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See detailHair Mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 472

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See detailColour ConText
Neven, Sylvie ULg

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2014)

For several centuries, the literature of artists’ recipe books has been considered one of the most original and comprehensive primary sources for the historical study of artistic practices and materials ... [more ▼]

For several centuries, the literature of artists’ recipe books has been considered one of the most original and comprehensive primary sources for the historical study of artistic practices and materials. In addition to the famous Libro dell’arte of Cennino Cennini, nearly five hundred European manuscripts containing artistic recipes survive from before circa 1550. A great number of these are still unpublished and virtually unknown. Our work on a large corpus of recipe collections has generated the material for a database that facilitates consultation and exploitation of the source material.Current structure of the database The core data consists of mediaeval and pre-modern manuscripts and printed books from Northern and Southern Europe. The various layouts of the ‘Colour ConText’ database allow access to the metadata of the sources with details such as title, current location, place and date of origin, scribes or authors, previous owners, and description of any other (non-recipe) content. The database also allows access to digital images of these sources via European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO) or via digital collections made available by external institutes, and to the transcription and translation of the recipe texts. Reference to primary and secondary sources, together with the related bibliographical data, is integrated throughout the database. To date, over 400 manuscripts have been considered and 4,500 recipes - some constituting only a few lines, others covering several folios - have been transcribed and recorded within the database. The database also includes a complete index of the ‘simples’ (substances mentioned as ingredients). Thus materials are indexed both by their current scientific name and by the terms exactly as they appear in the source texts. Each ingredient’s appellation is linked by relational tables to its contemporary and modern synonyms. This allows the retrieval of all the different appellations used for one ingredient – detailing the historical written context – but also the various ingredients that may be related to one ‘appellation’. A survey of artistic materials and techniques The database helps not only to observe the global frequency and recurrence of each ingredient and technical instruction, but also to deduce the availability of artistic material within a chronologically and geographically defined area. Many of these recipes can be used to identify specific, datable practices and materials, as compilers often specify the name and/or place of origin of the artists from whom they obtained their information. Information related to the historical provenance of the source material (obtained through codicological or philological analysis) has also been recorded within the database and may be used for that purpose. Moreover, it is possible to observe, through factors such as frequency within the corpus, basic structure, and evolution, how recipes were modified over time or by other external phenomena. It is also possible to link the development of specific artistic procedures and technical traditions, and to correlate these with more widely diffused techniques. Thus, recipe books allow us to study the geography, chronology, circulation and dissemination of artists’ knowledge. Colour material and terminology This project notably aims at considering and evaluating the importance and interest accorded to knowledge of the materials and substances used by artists and shared with other professionals (such as apothecaries), focusing on pigments and colouring material. For that purpose, other written sources related to colour will be included (notably texts on colour theory, on colour symbolism, on colour systems, on the pharmaceutical qualities of colours, etc.). In parallel to the physical descriptions of pigments and colourants, these written sources deliver information concerning their optical characteristics, conservation, (in)compatibility with other sorts of materials and their ageing properties. The diversity of colour denominations and the complexity of the varied technical terminology will be made transparent through a glossary of all the substances, ingredients, and their synonyms mentioned in the recipe books. Transmission of artists’ knowledge Such collections of recipes were often gathered in the same book with other subjects (such as theology, alchemy, botany or medicine) and these are also described within the database. The database also includes information concerning the provenance and circulation of these books outside the workshop. This allows other questions to be addressed - notably those related to the ownership and readership of collections of recipes. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse to Dr Bolland's eLetter: Strontium and cardiovascular events.
REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ULg

in Annals of the rheumatic diseases (2014), 73(2), 9

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See detailLong-term fracture rates seen with continued ibandronate treatment : pooled analysis of DIVA and MOBILE long-term extension studies
Miller, PD; Recker, RR; Harris, S et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(1), 349-357

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See detailMulti-scale modeling of mycosubtilin lipopeptides at the air/water interface: structure and optical second harmonic generation
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2014), 16

