sociales
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

L'objectif de cette communication est double. D'une part, il s'agit de définir ce que le projet sartrien d'une anthropologie structurelle et historique emprunte au structuralisme français. Nous porterons ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de cette communication est double. D'une part, il s'agit de définir ce que le projet sartrien d'une anthropologie structurelle et historique emprunte au structuralisme français. Nous porterons ainsi notre attention sur le numéro 246 de la revue "Les Temps Modernes", où Sartre (mais aussi Bourdieu et le jeune Maurice Godelier) met en question les principes fondamentaux de l'analyse structurale. D'autre part, nous souhaitons préciser en quoi la philosophie du second Sartre revisite en profondeur ces principes. Nous mobiliserons, pour ce faire, "Les Racines de l'éthique". Récemment édité dans "Les Études sartriennes", cet inédit de l'oeuvre sartrienne précise la stratégie par laquelle celle-ci entend conserver mais aussi dépasser les apories de l'analyse structurale. Aussi la problématique générale de notre communication consiste-t-elle à documenter le rapport qu'entretînt la philosophie sartrienne à l'égard d'un certain segment des sciences sociales françaises. À cette fin, nous étudierons l'activité éditoriale des "Temps Modernes", ainsi que celle qui fut générée postérieurement par le champ des "Études sartriennes". [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater flow and saltwater intrusion modelling in the Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer near the Saloum inverse estuary in Senegal
Faye, Serigne; Ndeye, Maguette Dieng; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 26)

The Saloum River hypersaline estuary (Senegal) is an ‘inverse estuary’ showing a salinity increasing from the river mouth towards inland. This salinization process is mainly driven by a net loss of ... [more ▼]

The Saloum River hypersaline estuary (Senegal) is an ‘inverse estuary’ showing a salinity increasing from the river mouth towards inland. This salinization process is mainly driven by a net loss of freshwater due to intense evaporation. In this context, interactions between the river and the surrounding aquifer of the Continental Terminal (CT) may lead to local and progressive salinization of this groundwater main resource for water supply. Our study, based on available data and new measured data in 2012 and 2013, is focused on the southern part of the Saloum basin. It confirms that the groundwater resource is threatened by local saltwater intrusions in the vicinity of the Saloum River and along the western coastal part of the aquifer. For a long term water resources management, it is thus essential to predict the future evolution of this process in a context of increasing groundwater pumping rate together with climate variability and changes. A groundwater flow model is developed using MODFLOW. Starting from a conceptual steady-state situation corresponding to the CT aquifer state in 1973 before development of pumping, a transient calibration of the groundwater flow model is performed on data from 1974 to 2012. Despite the low number of measured data, the model can be considered as the current best assessment tool for future predictions. Using the particle tracking technique (MODPATH), a first assessment of the saltwater intrusions in the aquifer is simulated (neglecting the density effect on the hydraulic conductivity) confirming the measured data. Results, for an increased pumping of 20% in 2050 combined with different climatic scenarios, are useful to assess how the saltwater intrusions will evolve in the next years. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles réponses face à la fatigue vocale? Variabilité inter-individuelle des modifications acoustiques de la voix au cours de la journée
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Gerber, Silvain; Garnier, Maëva

Poster (2016, September 26)

Objectifs: 1) décrire l’évolution de 4 indicateurs acoustiques de la fatigue vocale au cours d’une journée de travail et examiner leur universalité dans l'échantillon, 2) déterminer si différentes ... [more ▼]

Objectifs: 1) décrire l’évolution de 4 indicateurs acoustiques de la fatigue vocale au cours d’une journée de travail et examiner leur universalité dans l'échantillon, 2) déterminer si différentes typologies de réponse à la fatigue vocale peuvent être distinguées. Population: 22 enseignantes enregistrées le matin et le soir après leur journée de travail, à 3 temps de l’année: octobre, décembre, et février. Tâche: voyelle [a] tenue produite 5 fois à intensité et fréquence confortables. Paramètres mesurés avec Praat et moyennés sur les 5 répétitions: F0 (Hz), rapport harmoniques/bruit (HNR, dB), local Jitter (%), et local Shimmer (%). Les variations des moyennes entre le soir et le matin (Δ) sont calculées pour chaque paramètre. Résultats: En accord avec la littérature, le Δ moyen pour les 22 participantes aux 3 temps montre une augmentation de F0 et HNR, et une diminution de Jitter et Shimmer au cours de la journée. Cependant, ces résultats ne sont pas généralisés dans notre échantillon. Une analyse hiérarchique ascendante permet d'identifier 3 typologies de réponse à la fatigue vocale, observées suite à la journée de travail. Typologie 1: tendance inverse à la littérature (ΔF0 et ΔHNR négatifs, Δjitter et Δshimmer positifs). Comportement hypofonctionnel en réponse à la fatigue vocale. Typologie 2: tendance et amplitude similaires à la littérature (ΔF0 et ΔHNR positifs, Δjitter et Δshimmer négatifs). Réponse attendue, adaptation saine à la fatigue vocale. Typologie 3: tendance similaire à la littérature mais d’amplitude très marquée. Comportement hyperfonctionnel, suspicion d’un trouble vocal. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of climate change on terrestrial plants in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by EURO-CORDEX projections
Dury, Marie ULg; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg et al

