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See detailInteractive effects of ultraviolet radiation and thermal stress on two reef-building corals
Courtial, Lucile; Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Shick, Malcom et al

in Limnology and Oceanography (2017)

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See detailMolecular dynamics study of micelle proeprties according to their size
Lebecque, Simon ULg; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling (2017)

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have ... [more ▼]

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have notably several applications in many domains, such as drug delivery or membrane protein solubilization. In this context, the study of micelle formation in relation with the structural and physico-chemical properties of surfactants is of great interest to better control their use in the different application fields. In this work, we use the MD approach developed by Yoshii et al. and extend it to surfactants with different structures. We aim to systematically investigate different micellar properties as a function of the aggregates size by a molecular dynamics approach, to get an insight into the micellar organization and to collect some relevant descriptors about micelle formation. For this, we perform short MD simulations of preformed micelles of various sizes and analyze three parameters for each micelle size, namely the eccentricity of the micelles, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface ratio and the hydrophobic tails hydration. If these parameters are known descriptors of micelles, they were not yet studied in this way by MD. We show that eccentricity, used as “validator” parameter, exhibits minimal values when the aggregate size is close to the experimental aggregation number for surfactants that are known to form spherical micelles. This hence indicates that our methodology gives consistent results. The evolution of the two descriptors follows another scheme, with a sharp increase and decrease, respectively, followed by a leveling-off. The aggregate sizes at which this stabilization starts to occur are close to the respective aggregation number of each surfactant. In our approach, we validate the use of these descriptors to follow micelle formation by MD, from “simple” surfactants to more complex structures, like lipopeptides. Our calculations also suggest that some peculiar behavior, like that of TPC, can be highlighted by our approach. In the context of peptidic surfactants, our methodology could further help to improve computer simulations combined to molecular thermodynamic models to predict micellar properties of those more complex amphiphilic molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing inter- and intramolecular continuous-flow strategies towards methylphenidate (Ritalin) hydrochloride
Gerardy, Romaric ULg; Winter, Marc; Vizza, Alessandra et al

in Reaction Chemistry and Engineering (2017)

The batch-to-flow translation of inter- and intramolecular strategies for the diastereoselective preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride is presented. Both ... [more ▼]

The batch-to-flow translation of inter- and intramolecular strategies for the diastereoselective preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride is presented. Both inter- and intramolecular strategies imply the telescoping of multiple processing steps and the generation of unstable diazo species under continuous-flow conditions. The intermolecular strategy relies on an unprecedented continuous-flow Rh-catalyzed intermolecular C–H carbene insertion, providing enriched threo-N-Boc methylphenidate in 38% or 19% isolated yield according to sequential or fully telescoped processes, respectively. Quantitative Boc-deprotection is carried out off-line. The intramolecular strategy relies on a continuous-flow thermal intramolecular C–H carbene insertion, providing enriched threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride in 70% isolated yield. A continuous-flow photochemical alternative is also presented. The critical step of the most promising intramolecular strategy is implemented on the mesoscale in a pilot-scale continuous-flow reactor. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the biogenic emission model MEGAN(v2.1) into the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry climate model
Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg; Stanelle, T.; Schröder, S. et al

in Geoscientific Model Development [=GMD] (2017)

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See detailMultiple myeloma bone disease: from mechanisms to next generation therapy
Heusschen, Roy ULg; Muller, Joséphine ULg; WITHOFS, Nadia ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2017)

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See detailChapter 11 - Validation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Methods
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg

in Poole, Colin (Ed.) Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - Handbook in Separation Science (2017)

Method validation is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. The present chapter defines the validation criteria described in regulatory documents. Despite ... [more ▼]

Method validation is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. The present chapter defines the validation criteria described in regulatory documents. Despite the abundance of guidelines, the conclusion about method validity remains confused. In this context, the state-of-the-art validation methodology named total error approach is briefly explained as the methodology that should be followed for all method validations. Finally, a review of literature presents quantitative development and validation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods considering a wide range of applications and analytical fields. [less ▲]

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See detailAeroservoelastic Simulations for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Prasad, Chandra Shekhar ULg; Chen, Qiong Zhong; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy (2017), 231(2), 103-117

This paper describes the development of a complete methodology for the aeroservoelastic modeling of horizontal axis wind turbines at the conceptual design stage. The methodology is based on the ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the development of a complete methodology for the aeroservoelastic modeling of horizontal axis wind turbines at the conceptual design stage. The methodology is based on the implementation of unsteady aerodynamic modeling, advanced description of the control system and nonlinear finite element calculations in the SWT wind turbine design package. The aerodynamic modeling is carried out by means of fast techniques, such as the Blade Element Method and the unsteady Vortex Lattice Method, including a free wake model. The complete model also includes a description of a doubly fed induction generator and its control system for variable speed operation. The SWT software features a non-linear finite element solver with multi-body dynamics capability. The full methodology is used to perform complete aeroservoelastic simulations of a realistic 2MW wind turbine model. The interaction between the three components of the approach is carefully analyzed and presented here. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.
Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Hormones and Behavior (2017)

