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See detailArt et schizophrénie : étude comparative de biographies d’artistes d’art brut et de sujets schizophrènes peintres
Moffarts, Aloïse; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2014, January 22)

La psychopathologie phénoménologique explique la schizophrénie en termes de perte de l'évidence naturelle (Blankenburg, 1991/1971) ou de psychopathologie du sens commun (Stanghellini, 2000, 2004, 2007 ... [more ▼]

La psychopathologie phénoménologique explique la schizophrénie en termes de perte de l'évidence naturelle (Blankenburg, 1991/1971) ou de psychopathologie du sens commun (Stanghellini, 2000, 2004, 2007). Concernant les théories consacrées à l'art et la psychopathologie, nous nous penchons sur la théorie de la Gestaltung de Prinzhorn (1984), sur l’hypothèse de l’« l'art révolutionnaire » de Sass (1992 ; Spaniol, 2001) et analysons la classification de Jádi (Hulak, 1990). Enfin, à partir de ces travaux, nous avons établi trois types d'art qui peuvent se retrouver chez des artistes malades mentaux : art brut, art naïf et art de recherche. Notre méthodologie consiste à analyser la biographie de deux artistes peintres de la famille de « l'art brut » (Aloïse Cobraz et Adolf Wölfli) en les comparant aux biographies et analyses de cas de deux patients schizophrènes se considérant comme artistes peintres. Nous avons élaboré un questionnaire semi-structuré pour questionner les artistes sur leur parcours artistique et leur rapport à l’art. Après nos analyses et le croisement avec les théories existantes, nous émettons comme hypothèse que les schizophrènes artistes se distinguent des autres types d’artistes (pathologiques ou non) dans leur rapport à la créativité. Ceci est congruent avec le concept d’« art révolutionnaire » de Sass (1992). La classification de Jádi nous permet de suggérer qu’il n’est pas cohérent de parler d’un art des malades mentaux et que le trouble psychiatrique ne peut donc pas être considéré comme l’essence de l'art brut. Enfin, nous pouvons émettre l’hypothèse que l'art semble conférer aux schizophrènes artistes une forme d'adaptation sociale eu égard au sens commun « perdu ». [less ▲]

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See detailLe Rorschach selon le Système Intégré et le TCI-R : comparaison et intégration
Rentmeister, Daniel; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

Poster (2014, January 22)

Pour cette étude, un double objectif est recherché. Premièrement, nous comparons statistiquement le test de Rorschach selon le Système Intégré de J.E.Exner et le Temperament and Character Inventory – ... [more ▼]

Pour cette étude, un double objectif est recherché. Premièrement, nous comparons statistiquement le test de Rorschach selon le Système Intégré de J.E.Exner et le Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised de R. Cloninger afin de mettre en évidence leurs divergences et convergences. Deuxièmement, à l’aide de cas cliniques, nous discutons de la pertinence de l’intégration des résultats obtenus par ces deux outils en vue d’établir le profil psychologique complet et cohérent d’un individu. Pour la comparaison statistique, notre échantillon de 27 sujets tout-venant (M = 24,37 ans ; SD = 2,75) a d’abord été soumis au test de Rorschach. Directement après, chaque sujet a complété le TCI-R. Une analyse de corrélation (Rho de Pearson) a été calculée entre les indices et un ajustement de Bonferroni a été effectué. Pour l’analyse de cas, 3 sujets cliniques ont été recrutés. Une anamnèse a été réalisée et le test de Rorschach et TCI-R administré. Nos premiers résultats, qui sont à prendre avec prudence au vu du faible nombre de sujet de l’échantillon, sont à nuancer et discuter. À partir de 2016 comparaisons statistiques, nous sélectionnons les résultats les plus pertinents et discutons des différentes corrélations observées. Les analyses de cas nous montrent une concordance au niveau des relations sociales et de l’impulsivité ; et nous montrent que les informations propres à chaque test permettent de compléter le profil du sujet. Enfin, c’est en abordant les deux épistémologies différentes sur lesquelles reposent ces deux tests que nous pouvons expliquer au mieux les différences psychologiques mises en évidence à propos des mêmes individus. Nous concluons en suggérant que cette différence de résultats doit certainement être comprise selon une logique intégrative et souligne la complémentarité existant entre ces deux épreuves. [less ▲]