Poster (2016, September 26)

While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more ... [more ▼]

While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long-term consequences on ecosystem composition, functioning and carbon storage. Hence, it is essential to assess the changes in climate variability and the changes in frequency of extreme events projected for the future. Here, the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB DVM was used to evaluate and analyse how future climate and extreme events will affect European terrestrial plants. To quantify the uncertainties in climatic projections and their potential impacts on ecosystems, the vegetation model was driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models, nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project: ALADIN53 (Météo-France/CNRM), RACMO22E (KNMI), RCA4 (SMHI) and REMO2009 (MPI-CSC) RCMs. These daily climatic scenarios are at a high spatial resolution (0.11°, ≈ 12 km). CARAIB simulations were performed across Europe over the historical period 1971-2005 and the future period 2006-2100 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. We simulated a set of 99 individual species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 40 trees) representing the major European ecosystem flora. First, we analysed the climatic variability simulated by the climatic models over the historical period and compared it with the observed climatic variability. Then, we evaluated change in climatic variability and extreme events projected by the climatic models for the end of the century. Finally, we assessed the change in species productivity and abundance. We evaluated the severity of projected productivity change for the period 2070-2099 relative to their current productivity variability (period 1970-1999). Mean changes were considered severe if they exceed observed variability. The projections of potential shifts in species distributions are directly dedicated to current forest management. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall molecule ligands for the orphan GPR27
Dupuis, Nadine ULg; Franssen, Delphine ULg; Laschet, Céline ULg et al

Poster (2016, September 26)

Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many physiological processes and constitute the target of around 30% of marketed therapies. Nonetheless, ~100 human GPCRs have no known ... [more ▼]

Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many physiological processes and constitute the target of around 30% of marketed therapies. Nonetheless, ~100 human GPCRs have no known ligand and are designated as "orphan". This project focuses on GPR27, a rhodopsin-like alpha orphan of the SREB family (Super conserved Receptors Expressed in the Brain), presumably involved in the regulation of insulin secretion [1]. Methods In order to identify small molecules activating GPR27, we developed a firefly luciferase complementation assay (based on [2]) to assess the binding of ß-arrestin2 to the activated GPCR. To increase the affinity for and strengthen the interaction with ß-arrestin2, a GPR27-V2R chimera has been used for library screening. Results Small molecules activating GPR27-V2 have been identified in the DiverSetTM library (ChemBridge). After exclusion of non-specific activities using another unrelated GPCR, two compounds sharing a common scaffold with activity in the low micromolar range were selected for further investigations. We confirmed their agonist profile by performing complete concentration-response curves on our arrestin complementation assay as well as orthogonal assays. These compounds show good specificity being inactive on GPR85-V2 and GPR173-V2 (the two other SREB members). With these original tools, we characterized the recruitment of ß-arrestin2 to activated GPR27 WT. Conclusion We identified small molecule ligands for GPR27 that will serve as valuable tools for studying the pharmacology of GPR27 as well as its physiological roles, for example in insulin secretion. 1 Ku G.M., Pappalardo Z., Luo C.C., German M.S., McManus M.T. An siRNA Screen in Pancreatic Beta Cells Reveals a Role for Gpr27 in Insulin Production. PLoS genetics. 2012, 8, e1002449. 2 Takakura H., Hattori M., Takeuchi M., Ozawa T. Visualization and Quantitative Analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptor−β-Arrestin Interaction in Single Cells and Specific Organs of Living Mice Using Split Luciferase Complementation. ACS Chem. Biol. 2012, 7, 901−910. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust mission design using invariant manifolds
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Baresi, Nicola; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 67th International Astronautical Congress (2016, September 26)

Uncertainties in the dynamical system affect all real-life applications in astrodynamics. This is particularly true for satellites orbiting about small bodies owing to their irregular shapes and to the ... [more ▼]