We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in ... [more ▼]

We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or oil as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailIgG4-related disease causing rapid evolution of a severe aortic valvular stenosis
BRULS, Samuel ULg; Courtois, Audrey ULg; DELVENNE, Philippe ULg et al

in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2017)

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See detailAn Analysis of the Interaction Effect between Employee Technical and Emotional Competencies in Emotionally Charged Service Encounters
Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Gremler, Dwayne; De Zanet, Fabrice ULg et al

in Journal of Service Management (2017), 28(1), 85-106

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them ... [more ▼]

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them in such emotionally charged service encounters (ECSEs) is crucial, considering the criticality of the encounter. Drawing on cognitive appraisal theory, this study proposes that two key competencies—employee emotional competence (EEC) and employee technical competence (ETC)—affect negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee response in ECSEs. Design/methodology—This study relies on a video-based experiment that depicts a customer involved in an ECSE as a service provider delivers bad news to him. The hypothesis tests use a two-way independent analysis of covariance. Results—Both emotional and technical competencies must be displayed to improve the customer experience in an ECSE. When EEC is low, ETC does not decrease negative customer emotions or increase customer satisfaction with employee response. When EEC is high, ETC instead has a significant impact on both customer outcomes. Practical implications—Managers must train employees to develop both technical and emotional competencies. Employees who demonstrate only one type cannot temper customers’ emotions or enhance their perceptions of the employees’ response as well as can those strong in both competencies. Originality/value—Using a video-based experiment, this study examines the moderating role of EEC in the relationship between ETC and two key aspects of the customer experience in an ECSE (negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee responses) following the delivery of bad news. [less ▲]

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See detailFalse memory susceptibility in coma survivors with and without a near-death experience
Martial, Charlotte ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Dehon, Hedwige ULg et al

in Psychological Research (2017)

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the ... [more ▼]

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual’s attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited. This study examined NDErs’ susceptibility to false memories using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We included 20 NDErs who reported having had their experience in the context of a life-threatening event (Greyson NDE scale total score ≥7/32) and 20 volunteers (matched for age, gender, education level, and time since brain insult) who reported a life-threatening event but without a NDE. Both groups were presented with DRM lists for a recall task during which they were asked to assign “Remember/Know/Guess” judgements to any recalled response. In addition, they were later asked to complete a post-recall test designed to obtain estimates of activation and monitoring of critical lures. Results demonstrated that NDErs and volunteers were equally likely to produce false memories, but that NDErs recalled them more frequently associated with compelling illusory recollection. Of particular interest, analyses of activation and monitoring estimates suggest that NDErs and volunteers groups were equally likely to think of critical lures, but source monitoring was less successful in NDErs compared to volunteers. [less ▲]

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See detailA Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals.
Simion, Paul; Philippe, Herve; Baurain, Denis ULg et al

in Current Biology (2017)

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera ... [more ▼]

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the sister-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-sister. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged. [less ▲]

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See detailUne mobilité résidentielle durable est-elle possible ? Pratiques de déplacements, modèles urbains et choix de localisation de populations résidentes en Wallonie
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Ghiezen, Sébastien; Pierson, Charlotte

in Negron-Poblete, Paula; Paulhiac Scherrer, Florence (Eds.) Villes à vivre. Le quotidien métropolitain entre ancrage et mobilité. (2017)

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See detailA comparative study on optimum insulation thickness of walls and energy savings in equatorial and tropical climate
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste; Ricciardi, Paola; Reiter, Sigrid ULg et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2017)

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well ... [more ▼]

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well that energy supply does not always satisfy demand. Thermal insulation technology can be one of the leading methods for reducing energy consumption in these new buildings. However, choosing the thickness of the insulation material often causes high insulation costs. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving and payback period were calculated for buildings in Yaounde´ and Garoua cities, located in two climatic regions in Cameroon. The economic model including the cost of insulation material and the present value of energy consumption and the cost over a life time of 22 years of the building, were used to find the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving, and payback period. Materials that extruded polystyrene were chosen and used for two typical wall structures (concrete block (HCB) and compressed stabilized earth block wall (CSEB)). The early cooling transmission loads, according to wall orientations and percentage of radiation blocked were calculated using the explicit finite-difference method under steady periodic conditions. As a result, it was found that the west- and east-facing walls are the least favourite in the cooling season, whereas the south and north orientations are the most economical. Although wall orientation had a significant effect on the optimum insulation thickness, it had a more significant effect on energy savings. In equatorial region (Yaounde´), for south orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.08 m for an energy savings of 51.69 $/m2. Meanwhile, in tropical region (Garoua), for north orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.11 m for an energy savings of 97.82 $/m2. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of metabolic profiles and bioactivities of the leaves of three edible Congolese Hibiscus species
Kapepula, Paulin Mutwale; Kabamba Ngombe, Nadege; Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal et al

in Natural Product Research (2017), 6419(March), 1--8

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See detailLa « personnalité antisociale », antithèse de la psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Christophe

in Déviance et Société (2017), 41(1), 3-28

L’article propose une réflexion critique et clinique sur la notion de « personnalité antisociale », largement usitée dans le domaine de la nosographie des troubles mentaux et des pratiques « psy- » au ... [more ▼]

