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See detailReconstructions of the 1900–2015 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate MAR model
Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Box, Jason; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2017), 11

With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional ... [more ▼]

With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional; version 3.5.2) model with the ERA-Interim (ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis; 1979–2015), ERA-40 (1958–2001), NCEP–NCARv1 (National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis version 1; 1948–2015), NCEP–NCARv2 (1979–2015), JRA-55 (Japanese 55-year Reanalysis; 1958–2014), 20CRv2(c) (Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2; 1900–2014) and ERA-20C (1900–2010) reanalyses. While all these forcing products are reanalyses that are assumed to represent the same climate, they produce significant differences in the MAR-simulated SMB over their common period. A temperature adjustment of +1 °C (respectively −1 °C) was, for example, needed at the MAR boundaries with ERA-20C (20CRv2) reanalysis, given that ERA-20C (20CRv2) is ∼ 1 °C colder (warmer) than ERA-Interim over Greenland during the period 1980–2010. Comparisons with daily PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) near-surface observations support these adjustments. Comparisons with SMB measurements, ice cores and satellite-derived melt extent reveal the most accurate forcing datasets for the simulation of the GrIS SMB to be ERA-Interim and NCEP–NCARv1. However, some biases remain in MAR, suggesting that some improvements are still needed in its cloudiness and radiative schemes as well as in the representation of the bare ice albedo. Results from all MAR simulations indicate that (i) the period 1961–1990, commonly chosen as a stable reference period for Greenland SMB and ice dynamics, is actually a period of anomalously positive SMB (∼ +40 Gt yr−1) compared to 1900–2010; (ii) SMB has decreased significantly after this reference period due to increasing and unprecedented melt reaching the highest rates in the 120-year common period; (iii) before 1960, both ERA-20C and 20CRv2-forced MAR simulations suggest a significant precipitation increase over 1900–1950, but this increase could be the result of an artefact in the reanalyses that are not well-enough constrained by observations during this period and (iv) since the 1980s, snowfall is quite stable after having reached a maximum in the 1970s. These MAR-based SMB and accumulation reconstructions are, however, quite similar to those from Box (2013) after 1930 and confirm that SMB was quite stable from the 1940s to the 1990s. Finally, only the ERA-20C-forced simulation suggests that SMB during the 1920–1930 warm period over Greenland was comparable to the SMB of the 2000s, due to both higher melt and lower precipitation than normal. [less ▲]

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See detailBlended learning - Pedagogical success factors and development methodology
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Parlascino, Emmanuelle ULg; André, Marine ULg et al

Report (2017)

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this ... [more ▼]

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this document presents as a handbook usable as a ready reference for guiding teachers through the different steps and attention points to be considered in the making of their blended set up. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (18 ULg)
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See detailThaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape
Van Huissteden, J.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Dean, J. et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
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See detailHow phosphorus limitation can control climatic gas sources and sinks
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg; Ghyoot, C

Poster (2017, April 25)

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See detailCharacteristics of surface chlorophyll-a concentrations in the South China Sea
Huynh, Thi Hong Ngu ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aida ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated, using the cloud-free MODISA Chl-a data set (2003-2016 ... [more ▼]

In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated, using the cloud-free MODISA Chl-a data set (2003-2016) reconstructed by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions technique. EOF analysis on the reconstructed data set presents the characteristics of the surface Chl-a: (1) the first mode presents the high Chl-a concentrations in the coastal regions, except those of the Palawan and Philippines, generally with peaks in summer (June-July) and winter (November-December). (2) the second mode shows the seasonal variability of Chl-a in the whole basin, increasing in winter and decreasing in summer. (3) the third mode highlights the out-of-phase variability of the southern SCS Chl-a between the west and east coasts in winter and summer. The analysis also indicates that the variability of surface Chl-a is influenced by ENSO with a time lag of 5-9 months. [less ▲]

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See detailRenewing the Social Protection Agenda in Europe
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Konstantinidou, Angeliki ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April 25)

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See detailPopular Candidates and/or Party Soldiers? The Interactive Effect of Candidates’ Vote-Earning Capacity and the Candidate-Party Congruence at the 2014 Belgium Elections
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Meulewaeter, Conrad