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is ... [more ▼]

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is flexible and aggregates at the interface. To achieve simulation times of several microseconds, a coarse-grained (CG) model based on the MARTINI force field was also used. These CG simulations describe the formation of half-micelles at the interface for surface densities up to 1 lipopeptide per nm2. In these aggregates, the tyrosine side chain orientation is found to be constrained: on average, its main axis, as defined along the C–OH bond, aligns along the interface normal and points towards the air side. The origin of the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from mycosubtilin monolayers at the air/water interface is also investigated. The molecular hyperpolarizability of the lipopeptide is obtained from quantum chemistry calculations. The tyrosine side chain contribution to the hyperpolarizability is found to be dominant. The orientation distribution of tyrosine, associated with a dominant hyperpolarizability component along the C–OH bond of the tyrosine, yields a ratio of the susceptibility elements χ(2)ZZZ/χ(2)ZXX consistent with the experimental measurements recently reported by M. N. Nasir et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 19919]. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Seascape as an Indicator of Environmental Interest and Quality of the Mediterranean Benthos: The in Situ Development of a Description Index: The LIMA
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Aurélia Chéry; Alexandre Volpon et al

in Musard, Olivier (Ed.) Underwater Seascape (2014)

The LIMA index conveys the environmental interest and quality of the landscape formed by the Mediterranean benthos, ranging from 0 to − 40 m, in numerical format. The LIMA index allows a comparison ... [more ▼]

The LIMA index conveys the environmental interest and quality of the landscape formed by the Mediterranean benthos, ranging from 0 to − 40 m, in numerical format. The LIMA index allows a comparison spatially and temporarily between sites. It is a comprehensive index which is easy to implement and is composed of two factors: a topographical description (classification of 15 typologies) and a biological description (the presence or absence of some thirty species or groups of structuring, remarkable and invasive species). The LIMA index has been validated in he Bay of Calvi (Corsica-France) where it varies between 0.31 and 0.79 on a scale of 0.00–1.00. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Narcolepsie-Cataplexie aujourd'hui
DEPIERREUX, Frédérique ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014)

Diagnostic criteria and pathophysiology of narcolepsy- cataplexy have evolved considerably over the last 10 years. The main cause, already mentioned in a previous paper, in the Revue Médicale de Liège, in ... [more ▼]

Diagnostic criteria and pathophysiology of narcolepsy- cataplexy have evolved considerably over the last 10 years. The main cause, already mentioned in a previous paper, in the Revue Médicale de Liège, in 2002, is based, in human beings, on a destruction of specific cells located in the lateral and posterior part of the hypothalamus (the perifornical nuclei, containing some 70,000 neurons), producing peptides which stimulate the central nervous system; they are called hypocretins or orexins. The role of autoimmunity in their disappearance becomes more evident. The treatment is simplified but remains symptomatic. It is mainly based on Sodium Oxybate or Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate, syrup, prescribed for the night. The authors report on their own experience in this regard and on future therapeutics more targeted towards the cause of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effects of spatial discretization on large-scale flow model performance and prediction uncertainty
Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Goderniaux, Pascal; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2014), 510

Large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models (>100 km2) constitute useful tools for water management since they take explicitly into account the heterogeneity and the physical processes ... [more ▼]

Large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models (>100 km2) constitute useful tools for water management since they take explicitly into account the heterogeneity and the physical processes occurring in the subsurface for predicting the evolution of discharge and hydraulic heads for several predictive scenarios. However, such models are characterized by lengthy execution times. Therefore, modelers often coarsen spatial discretization of large-scale physically-based and spatially-distributed models for reducing the number of unknowns and the execution times. This study investigates the influence of such a coarsening of model grid on model performance and prediction uncertainty. The improvement of model performance obtained with an automatic calibration process is also investigated. The results obtained show that coarsening spatial discretization mainly influences the simulation of discharge due to a poor representation of surface water network and a smoothing of surface slopes that prevents from simulating properly surface water-groundwater interactions and runoff processes. Parameter sensitivities are not significantly influenced by grid coarsening and calibration can compensate, to some extent, for model errors induced by grid coarsening. The results also show that coarsening spatial discretization mainly influences the uncertainty on discharge predictions. However, model prediction uncertainties on discharge only increase significantly for very coarse spatial discretizations. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-silico models of trabecular bone: a sensitivity analysis perspective
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Sikora, Sebastien N.F.; d'Otreppe, Vinciane et al

in Geris, Liesbet; Gomez-Cabrero, David (Eds.) Uncertainty in Biology: a computational modeling approach (2014)