Uncertainties in the dynamical system affect all real-life applications in astrodynamics. This is particularly true for satellites orbiting about small bodies owing to their irregular shapes and to the difficulties in characterizing their physical properties at the early stages of a dedicated spacecraft mission. Hence, accommodating uncertainty in the orbital design process may be extremely beneficial for the success of the mission. Here, in a Lyapunov stability perspective, the properties of the invariant manifolds are exploited to generate regions of the phase space where the motion is guaranteed to evolve despite the uncertainties in the system parameters and navigation errors. Specifically, the scenario approach is applied to tackle a semi-infinite optimization problem that locates these robust regions. The methodology is illustrated with the robust design of a inner retrograde orbit about the primary of (65803) Didymos as well as with a ballistic landing on the smaller secondary body. [less ▲]

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See detailDysregulated circulating miRNAs in pre-eclampsia
Tebache, Linda; Munaut, Carine ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 25)

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See detail25 solutions pour valoriser la mobilité douce à Liège
Labbé, Sébastien ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2016)

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See detailLe développement de l’agriculture familiale par les transferts des migrants
Yao Namé, Juste Michel ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, September 25)

The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of ... [more ▼]

The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of the former home Pinel (first home of migrant workers in France). This survey had to aim to discuss the implementation and use of a new tool to transfer the money in order to reduce use of informal channels, to promote financial inclusion, to finance smallholding and to develop entrepreneurship in rural by granting of credits medium or long term via Microfinance Institutions (IMF). [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics and bed stability at smooth-to-rough transitions. Experiments based on acoustic flow measurements
Duma, Diana ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

As reflected in the scale of large contemporary hydropower schemes, flowing water may carry huge amounts of energy. If not mastered properly, this energy may cause impressive channel erosion and local ... [more ▼]

As reflected in the scale of large contemporary hydropower schemes, flowing water may carry huge amounts of energy. If not mastered properly, this energy may cause impressive channel erosion and local scour. Therefore, one lasting concern in hydraulic engineering has been the stability of structures, riverbeds and riverbanks against flow erosion. Two main limitations of current understanding of riverbed and riverbank stability are highlighted: the first one is directly linked to the evaluation of the flow action, while the second one relates to the conceptual framework in which stone stability is evaluated. Since the standard approaches use the mean bed shear stress to quantify the flow forces, they may only apply under uniform flow conditions, for which the ratio of turbulence intensity to the bed shear stress remains almost constant and the influence of turbulence is therefore implicitly incorporated. For non-uniform flow, correction factors have been conventionally applied to account for the turbulence fluctuations; but this approach does not reproduce the physical influence of turbulence higher in the water column and can only be used as a rule of thumb. A new approach was initiated recently in literature. Instead of using the standard Shields parameter, it quantifies the flow forces by means of a new set of parameters which combine explicitly the velocity and turbulence distributions over a certain water depth above the riverbed, while remaining reasonably accessible for engineering applications. Next, this quantity is related to a mobility parameter, which describes the bed damage. This new approach requires additional high quality experimental data to confirm its validity for a wider range of non-uniform flow. In this research, the focus was set on a single canonical configuration, namely a smooth-to-rough transition. We take a preventive perspective by focusing on the flow and bed stability conditions before a scour hole starts to develop and we are interested in characterising the flow conditions to ensure bed stability, i.e. prevent the dislodging of bed material downstream of the structure. As a second specific objective of the thesis, we aimed at evaluating the feasibility of using acoustic techniques to properly estimate the new bed stability parameters proposed in literature in the last decade and draw conclusions on stone mobility at smooth-to-rough transitions. The experimental tests were conducted in two laboratory flumes, a horizontal bottom flume (6 m long and 15 cm wide) and a tilting flume (up to 4% slope, 20 m long and 50 cm wide), in which we measured the flow velocity at a 100 Hz frequency, using two different acoustic instruments: an Ultrasound Velocity Profiler (UVP) and a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP). The measurements were done immediately downstream of the transition from smooth-to-rough. Two types of tests were undertaken. In the first type, the stones were glued with silicone on the flume bottom and velocity measurements were performed without stone motion. This enables measurements of the flow characteristics both below and above the threshold for inception of sediment motion, without perturbations induced by stone displacements. In the second type, the stones in the measurement area were laid on the bottom of the flume (i.e. not glued) and the number of entrained stones was recorded. The tests were conducted by varying (i) the grain size of the bed material (8 mm, 15 mm and 30 mm), (ii) the flow velocity (between 0.74 m/s and 1.16 m/s), (iii) the sediments density (1410 kg/m³, 1690 kg/m³ and 2650 kg/m³) and (iv) the configuration (quasi-uniform vs. smooth-to-rough transition). Indeed, for the purpose of comparison, a uniform rough bed (quasi-uniform configuration) was considered also, by replacing the smooth part of the bed with similar sediments as in the measurement area. After a specific signal processing, flow variables were derived from the measurements and were next exploited to evaluate several bed stability parameters, with the aim of correlating them with bed damage data obtained from dedicated experiments. The results showed no correlation between the bed damage and the bed shear stress or between the bed damage and flow turbulent kinetic energy. In contrast, when the flow action is described by both mean velocity and turbulence characteristics, a relative good correlation with the bed damage was observed. Nonetheless, these correlations appear only per subset of points corresponding to the same grain size and/or same material density or flume geometry. With a total of 45 hydraulic configurations for which the flow characteristics were measured and 66 (times four repetitions) tests in which the bed damage was observed, the present research ends up with a unique dataset, which may prove useful in various research such as for the validation of 2D-vertical and 3D turbulent flow and morphodynamic simulations. Another key outcome of the present doctoral research is a systematic comparison between measurements conducted with the UVP and the ADVP. The ADVP is deemed generally more accurate and reliable. Nonetheless, both instruments remain somehow complementary. We showed that, under certain conditions, the considered instruments have the potential to contribute to the assessment of bed stability in the considered configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications des relevés 3D au patrimoine, de l'acquisition au système d'information 3D
Hallot, Pierre ULg; Billen, Roland ULg; Poux, Florent ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 23)