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See detailLe problème des protocoles longs au test de Rorschach
Dufour, Cristelle; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2014, January 22)

Notre étude s’intéresse aux protocoles exceptionnellement longs (supérieurs à 50 réponses) fournis par cinq sujets au test du Rorschach administré et interprété selon la méthode du Système Intégré (Exner ... [more ▼]

Notre étude s’intéresse aux protocoles exceptionnellement longs (supérieurs à 50 réponses) fournis par cinq sujets au test du Rorschach administré et interprété selon la méthode du Système Intégré (Exner, 2003). Afin de mieux comprendre quelle attitude adopter face à ce type de protocole, nous avons effectué une réduction a posteriori du nombre de réponses en nous basant sur les recommandations d’Exner (1988, 1992, 2003). Nous avons ensuite réalisé une étude comparative entre l’interprétation clinique réalisée avec la totalité des réponses et avec seulement les cinq premières réponses par planche. Nous avons également reproduit cette méthodologie de réduction a posteriori du nombre de réponses avec quatre réponses par planche en nous inspirant des nouvelles recommandations du système R-PAS de Meyer et al. (2009). Selon ces propositions, un protocole de test de Rorschach serait valide lorsque le sujet fournit entre 20 et 40 réponses (entre 2 et 4 par planche). L’échantillon est composé de trois sujets tout-venant et deux sujets psychiatriques. Notre analyse a mis en évidence une stabilité de certaines variables (EB, Lambda, EA) mais d’importantes différences dans le profil psychologique des sujets après réduction. Nous avons observé une clarification des difficultés fondamentales chez les sujets psychiatriques et plutôt une neutralisation de ces difficultés pour les sujets tout-venant, avec notamment des stratégies défensives qui apparaissent plus adaptées. Selon les résultats obtenus à partir de notre échantillon, nous pouvons suggérer que la prise en compte de la totalité des réponses ou seulement du protocole partiel induit une différence dans l’interprétation clinique. En conséquence, toute réduction du nombre de réponses devrait se faire avec grande prudence. Notre étude permet de discuter des pratiques actuelles du test de Rorschach, en faisant dialoguer les contraintes inhérentes à la validité du test et les questions de la réduction de la complexité clinique propres à toute entreprise de standardisation. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à la compréhension de l'immunopathogénie de l'aspergillose nasosinusale chez le chien
Vanherberghen, Morgane ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Sinonasal aspergillosis is a sever fungal rhinosinusitis mainly affecting large breed dogs in their mid ages. Its most common causal agent is A. fumigatus, a fungus that is largely spread in the ... [more ▼]