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See detailThe retirement of the migrant labor force: pension portability and beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

in CESifo Economic Studies (2014)

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision-making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non-negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Symmetries of the Laplacian via Quantization
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Annales de l'Institut Fourier (2014), 64

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally ... [more ▼]

We develop a new approach, based on quantization methods, to study higher symmetries of invariant di erential operators. We focus here on conformally invariant powers of the Laplacian over a conformally at manifold and recover results of Eastwood, Leistner, Gover and ilhan. In particular, conformally equivariant quantization establishes a correspondence between the algebra of Hamiltonian symmetries of the null geodesic ow and the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Combined with a symplectic reduction, this leads to a quantization of the minimal nilpotent coadjoint orbit of the conformal group. The star-deformation of its algebra of regular functions is isomorphic to the algebra of higher symmetries of the conformal Laplacian. Both identify with the quotient of the universal envelopping algebra by the Joseph ideal. [less ▲]

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See detailÉduquer à la démocratie : Protagoras et la question de l’égalité
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2014)

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See detailPassive designs and strategies for low-cost housing using simulation-based optimization and different thermal comfort criteria
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Journal of Building Performance Simulation [=JBPS] (2014), 7(1), 68-81

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design ... [more ▼]

An optimum design of low-cost housing offers low-income urban inhabitants great opportunities to obtain a shelter at an affordable price and acceptable indoor thermal conditions. In this paper, the design and operation of a low-cost dwelling were numerically optimized using a simulation-based approach. Three multi-objective cost functions including construction cost, thermal comfort performance and 50-year operating cost were applied for naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings. Thermal environment inside the house was controlled and assessed by two thermal comfort models. Optimization problems which consist of 18 design parameters and 6 ventilation strategies were examined by two population-based probabilistic optimization algorithms (particle swarm optimization and hybrid algorithm). Optimum designs corresponding to each objective function, differences in optimal solutions, energy saving by the adaptive comfort approach and optimization effectiveness were outlined. The optimization method used in this paper shows a considerable potential of comfort improvement, energy saving and operating cost reduction. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel Functions of Core Cell Cycle Regulators in Neuronal Migration
Godin, Juliette ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

in Cellular and Molecular Control of Neuronal Migration (2014)

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See detailEmotional Facial Expression Recognition and Expressivity in Type I and Type II Alcohol Dependent Patients
Dethier, Marie ULg; El Hawa, Maya; Duchateau et al

in Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (2014), 38(1), 89-105

Objective: Alcohol dependent patients (ADs) are known to encounter severe interpersonal problems. Nonverbal communication skills are important for the development of healthy relationships. The present ... [more ▼]

Objective: Alcohol dependent patients (ADs) are known to encounter severe interpersonal problems. Nonverbal communication skills are important for the development of healthy relationships. The present study aimed to explore emotional facial expression (EFE) recognition and posed and spontaneous EFE expressivity in male ADs divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s typology and the impact of their interpersonal relationship quality on the potential nonverbal deficits. Method: Twenty type I ADs, twenty-one type II ADs, and twenty control participants took part in an EFE recognition task and an EFE expressivity task that considered personal emotional events (spontaneous expressivity) and EFE in response to a photo or word cue (posed expressivity). Coding was based on judges’ ratings of participants’ emotional facial expressions. Participants additionally completed a questionnaire on interpersonal relationship quality. Results: No difference between the three groups emerged in the EFE recognition task. Type II ADs showed heightened deficits compared with type I ADs in EFE expressivity: Judges perceived less accurate posed EFE in response to a cue word and less intense and positive spontaneous EFE in type II ADs compared to control participants. In addition, type II ADs reported more relationship difficulties compared to both type I ADs and control participants. These interpersonal relationship difficulties were related to some of the EFE expressivity deficits of AD-IIs. Conclusions: This study underlines the important differences between the interpersonal functioning of AD subtypes. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic seasonal nitrogen cycling in response to anthropogenic N loading in a tropical catchment, Athi–Galana–Sabaki River, Kenya
Marwick, T. R.; Tamooh, F.; Ogwoka, B. et al

