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See detailRéaction immédiate à l'alcool
LIBON, Florence ULg; DEZFOULIAN, Bita ULg; NIKKELS, Arjen ULg

Poster (2014, April 17)

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See detail"Belgique, quo vadis ?" (conférence donnée dans le cadre des 'Grandes conférences liégeoises')
Behrendt, Christian ULg; Sinardet, Dave; Quatremer, Jean

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailApplication of isotopic tracers as a tool for understanding hydrodynamic behavior of the highly exploited Diass aquifer system (Senegal)
Madioune, Diakher Hélène; Faye, Serigne; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2014), 511

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the ... [more ▼]

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the confined Maastrichtian sandstone aquifer underneath. This system has experienced intensive groundwater abstraction during the last 50 years to supply increasing water demand, agricultural and industrial needs. The high abstraction rate from 1989 to 2009 (about 109,000 m3/d) has caused a continuous groundwater level decline (up to 30 m), a modification of the groundwater flow and salinization in parts of the aquifers. The objective of the study is to improve our understanding of the system functioning with regards to high pumping, identify the geochemical reactions that take place in the system, infer origin and timing of recharge by using mainly stable (δ18O, δ2H, 13C) and radioactive (3H and 14C) isotopes. Water types defined in the Piper diagram vary in order of abundance from Ca–HCO3 (65%), Ca/Na–Cl (20%), Na–HCO3 (3%) and Na–Cl (12%). Values of δ18O and δ2H for the superficial aquifer range between −5.8 and −4.2‰ and between −42 and −31‰, respectively. For the Palaeocene aquifer they range from −5.8 to −5.0‰ and from −38 to −31‰, respectively; values in the Maastrichtian aquifer are between −5.9 and −4.3‰ for δ18O and −38 to −26‰ for δ2H. Plotted against the conventional δ18O vs δ2H diagram, data from the upper aquifer exhibit a dispersed distribution with respect to isotopic fractionation while those of the Palaeocene and Maastrichtian aquifers are aligned parallel and slightly below/or on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) evidencing ancient waters which had evaporated during infiltration. The low tritium (generally <0.7 TU) and 14C (0.7–57.2 pmc) contents indicate predominance of older water being recharged during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. However, few boreholes which exhibit high tritium (1.2–4.3 TU) and 14C (65.7–70.8 pmc) values indicate some mixture with recent water likely through faulting and vertical drainage from the upper to deeper aquifers as well as lateral flow along flow paths to the piezometric depressions created by pumping. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of a solar concentrator for space based on a diffractive/refractive optical combination
Michel, Céline ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Thibert, Tanguy ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 16)

The present work proposes a theoretical optical study of a new planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto three spatially separated photovoltaic cells (three ... [more ▼]

The present work proposes a theoretical optical study of a new planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto three spatially separated photovoltaic cells (three single-junctions, dedicated to two different light spectra), allowing for independent control of the output power of each cell. The design, based on a blazed diffraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens, combines advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing. Theoretical model and optimization of the optical design are presented, including the variation of the grating period along the lens. Numerical results are detailed, highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at more than 10× for each cell, with an optical efficiency of ~71% and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors < ±0.85°. A thermal study completes the work, as well as a first theoretical comparison with a planar Fresnel based solar concentrator focusing on a GaAs cell. [less ▲]

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See detailAprès le Communisme
Florence, Eric ULg

in Vie des Idées (La) (2014)

Souvent traités séparément, les cas chinois et européens de l’Est sont abordés conjointement dans un ouvrage interdisciplinaire consacré aux institutions politiques et sociales, aux transformations socio ... [more ▼]

Souvent traités séparément, les cas chinois et européens de l’Est sont abordés conjointement dans un ouvrage interdisciplinaire consacré aux institutions politiques et sociales, aux transformations socio-économiques et aux relations entre État et société. L’angle d’approche tend à présenter l’action de l’État-Parti en Chine sous un jour favorable. [less ▲]

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See detailKlemtoon in het Nederlands van Franstalige immersie- en niet-immersieleerlingen
Hiligsmann, Philippe; Bui-Anh, Vu ULg; Jouniaux, Anthony et al

Scientific conference (2014, April 16)

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See detailImproving our vision on human cadaveric decomposition chemistry
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stadler, S; Perrault, K et al

Conference (2014, April 15)

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See detailLe TAT de Adolf Eichmann
Peralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine ULg

in Szondiana (2014), 33(Décembre 2013), 8-45

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual ... [more ▼]