Sinonasal aspergillosis is a sever fungal rhinosinusitis mainly affecting large breed dogs in their mid ages. Its most common causal agent is A. fumigatus, a fungus that is largely spread in the atmosphere. As of today, the diagnostic and treatment for this disease remain a challenge for the practicing veterinary doctor. Very little data is available to explain why such a ubiquitous fungus induces a sever rhinosinusitis in otherwise healthy dogs, while other dogs do not present any sign of fungal infection. The authors of a study analysing the expression of mRNA encoding for certain cytokines and chimiokines in the nasal mucosa of SNA affected dogs, propose the assumption that dogs develop a protective immunity (Th1) against A. fumigatus, but that it could be blocked by an excessively intense regulating immunity (massive production of IL-10). Indeed, it is commonly described that in humans affected by invasive aspergillosis, as well as in mice-based models, the production of immunoregulating cytokines (IL-10) should be considered as a sign of the escalation of the sickness and an absence of its remission. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the adaptive immunity reaction of SNA affected dogs based on the assumption that sick subjects develop a protective immunity that is antagonised by a disproportional regulating immunity. Three axes of analysis have been considered to answer this objective. The first looked into the difference of expression and/or production of cytokines and transcriptor factors prototypics of the different adaptative and regulatory immunological paths: Th1 (IFN-γ and Tbet) – Th2 (IL-4 and GATA3) – Th17 (IL-17A and RORc) and Treg (IL-10 and FoxP3) in PBMC of affected and healthy dogs after A. fumigatus stimulation. Secondly, an analysis of genes by microarray has been carried on nasal mucosa biopsies of affected and healthy dogs. Thirdly, the promotor zone of the gene encoding IL-10 in dogs has been analysed by sequencing. This study has been done within three cohortes of dogs: Rottweiler-Labrador and Golden containing affected and healthy dogs. The objective was to investigate, as it is the case in human medicine, the possibility of a genetic modification as a factor susceptible of leading to SNA development. The results of the first study revealed that: (1) the PBMC of half the controls dogs and every affected dogs expressed a relevant overexpression of IFN-γ. This increase was significantly more important within PBMC of affected dogs. The analysis of IFN-γ production in culture supernatants was in accordance with these last observations. A significant increase in the expression of mRNA coding for Tbet was also observed in half of the PBMC of affected dogs. (2) a significant increase in expression of mRNA encoding IL-4 was observed in the PBMC of most of the affected and healthy dogs. This increase was significantly higher in the PBMC of affected dogs than in the healthy dogs. (3) the PBMC of most control and affected dogs also revealed an increase in expression of mRNA encoding IL-17A. This increase was statistically more important in the PBMC of affected dogs than in the healthy dogs. (4) a relevant decrease in mRNA expression encoding IL-10 was observed in the PBMC of more than half of the affected dogs. The expression of the mRNA encoding IL-10 was significantly smaller in the PBMC of affected dogs than in the healthy dogs. The microarray analysis showed that: (1) amongst the 49 overexpressed biological groups, 13 were associated to the immunological or inflammatory process; (2) the nasal mucosa of affected dogs presented an increase in the expression of genes encoding for molecules involved directly (IFN-γ and STAT4) and indirectly (IL-16, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10) in the development of protective Th1 immunity, as well as molecules involved in the regulatory branch of the immune response (IL-16 and Ikaros). The sequencing analysis of the promotor region of the gene encoding IL-10 revealed the presence of polymorphisms. Three polymorphisms were observed more frequently in clones belonging to the three studied cohorts, excepted for the clones belonging to SNA affected Rottweiler. The polymorphisms observed in dogs were not similar to those described in humans. The first study showed an increase in the expression of mRNa encoding IFN-γ - Tbet – IL-4 and IL-17A in most of the PBMC of the affected dogs, and a decrease in the expression of IL-10 in comparison with the PBMC of healthy dogs. Similar results were observed in mice repeatedly affected by A. fumigatus. The suggested hypothesis was that an intense Th17 immunity resulted in a massive inflammatory reaction leading to a favourable environment were A. fumigatus was able to proliferate as hyphae. In return, hyphae would lead to the development of a non-protective Th2 immunity. It is tempting to suggest that the same hypothesis could be made for dogs affected by SNA. In order to reinforce this hypothesis, we should compare the expression of the different molecules involved in the Th17 immunity inside the nasal mucosa of affected and healthy dogs. Additionally, we should be running a kinetic study based on the expression of prototypical cytokines in parallel with the analysis of the production of these cytokines in culture supernatants. Ideally these studies should use DC and lymphocytes isolated from the nasal mucosa of affected and healthy dogs. In conclusion, an new hypothesis could be formulated: the possibility that not the overstimulation of the regulatory branch of the immunity response but an overstimulation of the Th17 branch of the immune response could be the cornerstone of the incapacity of dogs to clear from their SNA. The results of the microarray study were partially in accordance to the starting hypothesis. Indeed, the results showed an overexpression of genes involved in in the development of the protective Th1 (IFN-γ, STAT4, IL-16, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10) as well as genes involved in the regulatory path of the adaptive immunity (IL-16 and Ikaros). But the results of this study did not show an increase in IL-10. No conclusion could be drawn from these results; indeed, they were only the reflection of a fixed image at a given moment and we cannot consider qPCR results as the exact replica of the production of cytokines in the microenvironment. Nevertheless this study pointed out new possible areas of research. The results obtained after the sequencing of the promotor zone of the gene encoding IL-10 did not show any clear difference between affected and healthy dogs. However, this study was undertaken with a very limited number of dogs. In order to further assess the possibility of a genetic modification as the cornerstone of the development of SNA, more dogs should be analysed and the sequencing analysis should be run in parallel with an ELISA analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes effets de la Révolution sur l'architecture liégeoise
Gilles, Isabelle ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 21)