in Biogeosciences (2014), 11(2), 443--460

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See detaildivand-1.0: n-dimensional variational data analysis for ocean observations
Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg et al

in Geoscientific Model Development [=GMD] (2014), 7

A tool for multidimensional variational analysis (divand) is presented. It allows the interpolation and analysis of observations on curvilinear orthogonal grids in an arbitrary high dimensional space by ... [more ▼]

A tool for multidimensional variational analysis (divand) is presented. It allows the interpolation and analysis of observations on curvilinear orthogonal grids in an arbitrary high dimensional space by minimizing a cost function. This cost function penalizes the deviation from the observations, the deviation from a first guess and abruptly varying fields based on a given correlation length (potentially varying in space and time). Additional constraints can be added to this cost function such as an advection constraint which forces the analysed field to align with the ocean current. The method decouples naturally disconnected areas based on topography and topology. This is useful in oceanography where disconnected water masses often have different physical properties. Individual elements of the a priori and a posteriori error covariance matrix can also be computed, in particular expected error variances of the analysis. A multidimensional approach (as opposed to stacking 2-dimensional analysis) has the benefit of providing a smooth analysis in all dimensions, although the computational cost is increased. Primal (problem solved in the grid space) and dual formulations (problem solved in the observational space) are implemented using either direct solvers (based on Cholesky factorization) or iterative solvers (conjugate gradient method). In most applications the primal formulation with the direct solver is the fastest, especially if an a posteriori error estimate is needed. However, for correlated observation errors the dual formulation with an iterative solver is more efficient. The method is tested by using pseudo observations from a global model. The distribution of the observations is based on the position of the ARGO floats. The benefit of the 3-dimensional analysis (longitude, latitude and time) compared to 2-dimensional analysis (longitude and latitude) and the role of the advection constraint are highlighted. The tool divand is free software, and is distributed under the terms of the GPL license (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/mediawiki/index.php/divand). [less ▲]

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See detailLand rights as an engine of growth ? An analysis of Cambodian landgrabs in the context of development theory
Rudi, Lisa-Marie; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank et al

in Land Use Policy (2014), (38), 564-572

Forceful evictions have become a serious problem in Cambodia with an increasing number of fami-lies being deprived of their land, homes and livelihoods without compensation. This article analysesCambodian ... [more ▼]

Forceful evictions have become a serious problem in Cambodia with an increasing number of fami-lies being deprived of their land, homes and livelihoods without compensation. This article analysesCambodian land rights in the context of economic development theory. It assesses whether increas-ing economic inequalities, stemming from forceful evictions, can be categorized as an impediment toCambodian economic growth. The Cambodian case illustrates that a lack of good governance due tocorruption leads to the unequal distribution of land which, in turn, causes inequitable economic devel-opment. The paper concludes that Cambodia is trapped in a vicious cycle of inequality, which is upheld byelites who benefit from evictions and land concessions while evictees become trapped in poverty. Giventhat the population is growing angrier, the article warns of potential for a violent revolution that couldhave disastrous consequences for the Cambodian kingdom, a country that recently emerged from yearsof civil conflicts and is still in the process of rebuilding its social fabric. [less ▲]

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See detailL'émotion fondamentale: Sartre et Bergson
Caeymaex, Florence ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2014), 18

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