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual but a perverse sadomasochistic one with schizoparanoïd features under an osessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hannah Arendt about the "banality of evil". [less ▲]

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See detailA multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clones
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101C

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of an undershoot in chlorophyll fluorescence signal after a saturating pulse in PAM measurements
Fratamico, Anthony ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 14)

In 1989, Larcher and Neuner have reported the observation of a sudden reversible drop in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (PAM) immediately after a saturating pulse, and called it “low ... [more ▼]

In 1989, Larcher and Neuner have reported the observation of a sudden reversible drop in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (PAM) immediately after a saturating pulse, and called it “low-wave”. 25 years later, whereas some papers reported this phenomenon as a trivial detail, scarcely two works have investigated the origin of this particular signal, in which a link with a low CO2 availability seems clear. Our work on Haematococcus pluvialis, a freshwater green microalga, provides a new point of view on this fluorescence undershoot, caused by a rapidly established non-photochemical quenching. We have demonstrated that in the light-adapted state, a low-wave after a saturating flash can be considered as a consequence of an induction process engaged in response to the brief light increase under low CO2 conditions. The non-photochemical quenching during low-waves was found to be dependent on electron transport to oxygen during the preceding flash. Moreover, in conditions in which low-waves were observed in the light-adapted state, the fluorescence induction kinetics in the first minute of lighting after dark-adaptation presented also a reversible strong drop. Nevertheless, at the stationary state, oxygen production and photochemical yield of photosystem II were not affected. Providing a better understanding of the processes underlying low-waves, our work also draws attention on the effect of CO2 concentration on the onset of photosynthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailMuti-scale methods with strain-softening: damage-enhanced MFH for composite materials and computational homogenization for cellular materials with micro-buckling
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Wu, Ling ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, April 14)

Materials used in the aerospace industry, as composite or foamed materials are multiscale in nature. To predict the macroscopic behaviour of structures made of such materials, the micro-scopic responses ... [more ▼]

Materials used in the aerospace industry, as composite or foamed materials are multiscale in nature. To predict the macroscopic behaviour of structures made of such materials, the micro-scopic responses should also be computed within a nested scheme. This is particularly true when non-linear behaviours are modelled, or when the failure and post failure analyses are sought. In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modelling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly developed incremental secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the Linear Comparison–Composite The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness upon strain softening is avoided. Second, an efficient multi–scale finite element framework capturing the buckling instabilities in cellular materials is developed. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization scheme loses accuracy with the apparition of the macroscopic localizations resulting from the micro–buckling, the second order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme is considered. This second–order computational framework is enhanced with the following novelties so that it can be used for cellular materials. At the microscopic scale, the periodic boundary condition is used because of its efficiency. As the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit a large void part on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the classical enforcement based on the matching nodes cannot be applied. A new method based on the polynomial interpolation2 without the requirement of the matching mesh condition on opposite boundaries of the representative volume element (RVE) is developed. Next, in order to solve the underlying macroscopic Mindlin strain gradient continuum of this second–order scheme by the displacement–based finite element framework, the treatment of high order terms is based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to weakly impose the C1-continuity. Finally, as the instability phenomena are considered at both scales of the cellular materials, the path following technique is adopted to solve both the macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

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See detailCumulative effect of Aox1 inactivation and N source modulation on the cellular proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - New insights in the metabolic interconnexion between respiration and photosynthesis
Gerin, Stéphanie ULg; Mathy, Grégory; Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference (2014, April 14)

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the Aox1 gene encoding the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is tightly regulated by the N source: its transcription is stimulated by nitrate and repressed by ammonium ... [more ▼]

