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See detailChromera velia, Endosymbioses and the Rhodoplex Hypothesis - Plastid Evolution in Cryptophytes, Alveolates, Stramenopiles and Haptophytes (CASH Lineages)
Petersen, Jörn; Ludewig, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria et al

in Genome Biology and Evolution (2014)

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Chromera velia, a free-living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan pathogens, has provided an unexpected opportunity to study the algal ancestry of malaria parasites. In this work we compared the molecular footprints of a eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbiosis in C. velia to their equivalents in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (PCD) to re- evaluate recent claims in favor of a common ancestry of their plastids. To this end, we established the draft genome and a set of full-length cDNA sequences from C. velia via next- generation sequencing. We documented the presence of a single coxI gene in the mitochondrial genome, which thus represents the genetically most reduced aerobic organelle identified so far, but focused our analyses on five “lucky genes” of the Calvin cycle. These were selected because of their known support for a common origin of complex plastids from cryptophytes, alveolates (represented by PCDs), stramenopiles and haptophytes (CASH) via a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga. As expected, our broadly sampled phylogenies of the nuclear- encoded Calvin cycle markers support a rhodophycean origin for the complex plastid of Chromera. However, they also suggest an independent origin of apicomplexan and dinophycean (PCD) plastids via two eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. Although at odds with the current view of a common photosynthetic ancestry for alveolates, this conclusion is nonetheless in line with the deviant plastome architecture in dinoflagellates and the morphological paradox of four versus three plastid membranes in the respective lineages. Further support for independent endosymbioses is provided by analysis of five additional markers, four of them involved in the plastid protein import machinery. Finally, we introduce the “rhodoplex hypothesis” as a convenient way to designate evolutionary scenarios where CASH plastids are ultimately the product of a single secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga, but were subsequently horizontally spread via higher-order eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses. [less ▲]

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See detailAmantadine, Apomorphine and Zolpidem in the Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Thonnard, Marie ULg et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2014), 20

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to ... [more ▼]

Survivors of severe brain injuries may end up in a state of 'wakeful unresponsiveness' or in a minimally conscious state. Pharmacological treatments of patients with disorders of consciousness aim to improve arousal levels and recovery of consciousness. We here provide a systematic overview of the therapeutic effects of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem in patients recovering from coma. Evidence from clinical trials using these commonly prescribed pharmacological agents suggests positive changes in the neurological status in patients, leading sometimes to dramatic improvements. These findings are discussed in the context of current hypotheses of these agents' therapeutic mechanisms on cerebral function. In order to enhance our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these drugs, we suggest combining sensitive and specific behavioral tools with neuroimaging and electrophysiological measures in large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental designs. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amantadine, apomorphine and zolpidem need further exploration to determine which treatment would provide a better neurological outcome regarding the patient's etiology, diagnosis, time since injury and overall condition. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal and depth-related biodiversity of leaf epiphytic Cheilostome Bryozoa in a Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadow
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Balancier, Boris; Gobert, Sylvie ULg

in Cahiers de Biologie Marine (2014), 55(1),

: Epiphytes living fixed on Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile) are important faunal and floral components of seagrass meadow ecosystems. They are involved as main actors in trophic web and major ecosystem ... [more ▼]

: Epiphytes living fixed on Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile) are important faunal and floral components of seagrass meadow ecosystems. They are involved as main actors in trophic web and major ecosystem processes of this endangered coastal habitat. This paper aims to assess the seasonality and the bathymetric variability of epiphytic Bryozoa which are the most important animal group in terms of both diversity and abundance living on P. oceanica leaves. Posidonia shoots were collected from the Revellata Bay (Corsica, France) in four seasons from 7 to 30 m depth. Colony densities reached more than 87000 colonies. m-2 at 10 m depth in spring. The bryozoan species distribution and abundance changed substantially according to seasons and depths, being maximum in spring and minimal in winter. Dominant colony morphotypes change according to depth, probably in relation with water motion gradient. This confirms that there are bathymetric and seasonal variability for different epiphytic organisms colonizing the Posidonia leaves. This enlightens the importance to protect Posidonia meadow on its full depth extension and in its connectivity with other habitats to conserve optimal epiphytic biodiversity and functions. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical study of a solar concentrator for space applications based on a diffractive/refractive optical combination
Michel, Céline ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Languy, Fabian ULg et al

in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2014), 120PA

This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto two spatially separated photovoltaic cells, allowing for independent control of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto two spatially separated photovoltaic cells, allowing for independent control of the output power of each cell. Thanks to a blazed diffraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens, advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing can be combined. The theoretical model of the optical design is presented, with the optimization of either element. Moreover, configuration improvement is proposed: a symmetrical configuration composed of two lenses. First numerical results are presented, highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at about 10× for each cell, with an optical efficiency of about 75% and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors lower than ±0.9°. [less ▲]

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See detailULTRASONIC WAVES THROUGH AGRICULTURAL SOILS TO DETERMINE THEIR COMPACTION AND POROSITY LEVEL 
Luong, Jeanne ULg; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

Poster (2014)

Compaction is one of the major causes of the physical degradation of agricultural soils. The traffic of more and more heavy machines leads to a decrease of the porosity at both the topsoil and subsoil ... [more ▼]

Compaction is one of the major causes of the physical degradation of agricultural soils. The traffic of more and more heavy machines leads to a decrease of the porosity at both the topsoil and subsoil levels. This has negative impacts in agricultural and environmental contexts such as the reduction of soil fertility and water infiltration. This project aims at characterizing in a fast and non-destructive way the state of compaction of an agricultural soil at a local scale using ultrasonic wave propagation. Acoustic signatures of soil samples will be correlated to their compaction level and their porosity distribution. This should allow a better comprehension of the compaction process and help to define critical threshold. As a result, this methodology could assist in taking restrictive measures such as load limitation of agricultural engines and implementing remedial methods. This poster presents the experimental protocol implement for this research. [less ▲]