L’article propose une réflexion critique et clinique sur la notion de « personnalité antisociale », largement usitée dans le domaine de la nosographie des troubles mentaux et des pratiques « psy- » au sein du système de justice pénale. Notre réflexion débutera par une généalogie du vocable dans différentes versions de la classification psychiatrique, depuis les années cinquante jusqu’aujourd’hui, et plus particulièrement celle faisant autorité du Manuel statistique et diagnostique des troubles mentaux (DSM). L’absence de raisonnement sociologique dans l’usage d’une notion impliquant pourtant la référence au « social » sera discutée ainsi que ses évolutions historiques. Ensuite, la démonstration de l’antithèse que cette notion constitue pour une perspective psychopathologique digne de ce nom – dynamique, compréhensive et phénoménologique – sera développée en six arguments majeurs et plurivoques, tantôt empiriques et cliniques, tantôt théoriques. [less ▲]

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See detailCrise de la démocratie et nouveau management public : Discours, pratiques, instruments
Fallon, Catherine ULg; Ficet, Joël ULg

Book published by Academia (2017)

Les discours de légitimation du corps de doctrines et de dispositifs généralement associés sous le terme de « nouveau management public » (NMP) s’appuient non seulement sur un idéal de performance mais ... [more ▼]

Les discours de légitimation du corps de doctrines et de dispositifs généralement associés sous le terme de « nouveau management public » (NMP) s’appuient non seulement sur un idéal de performance mais aussi sur une aspiration à remédier à une « crise de la démocratie » qui se manifesterait par l’insatisfaction des populations des pays occidentaux vis-à-vis de leurs gouvernants, et ce de deux façons : en aidant les Etats à mieux répondre aux attentes de leurs populations d’une part, en créant au bénéfice des citoyens de nouvelles voies d’accès à la décision et de nouveaux droits d’autre part (DeLeon, 2005 ; Behn, 1998). Le livre rassemble des études interrogeant à partir de perspectives théoriques diverses (analyse des politiques publiques, sociologie des organisations, sciences de gestion, théorie politique…) la capacité des instruments du NPM à apporter une plus-value démocratique à la gestion publique et, inversement, analysant ce que le NPM nous révèle sur les transformations de la notion de démocratie dans un espace politique de plus en plus complexe et technocratique (Rose, 1991 ; Salais,2010; Ogien, 2013). Le NMP ne s’est pas construit en lui-même autour d’un impératif démocratique : dans sa version la plus pure, il consiste essentiellement, soit à confier au marché la réalisation d’un certain nombre de tâches relevant classiquement de l’administration (solution « anglo-saxonne »), soit à séparer la sphère politique de l’administration en responsabilisant les fonctionnaires en fonction d’objectifs de performance (solution « continentale »). Toutefois, certains de ses outils ont été conçus (à titre principal ou secondaire) comme moyens de promotion d’une logique démocratique, à même de contrer certains effets perçus comme pervers de la gestion publique : des instruments visant à faciliter le contrôle des administrations par les instances parlementaires ou juridictionnelles (Cour des comptes…) ; des instruments visant à accroître l’implication citoyenne dans la décision publique ; des instruments visant à améliorer la relation directe entre administration et citoyens (ombudsmen, sondages, cercles de qualité, chartes…) ; des instruments visant à accroître la transparence des processus administratifs et de leurs résultats (évaluation des politiques publiques, normes comptables) ; etc. Le pluralisme de ces dispositifs reflète à la fois l’hétérogénéité du NMP et l’ambiguïté du thème de la démocratie dès lors qu’appliqué à la responsabilité des acteurs politiques, ouvrant ainsi une opportunité d’analyse critique. Ainsi, les tenants des démarches d’évaluation défendent le rôle qu’elles peuvent jouer pour un approfondissement démocratique, par une meilleure lisibilité de l'action publique, une circulation des savoirs, un renforcement de la logique de responsabilité de l'administration et de son devoir de rendre des comptes. Certains auteurs, à l’inverse, dénoncent cette « idéologie de la gestion » (de Gaulejac, 2005) comme une colonisation du raisonnement politique par les catégories de l’économie et du management (Ogien, 2013), les chiffres structurant le processus décisionnel au lieu d’en être les simples auxiliaires, mathématisation du social (Salais, 2010) qui contribue à neutraliser les questions politiques et la délibération publique (Rose, 1991). Ces contributions permettent d’alimenter les réflexions sur la crise des formes contemporaines du politique à partir des analyses concrètes de l’action publique et des instruments mobilisés pour sa mise en œuvre. Cette posture permet d’interroger les processus de construction de ces instruments et les conditions concrètes de leur émergence, en dépassant la rationalité apparente des outils et l’image de « métrologues démiurges capables de maîtriser toutes les conséquences de l’introduction des instruments qu’ils ont retenus » (Mouhanna, 2011). [less ▲]