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See detail« Les plantes qui nous soignent : de la tradition à la médecine moderne »
Frederich, Michel ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 20)

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See detailA conjecture on the 2-abelian complexity of the Thue-Morse word
Rigo, Michel ULg; Parreau, Aline ULg; Vandomme, Elise ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 20)

The Thue-Morse word is a well-known and extensively studied 2-automatic sequence. For example, it is trivially abelian periodic and its abelian complexity takes only two values. For an integer k, the k ... [more ▼]

The Thue-Morse word is a well-known and extensively studied 2-automatic sequence. For example, it is trivially abelian periodic and its abelian complexity takes only two values. For an integer k, the k-abelian complexity is a generalization of the abelian complexity, corresponding to the case where k=1. Formally, two words u and v of the same length are k-abelian equivalent if they have the same prefix (resp. suffix) of length k-1 and if, for all words x of length k, the numbers of occurrences of x in u and v are the same. This notion has received some recent interest, see the works of Karhumäki et al. The k-abelian complexity of an infinite word x maps an integer n to the number of k-abelian classes partitioning the set of factors of length n occurring in x. The aim of this talk is to study the 2-abelian complexity a(n) of the Thue-Morse word. We conjecture that a(n) is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit. This question can be related to a work of Madill and Rampersad (2012) where the (1)-abelian complexity of the paper folding word is shown to be 2-regular. We will present some arguments supporting our conjecture. They are based on functions counting some subword of length 2 occuring in prefixes of the Thue-Morse word. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative approaches based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface-Enhanced Raman Chemical Imaging (SER-CI)
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg et al

Conference (2014, January 20)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), discovered in 1978, is a recent technique enabling to circumvent the main limitations of classical Raman spectroscopy by dramatically exalting the Raman ... [more ▼]

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), discovered in 1978, is a recent technique enabling to circumvent the main limitations of classical Raman spectroscopy by dramatically exalting the Raman scattering of the target molecules which are adsorbed or very closed to metallic surfaces while reducing the fluorescence impact on spectra [1]. This technique combines the sensitivity of the fluorescence keeping the structural information of molecules obtained from the SERS spectrum [2]. This last point allows to implement multiplex analyses. Moreover, it is possible to perform Surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI) analyses which enable to acquire a visual representation of samples combining spectral and spatial measurements. Therefore SERS could become an attractive technique in numerous fields such as pharmaceutical and biomedical research. In this context, the feasibility of developing quantitative approaches using SERS and SER-CI on a pharmaceutical model was studied. The aim was to develop methods allowing the quantification of 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in a pharmaceutical formulation based on paracetamol. 4-AP is the main impurity of paracetamol and is actively research because of its toxicity. This pharmaceutical model was first investigated using SERS and a quantitative method enabling to quantify 4-AP from 3 to15 µg/mL was developed and validated using the standard addition method as a calibration method [3]. From these results, the possibility of developing a quantitative approach using SER-CI was investigated. Tablets based on paracetamol comprising different concentrations of 4-AP were prepared. Different ways to cover the sample surface by the SERS substrate were tested and a homogeneity study was performed to improve the repeatability of SER-CI analyses. Different spectral intensity normalizations were also tested in order to optimize the SER-CI method. Finally, a quantitative approach using SER-CI was developed allowing the quantification of 4-AP from 0.025% to 0.2% (w/w) in paracetamol tablets [4]. This first quantitative approach could pave the way to quantitative analysis of small molecules using SER-CI in complex matrices. References [1] P.L. Stiles, J.A. Dieringer, N.C. Shah, R.P. Van Duyne, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1 (2008) 601-626. [2] R.F. Aroca, R.A. Alvarez-Puebla, N. Pieczonka, S. Sanchez-Cortez, J.V. Garcia-Ramos, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 116 (2005) 45-61. [3] C. De Bleye, E. Dumont, E. Rozet, P.-Y. Sacré, P.-F. Chavez, L. Netchacovitch, G. Piel, Ph. Hubert, E. Ziemons, Talanta 116 (2013) 899-905. [4] C. De Bleye, P.-Y. Sacré, E. Dumont, L. Netchacovitch, P.-F. Chavez, G. Piel, P. Lebrun, Ph. Hubert, E. Ziemons, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. (in Press) [less ▲]