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See detailLow temperature crystallization of yttrium orthoferrite by organic acid-assisted sol-gel synthesis
Stevens, Frédéric ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Poelman, D. et al

in Materials Letters (2014), 114

Yttrium orthoferrite (YFeO3) is a promising material for visible light photocatalytic applications due to its band gap of 2.2-2.6 eV. However, during the synthesis of YFeO3, unwanted composition can be ... [more ▼]

Yttrium orthoferrite (YFeO3) is a promising material for visible light photocatalytic applications due to its band gap of 2.2-2.6 eV. However, during the synthesis of YFeO3, unwanted composition can be obtained and the crystallization requires temperatures as high as 850 C. Powders of YFeO3 were prepared using a sol-gel method with and without organic acids (citric acid, tartaric acid, malonic acid and oxalic acid) used as organic modifiers. The band gap of these powders was measured by diffuse reflection spectroscopy, and the crystallinity and crystalline phase content were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Organic acids allow a higher purity and facilitate crystallization. This work aims to produce YFeO3 powders at the lowest possible temperature. Citric acid was found to be the best additive: it reduces the crystallization temperature below 450 C. This opens new perspectives such as the deposition of crystalline YFeO3 thin films onto conductive glass for water-splitting applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailLa notion de discours chez Bourdieu : une politique du sujet littéraire
Provenzano, François ULg

in Bolmain, Thomas; Cormann, Grégory (Eds.) Politiques de la littérature : Bourdieu, Sartre, Foucault (2014)

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See detailAu terme d'une tradition: Simplicius, lecteur du "Phédon"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Delcomminette, Sylvain; d'Hoine, Pieter; Gavray, Marc-Antoine (Eds.) Ancient Readings of Plato's "Phaedo" (2014)

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See detailCe que Sartre fait à la négritude. Archéologie d'un discours francodoxe
Provenzano, François ULg

in Poirier, Jacques; Imorou, Abdoulaye (Eds.) L'Afrique francophone dans le jeu littéraire mondial. Modalités et enjeux des stratégies de la norme et de l'écart (2014)

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See detailRamesside Registers of Égyptien de Tradition: the Medinet Habu Inscriptions
Gillen, Todd Jonathan ULg

in Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane (Eds.) New Directions in Egyptian Syntax (2014)

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See detailLe corps du Prince. La perception de l'Egypte ancienne
Winand, Jean ULg

in Marchandisse, Alain (Ed.) Le corps du Prince (2014)

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See detailDisease management patterns for postmenopausal women in Europe with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative advanced breast cancer.
Andre, Fabrice; Neven, Patrick; Marinsek, Nina et al

in Current medical research and opinion (2014)

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: International guidelines for hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (BC) recommend sequential lines of hormonal therapy (HT), and only recommend chemotherapy for patients with extensive visceral involvement or rapidly progressive disease. This study evaluated actual physician-reported treatments for advanced BC in Europe. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 355 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who progressed on >/=1 line of HT (adjuvant or advanced) and completed >/=1 line of chemotherapy (advanced). Treatment choice was evaluated for each line of therapy. Results: Of 355 patients, 111 (31%) received first-line chemotherapy, whereas 218 (61%) and 26 (7%) switched from HT to chemotherapy in second and third line, respectively. More patients receiving first-line HT had bone metastases (73% vs 27% chemotherapy). Patients treated with first-line chemotherapy had more brain (12% vs 3% HT) or extensive liver (13% vs 6% HT) metastases. Subgroup analysis of 188 patients who received first-line HT and had de novo advanced BC or relapsed/recurrent disease more than 1 year after adjuvant therapy found that the majority (89%; n = 167) of these patients switched to chemotherapy in second line. However, among these 167 patients, 27% had no significant changes in metastases between first and second line. Among the 73% of patients who had significant changes in metastases, 20% had no brain metastases or extensive visceral disease. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the guideline-recommended use of multiple HT lines is open to interpretation and that optimal treatment for European postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced BC who responded to HT may not be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'économie rhétorique du Résumé
Provenzano, François ULg

in Janus. Quaderni del circolo glossematico (2014), 13

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See detailIntroduction. Guerre et jeu : vers les cultures d'un paradoxe à l'ère moderne
Küpper, Achim ULg

in Küpper, Achim; Vanden Berghe, Kristine (Eds.) Guerre et jeu. Cultures d'un paradoxe à l'ère moderne (2014)

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See detailAncient Readings of Plato's "Phaedo"
Delcomminette, Sylvain; d'Hoine, Pieter; Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

Book published by Brill Academic Publishers (2014)

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See detailThe role of the youth in community forestry in Gabon
Boldrini, Sylvie; Meunier, Quentin; Gillet, Pauline et al

in Nature et Faune (2014), 28(1), 56-59

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus ... [more ▼]

In the wake of the creation of the first community forests in Gabon, the village associations in charge of these forests are handicapped by their own working capacity. Affected by rural exodus, communities however rarely integrate the youth (between the ages of 16 to 24) who reside permanently in the village in village associations. The youth are generally excluded from the decision making process of elders. In fact, the youth that reside permanently in the village do not generally hold any diploma and have no professional qualification. Consequently, they are hardly respected by the people around them and their opinions are not taken into account. They are left out of any activity conducted by the associations unless these activities are remunerated. However, the involvement of the youth in village associations is necessary, not only to increase the work capacity, but also to ensure the perpetuation of interventions since the youth will be the first and future beneficiaries of the community forest. [less ▲]

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