Conference (2017, April 25)

Political parties need to act as unitary actors in parliaments to implement their policy goals. The literature has acknowledged that candidate selection process is one of the most powerful tools for a ... [more ▼]

Political parties need to act as unitary actors in parliaments to implement their policy goals. The literature has acknowledged that candidate selection process is one of the most powerful tools for a party to achieve and maintain internal cohesion within the parliamentary group. Political parties that do not win election cannot develop their policy goals though. Candidate selection processes present thus two – potentially conflicting – objectives: vote-seeking strategy (recruiting ‘popular candidates’) and policy-seeking strategy (enlisting ‘party soldiers’). The personalization of politics, where electoral campaigns are increasingly personal while eroding the role of issues and ideology in voting behaviour, enhances the tensions between parties’ vote-seeking and policy-seeking strategies. According to some scholars, the former even prevails over the other which causes critical consequences for the functioning of parties in legislature and the broader democratic political systems. However, in line with more recent development in the literature, we argue that personalization is not necessarily a zero-sum game: political parties can balance tickets using both strategies. In that configuration, one strategy interacts with the other, rather than prevail over the other. Using an innovative and consistent measurement of candidate-party congruence, we test this interaction on the recruitment of candidates at the 2014 Belgian elections. Overall, our results prove that vote-seeking strategy matters but heavily depends on policy-seeking strategy. It demonstrates that parties use both strategies as a trade-off to balance their lists, even though vote-seeking strategy ultimately prevails for a substantial number of candidates studied. The results call for a more positive normative account of the personalization thesis. The later has the potential to keep voters, candidates and parties connected in the representation process. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailPredicting gully densities at sub-continental scales: a case study for the Horn of Africa
Vanmaercke, Matthias ULg; Pelckmans, Ignace; Poesen, Jean

Conference (2017, April 25)

Gully erosion is a major cause of land degradation in many regions, due to its negative impacts on catchment hydrology, its associated losses of land and damage to infrastructure, as well as its often ... [more ▼]

Gully erosion is a major cause of land degradation in many regions, due to its negative impacts on catchment hydrology, its associated losses of land and damage to infrastructure, as well as its often major contributions to catchment sediment yields. Mitigation and prevention of gully erosion requires a good knowledge of its spatial patterns and controlling factors. However, our ability to simulate or predict this process remains currently very limited. This is especially the case for the regional scale. Whereas detailed case studies have provided important insights into the drivers of gully erosion at local scales, these findings are often difficult to upscale to larger regions. Here we utilized a simple and cheap method to predict patterns of gully density at the sub-continental scale. By means of a random sampling procedure, we mapped gully densities for over sixty study sites across the Horn of Africa, using freely available Google Earth imagery. Next, we statistically analyzed which factors best explained the observed variation in mapped gully density. Based on these findings, we constructed a multiple regression model that simulates gully density, based on topography (average slope), soil characteristics (percentage silt) and land use (NDVI-value). Although our model could benefit from further refinement, it succeeds already fairly well in simulating the patterns of gully density at sub-continental scales. Over 75% of the predicted gully densities differ less than 5% from the observed gully density, while over 90% of the predictions deviate less than 10%. Exploration of our results further showed that this methodology may be highly useful to quantify total gully erosion rates at regional and continental scales as well as the contribution of gully erosion to catchment sediment yields. [less ▲]

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See detailTendances générales de l'agriculture à Courcelles: vers quel avenir?
Bousbaine, Antonia ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

L'évolution de l'agriculture dans une commune du Hainaut : Courcelles, pointe du doigt les pertes significatives de cette agriculture, cependant la diversification pourrait constituer une solution, avec ... [more ▼]

L'évolution de l'agriculture dans une commune du Hainaut : Courcelles, pointe du doigt les pertes significatives de cette agriculture, cependant la diversification pourrait constituer une solution, avec la mise en place de la ceinture Aliment Terre de Charleroi Métropole [less ▲]

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See detailLa revue L’Ossature métallique et le débat de l’architecture dans l’entre-deux- guerres
Charlier, Sébastien ULg

Conference (2017, April 25)

Publiée à Bruxelles dès 1932, L’Ossature métallique est éditée par le Centre belgo-luxembourgeois d’information de l’acier pour faire face à la crise économique qui frappe durement l’industrie ... [more ▼]