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the Aox1 gene encoding the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is tightly regulated by the N source: its transcription is stimulated by nitrate and repressed by ammonium. AOX has been proposed to play a key role in regards to the N source by acting as a trigger factor for the TCA cycle to promote the production of reduced cofactors which, together with photo-generated reductant, could contribute to support nitrate assimilation. In the present work, the cellular proteomes of wild-type and AOX-deficient strains grown either on nitrate or ammonium in the presence of acetate have been compared using two dimensional-differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled to hierarchical clustering and ANOVA-2 statistical analyses in order to further investigate the physiological role(s) of AOX, particularly in regards to the N source. The dramatic up-regulation of chloroplastic components of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in response to Aox1 inactivation importantly suggests that AOX plays a key role in the CCM in both N sources by allowing the production of CO2 through the TCA cycle. The concomitant down-regulation of photorespiratory enzymes in cells lacking AOX indicates that such an induction of the CCM could actually be sufficient to over-compensate the effects of AOX deficiency on CO2 availability in the local environment of Rubisco and maintain high rates of inorganic carbon fixation despite lower TCA cycle-mediated CO2 production. The global overexpression of diverse photosynthetic chain and Calvin cycle components in cells lacking AOX further evidences that a tight functional relationship exists between mitochondrial and chloroplastic processes of energy transduction, and that there could be a global redirection of bioenergetics towards photosynthesis to limit the harmful consequences (particularly oxidative stress) of mitochondrial deficiency. The observation that numerous N-responsive proteomic modifications are strongly attenuated (or even abolished) in response to Aox1 inactivation supports that AOX also exerts a more specific role as a central effector of the metabolic plasticity induced by modulating the N source in the growth medium. Our proteomic results tend notably to confirm that respiration (through AOX activity) and photosynthesis collaborate to provide nitrate reduction with electrons in mixotrophic condition and that acetate oxidation could be promoted to support AOX involvement in this context. [less ▲]

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See detailThe International Criminal Court as the Principal Authority for Defining the Boundaries of its own Human Rights Obligations
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, April 14)

This paper addresses the applicability of human rights standards to the activity of the International Criminal Court. It argues that, in practice, the Court itself is the key authority when it comes to ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the applicability of human rights standards to the activity of the International Criminal Court. It argues that, in practice, the Court itself is the key authority when it comes to determining the content of its own human rights obligations. This paradox is due to the fact that the only two legal constructions on which the ICC can convincingly and practically be said to be bound by human rights law – i.e. those that are respectively based on general sources of international law and on the Court’s founding treaty – leave much discretion to the interpreter as to the content of the resulting duties. [less ▲]

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See detailThe A2 gene of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 is a transcriptional regulator affecting cytotoxicity in virus-infected T cells but is not required for malignant catarrhal fever induction in rabbits.
Parameswaran, Nevi; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Giles, Tom C. et al

in Virus research (2014)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene or not and whether it is involved in pathogenesis by interference with host transcription pathways. An A2 gene knockout (A2DeltaAlHV-1) virus, revertant (A2revAlHV-1) virus, and wild-type virus (wtAlHV-1) were used to infect three groups of rabbits. A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected rabbits succumbed to MCF, albeit with a delayed onset compared to the control groups, so A2 is not a critical virulence factor. Differential gene transcription analysis by RNAseq and qRT-PCR validation of a selection of these was performed in infected large granular lymphocyte (LGL) T cells obtained in culture from the MCF-affected animals. A2 was involved in the transcriptional regulation of immunological, cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. In particular, there was a bias towards gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) expression and downregulation of alphabeta TCR. TCR signalling, apoptosis, cell cycle, IFN-gamma and NFAT pathways were affected. Of particular interest was partial inhibition of the cytotoxicity-associated pathways involving perforin and the granzymes A and B in the A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs compared to controls. In functional assays, A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs were significantly less cytotoxic than wtAlHV-1- and A2revAlHV-1-infected LGLs using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC) as targets. This implies that A2 is involved in a pathway enhancing the expression of LGL cytotoxicity. This is important as virus-infected T cell cytotoxicity in vivo has been suggested as a potential mechanism of disease induction in MCF. [less ▲]

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See detailDeception and the value of truth: a case study from the fifteenth century
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 13)

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See detailWhat about Google Scholar when searching information in Human and Physical Geography?
Stirbu, Simona ULg

Conference (2014, April 12)

This study focuses on four bibliographic tools and aims to highlight what the use of the Google Scholar search engine can yield, in comparison with three commercial bibliographical databases: the well ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on four bibliographic tools and aims to highlight what the use of the Google Scholar search engine can yield, in comparison with three commercial bibliographical databases: the well known multidisciplinary database Web of Science (WoS); GeoRef, a specialized data base in geosciences; and FRANCIS, which includes international geographical bibliography. To identify the bibliographic references published yearly between the years 2005 to 2009, ten keywords placed between quotation marks have been searched through the title field of the search tool interfaces. On a monthly basis, from November 2010 to July 2011, an identical process was repeated to get some information on the repeatability of the searches. Initially the whole set of results was analysed, and then the search results of two keywords were studied in more details. The results indicate that GS provides a high overlap with the search results of the other databases, but also yields numerous unique hits. Moreover, it seems that it is also able to find diverse types of literature, while the others are more specialized. [less ▲]

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