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See detailMilli-Interacting Dark Matter Interpretation of the Direct-Search Experiments
Wallemacq, Quentin ULg

in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with ... [more ▼]

We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of milli-interacting dark particles. The model reproduces the positive results from DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT and is consistent with the absence of signal in the XENON100, CDMS-II/Ge, and LUX detectors. Dark atoms, interacting with standard atoms through a kinetic mixing between photons and dark photons and a mass mixing of sigma mesons with dark scalars, diffuse elastically in terrestrial matter where they deposit all their energy. Reaching underground detectors through gravity at thermal energies, they form bound states with nuclei of the active medium by radiative capture, which causes the emission of photons that produce the observed signals. The parameter space of the model is explored and regions reproducing the results at the 2 sigma level are obtained for each experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailLes sociétés de contrôle et la postmodernité à l’épreuve de la psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 20)

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See detailLa guerre numérique
Hermans, Michel ULg

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailAt which level of vitamin D should we aim?
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2014, January 18)

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See detailLos escritores de los años 20 a través de su indumentaria
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailSharing the Civic Sacrifice: Between Honorific Portions and Equal Division
Carbon, Jan-Mathieu ULg; Paul, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2014, January 18)

The granting of a sacrificial portion, much like dinner in the prytaneion (sitesis, deipnon), is one of the major benefits bestowed to recipients of Greek honorific and proxeny decrees, across all regions ... [more ▼]

The granting of a sacrificial portion, much like dinner in the prytaneion (sitesis, deipnon), is one of the major benefits bestowed to recipients of Greek honorific and proxeny decrees, across all regions and periods. Yet the highlighting of an individual over and above his peers runs to some extent counter to his inclusion into a citizenship or another form of civic parity. Various inscriptions attest to this sort of tension, which can in fact be viewed as representative of the dialectic between hierarchy and equality that is characteristic of Greek sacrifice: between gods and priests, for instance, or between priests and other worshippers. These relationships were articulated in all manner of sacrifices and civic feasts, from the offering of a divine portion on the altar or cult-table, to the attribution of priestly and honorific portions of meat which were anatomically related to this divine portion, and finally to the distribution of the remaining meat among the other participants (cp. Ekroth). Several important questions can be raised concerning honorific decrees and similar epigraphic materials: Why was a specific portion sometimes, albeit not usually, granted to honoured individuals in these texts? What did the difference between a generic portion or a priestly portion (a leg, an osphys, etc.) entail concerning the status of these honourees? Did it reflect only a local custom or rather a specific intention by the polis in recognising these individuals? And what were the practical and the conceptual differences between direct participation in a civic feast (such as a demothoinia, the civic banquet par excellence) and the sending (apostellein) of perquisites to honoured individuals absent from the feast? In the end, could a distribution of meat (dais, kreanomia) ever be truly "equal", regardless of what a polis might affirm to the contrary? This paper will explore these questions in a more systematic light than has been shed on them up to the present (Schmitt Pantel, Jacquemin). One of the implications will be a partial reconsideration of the prevalent notion of "equal" division (isomoiria) with regard to Greek sacrificial animals. Despite a rhetorical emphasis on commensality and equal sharing, some individuals in the polis were necessarily "more equal than others". In certain cases, the issue was simply the inclusion of a given honouree within the sacrificial community, while in others, the prerogatives at a feast were used to indicate a special status. From a realistic perspective, one can clearly see that the dialectical tension between sacrificial hierarchy and equality was a tool, which was expressed by the varying forms of commensality in civic feasts, and which could be moulded by the polis to suit its needs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa biblioteca de un humanista castellano
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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