Publiée à Bruxelles dès 1932, L’Ossature métallique est éditée par le Centre belgo-luxembourgeois d’information de l’acier pour faire face à la crise économique qui frappe durement l’industrie sidérurgique belge depuis 1929. Le mensuel traduit la volonté de l’industrie de disposer d’un organe d’information puissant relayant les dernières nouveautés en matière de constructions en acier. La revue se destine d’abord aux ingénieurs et propose de nombreuses études techniques (théories, calculs, essais) et des articles sur le rôle du métal dans le génie civil ou dans les moyens de transports (voitures de chemin de fer, locomotives, bateaux…). Très vite, L’Ossature métallique prend conscience des nouveaux marchés à toucher et prend pied dans le champ de l’architecture en proposant des articles sur des bâtiments à structure métallique. Puisant d’abord ses articles dans la presse internationale, la revue peut bientôt compter sur des articles originaux témoignant d’un réseau d’auteurs étendus et aux profils variés. Après avoir situé l’organe dans le fascinant bouillonnement des revues d’architecture de l’entre-deux-guerres, l’exposé montrera, à travers une sélection d’articles traitant en priorité de réalisations situées en Wallonie, de la variété des sujets traités par L’Ossature métallique. De la petite maison individuelle à l’immeuble à appartements en passant par les infrastructures publiques ou les bâtiments industriels, l’exposé proposera quelques expressions de l’architecture métallique en Belgique. [less ▲]

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See detailLe charme irrésistible de Cléopâtre
Berthelet, Yann ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
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See detailLymphatic vasculature requires estrogen receptor alpha signaling to protect from lymphedema
Morfoisse, Florent ULg

Conference (2017, April 24)

Rationale: Estrogen play a crucial role on the cardiovascular system and, particularly, on the vascular endothelium. However, the effect of estrogen on the lymphatic system has been poorly investigated ... [more ▼]

Rationale: Estrogen play a crucial role on the cardiovascular system and, particularly, on the vascular endothelium. However, the effect of estrogen on the lymphatic system has been poorly investigated. Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of the 17 estradiol (E2), the most potent endogenous estrogen in lymphedema, a lymphatic dysfunction, which results in a massive fluid and fat accumulation. Methods and Results: Immunohistochemistry revealed that high doses of E2 modified skin microenvironment and stimulated lymphangiogenesis. E2 activates lymphatic endothelium through a transcriptional activation induced by its receptor ER. Using an original model of secondary lymphedema, we found a protective effect of E2 that prevents limb swelling. Loss of ER function using selective estrogen modulator (SERM) and in Tie2 Cre(+); ER-/- mice lead to a disruption of the lymphatic network promoting lymphedema. This effect was associated with a remodeling of LEC, an inhibition of gene expression, and ERK, but not AKT E2-induced phosphorylation. Conclusion: These findings reveal a new facet of the influence of estrogens in the management of the lymphatic system in pathological condition and provides more evidences that secondary lymphedema is not only a side effect of surgery, but is worsen by hormone therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailAvatars et actualité de la phénoménotechnique
Pieron, Julien ULg

Conference (2017, April 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg)
See detailDose-dependent effect of Estetrol on Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth
Gallez, Anne ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Lenfant, Françoise et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) based on estrogen preparations are the most powerful treatments to prevent menopause symptoms. However, they are associated to an increased risk of breast cancer and ... [more ▼]

Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) based on estrogen preparations are the most powerful treatments to prevent menopause symptoms. However, they are associated to an increased risk of breast cancer and they sustain the development of Estrogen Receptor α-positive tumors (ERα+). In addition, we have previously observed that estradiol (E2) can promote the growth of ERα-negative (ERα-) tumors, by increasing tumor angiogenesis that subsequently improves oxygen and nutrients delivery, thereby preventing hypoxia and necrosis. To identify new and safe drugs for the development of HRT presenting a better benefit/risk ratio, it is therefore necessary to evaluate the potential impact of new candidates on both ERα+ and ERα- tumors. In this context, estetrol (E4), a natural estrogen exclusively produced by the fetal liver, is a promising candidate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)