Les techniques permettant l’acquisition 3D du patrimoine bâti sont maintenant assez mures et démocratiques pour être utilisées à grande échelle. De plus en plus d’édifices font l’objet d’une sauvegarde ... [more ▼]

Les techniques permettant l’acquisition 3D du patrimoine bâti sont maintenant assez mures et démocratiques pour être utilisées à grande échelle. De plus en plus d’édifices font l’objet d’une sauvegarde numérique sous la forme de nuages de points colorés. Il reste néanmoins de nombreux défis à relever notamment pour : harmoniser les pratiques d’acquisition en terme de qualité et de précision, assurer l’interopérabilité entre les jeux de données ; exploiter pleinement l’information ponctuelle collectée ; et proposer une visualisation adéquate de ces grands jeux de données. Dans le cadre des développements réalisés à l’Unité de Géomatique de l’ULg, nous travaillons à la mise au point de systèmes d’informations permettant d’assurer un lien entre les informations sémantiques issues des applications archéologiques, architecturales, d’histoire de l’art avec les modèles 3D réalisés. La mise en place de ces systèmes d’informations passe par plusieurs étapes de recherche relatives à la sectorisation automatique, les structures de données, la définitions d’ontologies thématiques et finalement les règles sémiologiques de représentations dans un environnement virtuel 3D. Au cours de cette présentation, nous proposons de parcourir trois projets de recherche en cours au sein de l’Unité afin l’illustrer nos propos. Nous présenterons plus particulièrement le cas de la cathédrale Saint-Paul de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse comparative des coûts de production rizicole dans les pays de la Communauté Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL).
Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, September 23)

Cet article fait une analyse comparative des résultats économiques de la production rizicole durant la saison B 2014 dans les trois pays de la CEPGL qui sont la République Démocratique du Congo, le Rwanda ... [more ▼]

Cet article fait une analyse comparative des résultats économiques de la production rizicole durant la saison B 2014 dans les trois pays de la CEPGL qui sont la République Démocratique du Congo, le Rwanda et le Burundi. L’approche comparative permet de trouver les explications des différences des résultats en partie dans les politiques mises en œuvre dans chaque pays. Les enquêtes ont été menées dans la plaine de la Ruzizi partagée entre les trois pays auprès de 240 producteurs du riz choisi à partir de la méthode des quotas sur la base d'une stratification des exploitations rizicoles. Dans le site congolais (où il est plus difficile d’accéder aux intrants et crédits), les coûts de production d’1kg de paddy sont les plus élevés avec une fonction de production y=0,034x+0,053z+0,422 et le rendement le plus bas (2698kgs). Par contre, dans les sites burundais et rwandais où l’Etat intervient dans l’approvisionnement en intrants et particulièrement dans le site rwandais, l’accès aux crédits, les fonctions de production sont respectivement de y=0,024x+0,031z+0,297 et y=0,017x+0,023z+0,269 avec des rendements de 3962kgs et 5339kgs dans le même ordre. Les coûts de production supportés sur un hectare rizicole ou encore pour la production d’une tonne de paddy varient selon le pays car ils dépendent de la valeur des intrants utilisés et des autres charges de structures. Ils varient ainsi de 1139,4USD à 1354,5USD/ ha et de 269 à 422USD/tonne. [less ▲]

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